Línea de investigación:

Cambio de uso de suelo

Los cambios de uso de suelo, como la conversión de ecosistemas no perturbados a paisajes extractivos y la consiguiente alteración de los regímenes de fuego natural, han contribuido considerablemente al cambio global. Estos cambios han producido impactos sobre la biodiversidad, la estructura y función del ecosistema, los servicios ecosistémicos y su disponibilidad, así como la proliferación de especies exóticas de animales y plantas, lo que resulta en la homogeneización de la biósfera.

El centro y sur de Chile ha experimentado dichos cambios en los últimos 40 años. El patrón dominante ha sido la conversión de bosques nativos a plantaciones forestales exóticas de pino y eucalipto que se extienden sobre un total de 2,75 millones de hectáreas. Esta región del país es un valioso caso de estudio para la investigación sobre los forzantes y los impactos del cambio de uso de suelo, sus interacciones y modelado y predicción.

La línea de investigación trabajará en el diseño de paisajes diversificados para reemplazar estas áreas homogéneas, incluyendo múltiples categorías de cambio de uso de suelo desde una perspectiva de cuenca con el fin de garantizar la producción combinada de bienes y servicios ecosistémicos. También se presentarán evaluaciones de costos para proyectos de restauración basados ​​en la conversión de plantaciones forestales a bosques nativos.

Todo este conocimiento será crucial para orientar a los toma de decisiones y así garantizar el progreso hacia paisajes más resistentes y resilientes. El desafío específico de comprender los incendios, sus forzamientos, regímenes e impactos, y la relevancia de este tema para política pública, brinda una oportunidad única para producir resultados que puedan ser aplicables a otros problemas y otras regiones.

INVESTIGADOR PRINCIPAL

CO-INVESTIGADOR PRINCIPAL

INVESTIGADORES ASOCIADOS

INVESTIGADORES ADJUNTOS

INVESTIGADOR POSTDOCTORAL

INVESTIGADORA COLABORADORA

ESTUDIANTES

Nombre Apellido
Andrea Leiva
Andrés Ceballos Comisso
Angela Bustos Salazar
Camila Molina González
Celeste Estrella Soto Uribe
Cristobal Puelma Jirón
Dagoberto Poblete
David Banda Carrasco
Eduardo Mattos
elda brandt
Elizabeth Ramírez Zamorano
Fernando Gimeno
Francisco Tello Arriagada
Humberto Bernasconi Muñoz
Javiera Andrea Wiehoff Matus
Laura Fierro
Lorenzo Palma
Marco Aurelio Cortés Bianchi
Matias Maximiliano Quiroz Farías
Mauricio Montiel
Nicole Burger Acevedo
Paulina Fabiola Riquelme Ocampo
Santiago Ancapichún Hernández
Tania Gipoulou
Tomás Riquelme
Victor Merino Campos
Victoria Hernández Urrutia

Noticias relacionadas al tema

Línea de InvestigaciónAñoAutoresTítuloRevistaFicha de PublicaciónKey WordsISSNAbstractAccesoPáginasVolumenIndex
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Castillo-Riffart, Ivan; Galleguillos, Mauricio; Lopatin, Javier; Perez-Quezada, J. F.Predicting Vascular Plant Diversity in Anthropogenic Peatlands: Comparison of Modeling Methods with Free Satellite DataRemote Sensingaster, fen, generalized linear models, msi, oli, random forest, richness, shannon index, sphagnum, wetland, decision trees, ecology, ecosystems, forecasting, maximum likelihood, satellites, wetlands, aster, generalized linear model, random forests, richness, shannon index, sphagnum, forestry2072-4292Peatlands are ecosystems of great relevance, because they have an important number of ecological functions that provide many services to mankind. However, studies focusing on plant diversity, addressed from the remote sensing perspective, are still scarce in these environments. In the present study, predictions of vascular plant richness and diversity were performed in three anthropogenic peatlands on Chiloé Island, Chile, using free satellite data from the sensors OLI, ASTER, and MSI. Also, we compared the suitability of these sensors using two modeling methods: random forest (RF) and the generalized linear model (GLM). As predictors for the empirical models, we used the spectral bands, vegetation indices and textural metrics. Variable importance was estimated using recursive feature elimination (RFE). Fourteen out of the 17 predictors chosen by RFE were textural metrics, demonstrating the importance of the spatial context to predict species richness and diversity. Non-significant differences were found between the algorithms; however, the GLM models often showed slightly better results than the RF. Predictions obtained by the different satellite sensors did not show significant differences; nevertheless, the best models were obtained with ASTER (richness: R2 = 0.62 and %RMSE = 17.2, diversity: R2 = 0.71 and %RMSE = 20.2, obtained with RF and GLM respectively), followed by OLI and MSI. Diversity obtained higher accuracies than richness; nonetheless, accurate predictions were achieved for both, demonstrating the potential of free satellite data for the prediction of relevant community characteristics in anthropogenic peatland ecosystems. © 2017 by the authors.http://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/9/7/681681Vol.9 is.7Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos; Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Garreaud, R., Alvarez-Garreton, C., Barichivich, J., Boisier, J. P., Christie, D., Galleguillos, M., LeQuesne, C., McPhee, J., Zambrano-Bigiarini, M.The 2010-2015 mega drought in Central Chile: Impacts on regional hydroclimate and vegetationHydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions1812-2116Since 2010 an uninterrupted sequence of dry years, with annual rainfall deficits ranging from 25 to 45 %, has prevailed in Central Chile (western South America, 30–38° S). Although intense 1- or 2-year droughts are recurrent in this Mediterranean-like region, the ongoing event stands out because of its longevity and large spatial extent. The extraordinary character of the so-called Central Chile Mega Drought (MD) was established against century long historical records and a millennial tree-ring reconstruction of regional precipitation. The largest MD-averaged rainfall relative anomalies occurred in the northern, semi-arid sector of central Chile but the event was unprecedented to the south of 35° S. ENSO neutral conditions have prevailed since 2011 (but for the strong El Niño 2015) contrasting with La Niña conditions that often accompanied past droughts. The precipitation deficit diminished the Andean snowpack and resulted in amplified declines (up to 90 %) of river flow, reservoir volumes and groundwater levels along central Chile and westernmost Argentina. In some semiarid basins we also found a conspicuous decrease in the runoff-to-rainfall coefficient. A substantial decrease in vegetation productivity occurred in the shrubland-dominated, northern sector, but a mix of greening and browning patches occurred farther south where irrigated croplands and exotic forest plantations dominate. The ongoing warming in central Chile, making the MD one of the warmest 6-year period on record, may have also contributed to such complex vegetation changes by increasing potential evapotranspiration. The understanding of the nature and biophysical impacts of the MD contributes to preparedness efforts to face a dry, warm future regional climate scenario.https://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/hess-2017-191/1-37Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Gómez-González, S., Paula, S., Cavieres L.A., Pausas, J.Postfire responses of the woody flora of Central Chile: insights from a germination experimentPloS Onechile, endemic species, flora, germination, heat shock, human, nonhuman, plant community, smoke, woody plant, biomass, chile, evolution, fire, forest, genetic selection, genetics, growth, development and aging, plant seed, biological evolution, biomass, chile, fires, forests, germination, seeds, selection, genetic1932-6203Fire is a selective agent shaping plant traits and community assembly in fire-prone ecosystems. However, in ecosystems with no fire history, it can be a cause of land degradation when it is suddenly introduced by humans, as plant species may not be able to respond to such novel disturbance. Unlike other Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTE) of the world, natural fires have not been frequent during the Quaternary in the matorral of Central Chile, and thus, plant adaptive responses are expected to be uncommon. We evaluated the effect of heat shock on seed survival and germination of 21 native woody plants of the Chilean matorral and compiled information on smoke-stimulation and resprouting, to evaluate the importance of fire-adaptive responses in the context of the other MTE. We found that in the Chilean woody flora negative seed responses to fire cues were more frequent than positive responses. Although resprouting is a relatively widespread trait, fire-stimulated germination is not as common in the Chilean matorral as in other MTE. The seeds of seven endemic species were strongly damaged by fire cues and this should be considered in post-fire restoration planning. However, our results also showed that many species were resistant to elevated doses of heat shock and in some, germination was even stimulated. Thus, future research should focus on the evolutionary causes of these responses. These findings could help to develop strategies for fire management in the Chilean matorral. In addition, they will improve our understanding of the evolutionary forces that shaped this plant community and to better frame this region among the other MTE worldwide.http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0180661e0180661vol.12Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Holz, A., Paritsis, J., Mundo, I. A., Veblen, T. T., Kitzberger, T., Williamson, G. J., Aráoz, E., Bustos-Schindler, C., González, M. E., Grau, H. R., Quezada, J. M.Southern Annular Mode drives multicentury wildfire activity in southern South AmericaProceedings of the National Academy of Sciencesaao, climate modes, fire scars, synchrony, warming, article, biomass, climate change, fire, forest, greenhouse gas, land use, ozone layer, priority journal, south america, southern hemisphere, temperature, tree9552-9557The Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is the main driver of climate variability at mid to high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere, affecting wildfire activity, which in turn pollutes the air and contributes to human health problems and mortality, and potentially provides strong feedback to the climate system through emissions and land cover changes. Here we report the largest Southern Hemisphere network of annually resolved tree ring fire histories, consisting of 1,767 fire-scarred trees from 97 sites (from 22 °S to 54 °S) in southern South America (SAS), to quantify the coupling of SAM and regional wildfire variability using recently created multicentury proxy indices of SAM for the years 1531–2010 AD. We show that at interannual time scales, as well as at multidecadal time scales across 37–54 °S, latitudinal gradient elevated wildfire activity is synchronous with positive phases of the SAM over the years 1665–1995. Positive phases of the SAM are associated primarily with warm conditions in these biomass-rich forests, in which widespread fire activity depends on fuel desiccation. Climate modeling studies indicate that greenhouse gases will force SAM into its positive phase even if stratospheric ozone returns to normal levels, so that climate conditions conducive to widespread fire activity in SAS will continue throughout the 21st century. © 2017, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.http://www.pnas.org/lookup/doi/10.1073/pnas.17051681149552-9557vol.36ScIELO
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Joetzjer, E., Pillet, M., Ciais, P., Barbier, N., Chave, J., Schlund, M., Maignan, F., Barichivich, J., Luyssaert, S., Hérault, B., von Poncet, F., Poulter, B.Assimilating satellite-based canopy height within an ecosystem model to estimate aboveground forest biomassGeophysical Research Lettersbiomass, large-scale ecosystem model, optical satellite imagery, radar satellite imagery, biomass, budget control, ecosystems, forestry, population statistics, systematic errors, aboveground biomass, allometric equations, earth observations, ecosystem model, optical satellite imagery, radar satellites, satellite measurements, secondary sources, satellite imagery, algorithm, canopy, ecosystem modeling, feasibility study, height determination, optical method, pleiades, radar imagery, remote sensing, tropical forest0094-8276Despite advances in Earth observation and modeling, estimating tropical biomass remains a challenge. Recent work suggests that integrating satellite measurements of canopy height within ecosystem models is a promising approach to infer biomass. We tested the feasibility of this approach to retrieve aboveground biomass (AGB) at three tropical forest sites by assimilating remotely sensed canopy height derived from a texture analysis algorithm applied to the high-resolution Pleiades imager in the Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems Canopy (ORCHIDEE-CAN) ecosystem model. While mean AGB could be estimated within 10% of AGB derived from census data in average across sites, canopy height derived from Pleiades product was spatially too smooth, thus unable to accurately resolve large height (and biomass) variations within the site considered. The error budget was evaluated in details, and systematic errors related to the ORCHIDEE-CAN structure contribute as a secondary source of error and could be overcome by using improved allometric equations.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2017GL0741506823-6832vol.44Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes2017McRostie, V. B., Gayo, E. M., Santoro, C. M., De Pol-Holz, R., Latorre, C.The pre-Columbian introduction and dispersal of Algarrobo (Prosopis, Section Algarobia) in the Atacama Desert of northern ChilePloS Onecarbon 14, article, chile, chronology, desert, holocene, leaf litter, nonhuman, paleoecology, phylogeny, plant dispersal, prosopis, species introduction, taxonomy, agriculture, archeology, classification, crop, desert climate, genetics, history, human, phylogeny, physiology, prosopis, agriculture, archaeology, chile, crops, agricultural, desert climate, history, ancient, humans, phylogeny, plant dispersal, prosopis1932-6203Archaeological and palaeoecological studies throughout the Americas have documented widespread landscape and environmental transformation during the pre-Columbian era. The highly dynamic Formative (or Neolithic) period in northern Chile (ca. 3700–1550 yr BP) brought about the local establishment of agriculture, introduction of new crops (maize, quinoa, manioc, beans, etc.) along with a major population increase, new emergent villages and technological innovations. Even trees such as the Algarrobos (Prosopis section Algarobia) may have been part of this transformation. Here, we provide evidence that these species were not native to the Atacama Desert of Chile (18–27S), appearing only in the late Holocene and most likely due to human actions. We assembled a database composed of 41 taxon specific AMS radiocarbon dates from archaeobotanical and palaeoecological records (rodent middens, leaf litter deposits), as well an extensive bibliographical review comprising archaeobotanical, paleoecological, phylogenetic and taxonomic data to evaluate the chronology of introduction and dispersal of these trees. Although Algarrobos could have appeared as early as 4200 yr BP in northernmost Chile, they only became common throughout the Atacama over a thousand years later, during and after the Formative period. Cultural and natural factors likely contributed to its spread and consolidation as a major silvicultural resource.
http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181759e0181759vol.12Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Osborn, T. J., Barichivich, J., Harris, I., van der Schrier, G., & Jones, P. DMonitoring global drought using the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index.

State of the Climate 2016, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
0003-0007
http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/10.1175/2017BAMSStateoftheClimate.1S32-S33
vol.98Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes2017Osorio, D., Steele, J., Sepúlveda, M., Gayo, E. M., Capriles, J. M., Herrera, K., Ugalde, P., De Pol-Holz, R., Latorre, C., Santoro, C. M.The Dry Puna as an ecological megapatch and the peopling of South America: Technology, mobility, and the development of a late Pleistocene/early Holocene Andean hunter-gatherer tradition in northern ChileQuaternary Internationaldry puna, early peopling of south america, high andes, late pleistocene, megapatch, south central andean archaic, archaeological evidence, fossil, human settlement, hunter-gatherer, mobility, pleistocene-holocene boundary, radiocarbon dating, technology, andes, chile, puna1040-6182Current scientific evidence shows that humans colonized South America at least 15,000 years ago, but there are still many unknown aspects of this process, including the major and minor migratory routes involved, and the pattern of successive occupation of a diverse continental mosaic of ecosystems. In this context, the role of the Andean highlands (3400 meters above sea level) has been neglected, because of the supposedly harsh conditions for humans including hypoxia and cold climate. Nevertheless, the environmental and cultural resources available in the high Andes constitutes an important “megapatch” that should be assessed in terms of human settlement patterns. We review the evidence for late Pleistocene/early Holocene hunter-gatherer occupation of one part of this megapatch, the northern Chilean Dry Puna, in its palaeoecological context. We focus on lithic technology, faunal remains, radiocarbon dates, and other archaeological materials related to different social activities, which allow us to suggest that groups of hunter-gatherers organized and adapted their way of life to highland ecosystems through logistical mobility, and curatorial strategies for lithic tool kits that included projectile points and other formalized tools. The morphology and technological processes involved are recognized over vast territories along the high Andes. We identify this material expression as the high south central Andean Archaic hunter-gatherer tradition, which also featured long distance mobile settlement systems and communication processes over this broad and distinct megapatch. More speculatively, we outline the hypothesis that these highland ecosystems constituted a suitable migratory route that may have been key for the early peopling of the continent, and contrast it with the alternative hypothesis of the initially secondary and seasonally intermittent exploitation of this habitat by hunter-gatherers dispersing along the Pacific coastal corridor.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1040618216312368vol. in pressThomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos, Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Puchi, P., Muñoz, A. A., González, M. E., Abarzúa, A., Araya, K., Towner, R., Fitzek, R., Holz, A., Stahle, D.Potencial de los anillos de crecimiento de Pilgerodendron uviferum para el estudio histórico de las Iglesias de Chiloé, Patrimonio de la HumanidadBosquedendroarchaeology, historical structures, pilgerodendron uviferum0717-9200Las iglesias de Chiloé son antiguas estructuras de madera reconocidas patrimonio de la humanidad por la UNESCO. Gran parte de su historia de construcción y reparaciones aún se desconoce. Considerando que muchas de las iglesias de Chiloé fueron construidas utilizando madera de Pilgerodendron uviferum, el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el potencial de esta especie para datar piezas de madera de dos de estas históricas construcciones: las iglesias de Vilupulli e Ichuac. En Vilupulli se dataron piezas de 311 y 181 años provenientes de los pilares de la torre. Estas piezas fueron fechadas con cronologías de ancho de anillos de P. uviferum cercanas a las dos iglesias. También utilizando estas cronologías se dataron piezas de 79, 89, 97 y 135 años obtenidas a partir de los pilotes que sostienen el piso de la iglesia de Ichuac. Considerando que Vilupulli fue construida a principios del siglo XX, es posible que las muestras de la torre que presentaron fechas cercanas a 1918, sean parte del proceso tardío de construcción de la iglesia o de una restauración posterior. Por su parte, Ichuac fue construida a finales del siglo XIX, por lo que las piezas del piso que dataron entre 19201929, formarían parte de una posible restauración no descrita previamente en archivos históricos, la cual pudo ocurrir incluso varios años posterior a la fecha del anillo más reciente encontrado en las piezas estudiadas. Se concluye que P. uviferum tiene alto potencial para estudios históricos en estructuras patrimoniales en el sur de Chile.http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-92002017000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en109-121vol.38Thomson Reuters ISI
Ciudades Resilientes; Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Santoro, C. M., Gayo, E. M., Carter, C., Standen, V. G., Castro, V., Valenzuela, D., De Pol-Holz, R., Marquet, P. A., Latorre, C.Loco or no Loco? Holocene Climatic Fluctuations, Human Demography, and Community Based Management of Coastal Resources in Northern ChileFrontiers in Earth Scienceatacama desert, cultural resources management, enso, holocene climate, marine diet, prehistoric technology2296-6463The abundance of the southern Pacific mollusk loco (Concholepas concholepas), among other conspicuous marine supplies, are often cited as critical resources behind the long-term cultural and demographic fluctuations of prehistoric hunter-gatherers in the coastal Atacama Desert. These societies inhabited one of the world’s most productive marine environments flanked by one the world’s driest deserts. Both of these environments have witnessed significant ecological variation since people first colonized themat the end of the Pleistocene (c. 13,000 cal yr BP). Here, we examine the relationship between the relative abundance of shellfish (a staple resource) along a 9,500-year sequence of archeological shell midden accumulations at Caleta (a small inlet or cove) Vitor, with past demographic trends (established via summed probability distributions of radiocarbon ages) and technological innovations together with paleoceanographic data on past primary productivity. We find that shellfish extraction varied considerably from one cultural period to the next in terms of the number of species and their abundance, with diversity increasing during periods of regionally decreased productivity. Such shifts in consumption patterns are considered community based management decisions, and for the most part they were synchronous with large and unusual regional demographic fluctuations experienced by prehistoric coastal societies in northern Chile. When taken together with their technological innovations, our data illustrates how these human groups tailored their socio-cultural patterns to what were often abrupt and prolonged environmental changes throughout the Holocene.http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/feart.2017.00077/fullvol.5Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos; Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Simi, E., Moreno, P. I., Villa-Martínez, R., Vilanova, I., de Pol-Holz, R.Climate change and resilience of deciduous Nothofagus forests in central-east Chilean Patagonia over the last 3200 years: RESILIENCE OF DECIDUOUS NOTHOFAGUS FORESTS IN PATAGONIAJournal of Quaternary Sciencehuman disturbance, nothofagus forests, paleofires, resilience, tephras, climate variation, deciduous forest, disturbance, fire history, holocene, human activity, paleoclimate, paleoenvironment, tephra, chile, patagonia, nothofagus0267-8179We examine the response of Nothofagus forests to climate change and disturbance regimes over the last 3200 years near Coyhaique (45°S), central–east Chilean Patagonia, using fine‐resolution pollen and charcoal records from lake sediment cores. Closed‐canopy deciduous Nothofagus forests have dominated the region with little variation until the arrival of Chilean–European settlers, suggesting a predominance of cool‐temperate and wet conditions. Within this state we identify centennial‐scale episodes of forest fragmentation, increase in littoral macrophytes and volcanic/paleofire disturbance between 2700 and 3000 cal a BP, 2200 and 2500 cal a BP and over the last ∼250 years, which we interpret as intervals with negative hydrologic balance. Natural variability caused little impact on the physiognomy and composition of the vegetation in pre‐European time, in contrast to the accelerated shift that started during the late 19th century associated with deforestation, homogenization and synchronization of ecosystem changes at the landscape level, and spread of exotic plant species brought by Chilean and European settlers during a warm/dry interval. The resilience of deciduous Nothofagus forests to natural disturbance regimes and climate change was exceeded by large‐scale human disturbance since the late 19th century by fire, timber exploitation and livestock grazing. These disturbances caused an ecosystem shift towards artificial meadows and scrublands with frequent high‐magnitude fires.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jqs.2948845-856vol.32 is.6Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Assal,T. J., González, M. E., Sibold, J. S.Burn severity controls on postfire Araucaria-Nothofagus regeneration in the Andean CordilleraJournal of Biogeographyaraucaria araucana, burn severity model, fire effects, nothofagus, regeneration model, tolhuaca national park, basal area, burning, coniferous forest, deciduous forest, environmental gradient, environmental monitoring, fire behavior, landscape ecology, mortality, regeneration, stand structure, vegetation dynamics, wildfire, andes, araucania, argentina, chile, cordillera, paraguay, tolhuaca national park, araucaria, araucaria araucana, nothofagus, tolhuaca0305-0270Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate postfire regeneration patterns of Araucaria-Nothofagus forests on the west slope of the Andes; to evaluate the relationship between remotely sensed burn severity and forest mortality; and to assess controls of burn severity on forest response at local spatio-temporal scales. Location: Araucanía region in the western Andean Range of south-central Chile where fire occurred during the 2001–2002 season. Methods: Sampling of prefire stand structure and postfire vegetation response was performed along a burn severity gradient a decade after the fire. We evaluated the relationship between field-measured tree mortality and satellite-derived burn severity using a generalized linear model. We fit zero-inflated mixture models to regeneration data of each genus to assess the importance of abiotic variables, stand characteristics, and biotic interactions. Results: The relative version of the delta Normalized Burn Ratio explained 85% of the variability in canopy mortality. Nearly 12,000 hectares burned; the majority at high severity (67%). Regeneration densities of both genera were lower at higher levels of burn severity and higher with greater total basal area (live, dead, and down trees). The relative effect size of burn severity on regeneration was nearly twice as large for Nothofagus, which suggests information legacies of Araucaria have cascading effects on postdisturbance material legacies. Main conclusions: Araucaria-Nothofagus mortality from wildfire can be readily mapped using satellite-derived burn severity. Although environmental site characteristics and biotic interactions mediate regeneration, basal area, and burn severity are the main mechanisms controlling regeneration. Forest refugia and postfire regeneration are vulnerable to recurrent fire. Therefore, we expect future fire (either increased severity or frequency), driven by landscape level changes, as a potential mechanism that can reduce local resilience of these forests as initial postfire material legacies (e.g., refugia and regeneration) are removed from the landscape. Our findings highlight an approach to quantify important attributes of forest disturbance and refugia, and identify areas for monitoring postdisturbance regeneration as the forests throughout south-central Chile and Argentina face a multitude of potential change agents.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jbi.13428Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Barichivich, J., Gloor, E., Peylin, P., Brienen, R. J. W., Schöngart, J., Espinoza, J. C., Pattnayak, K. C.Recent intensification of Amazon flooding extremes driven by strengthened Walker circulationScience Advances-2375-2548The Amazon basin is the largest watershed on Earth. Although the variability of the Amazon hydrological cycle has been increasing since the late 1990s, its underlying causes have remained elusive. We use water levels in the Amazon River to quantify changes in extreme events and then analyze their cause. Despite continuing research emphasis on droughts, the largest change over recent decades is a marked increase in very severe floods. Increased flooding is linked to a strengthening of the Walker circulation, resulting from strong tropical Atlantic warming and tropical Pacific cooling. Atlantic warming due to combined anthropogenic and natural factors has contributed to enhance the change in atmospheric circulation. Whether this anomalous increase in flooding will last depends on the evolution of the tropical inter-ocean temperature difference.http://advances.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/sciadv.aat8785eaat8785vol.4 is.9Thomson Reuters ISI
Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política, Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Gallardo, L., Barraza, F., Ceballos, A., Galleguillos, M., Huneeus, N., Lambert, F., Ibarra, C., Munizaga, M., O'Ryan, R., Osses, M.,Tolvett, S., Urquiza, A., Véliz, K.Evolution of air quality in Santiago: The role of mobility and lessons from the science-policy interfaceElementa: Science of the Anthropoceneair quality, chile, climate mitigation, mobility, policy-science interface, urbanization, aerosol, air quality, anthropocene, atmospheric pollution, capital city, climate change, developing world, energy efficiency, global change, greenhouse gas, mobility, particulate matter, policy making, pollution control, urban development, urban population, urban sprawl, urbanization, chile, latin america2325-1026Worldwide, urbanization constitutes a major and growing driver of global change and a distinctive feature of the Anthropocene. Thus, urban development paths present opportunities for technological and societal transformations towards energy efficiency and decarbonization, with benefits for both greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollution mitigation. This requires a better understanding of the intertwined dynamics of urban energy and land use, emissions, demographics, governance, and societal and biophysical processes. In this study, we address several characteristics of urbanization in Santiago (33.5°S, 70.5°W, 500 m a.s.l.), the capital city of Chile. Specifically, we focus on the multiple links between mobility and air quality, describe the evolution of these two aspects over the past 30 years, and review the role scientific knowledge has played in policy-making. We show evidence of how technological measures (e.g., fuel quality, three-way catalytic converters, diesel particle filters) have been successful in decreasing coarse mode aerosol (PM10) concentrations in Santiago despite increasing urbanization (e.g., population, motorization, urban sprawl). However, we also show that such measures will likely be insufficient if behavioral changes do not achieve an increase in the use of public transportation. Our investigation seeks to inform urban development in the Anthropocene, and our results may be useful for other developing countries, particularly in Latin America and the Caribbean where more than 80% of the population is urban.https://www.elementascience.org/article/10.1525/elementa.293/38vol.6 is.1Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Gómez-González, S., Ojeda, F., Fernandes, P.M.Portugal and Chile: Longing for sustainable forestry while rising from the ashesEnvironmental Science & PolicyVer fichabiodiversity, ecosystem services, fire ecology, forest plantation, fuel management, sustainability, fuel, ash, chile, conservation biology, cost effectiveness analysis, drought, environmental planning, environmental policy, environmental protection, environmental sustainability, eucalyptus, fire ecology, forest fire, forest management, forestry, government regulation, land use, landscape ecology, model, note, plantation, portugal, priority journal, risk assessment, species, sustainable development, wildfire1462-9011The recent catastrophic wildfires in Portugal and Chile shared similar features, not just because they developed under extreme weather conditions but also because extensive forest plantations were involved. Dense forest plantations of flammable pine and eucalypt species favor the development of high-intensity large fires, threatening people and the forest industry sustainability under increasingly frequent and severe drought events. Preventive land-use planning and cost-effective fuel management are key elements of sustainable forestry. Understanding the fire ecology context prior to plantation establishment is also crucial for the success of fire management planning. Although the forest industry has contributed to the economy of these countries, improved regulation and science-based management policies are strongly needed. Fuel treatment strategies can be optimized by risk-based modeling approaches, and should be mandatory in wildland-urban interfaces. The tragedy caused by these wildfires is an opportunity to change towards more sustainable landscape arrangements that reconcile ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation, and protection from life-threatening wildfires.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1462901117307694104-107vol.81Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Gómez-González, S., Paniw, M., Antunes, K., Ojeda, F.Heat shock and plant leachates regulate seed germination of the endangered carnivorous plant Drosophyllum lusitanicumWeb Ecologycarnivorous plant, dormancy, endangered species, germination, heat shock, leachate, population dynamics, species conservation, drosophyllum lusitanicum1438-8677In fire-prone ecosystems, many plant species have specialized mechanisms of seed dormancy that ensure a successful recruitment after fire. A well-documented mechanism is the germination stimulated by fire-related cues, such as heat shock and smoke. However, less is known about the role of inhibitory germination signals (e.g. allelopathy) in regulating post-fire recruitment. Plant leachates derived from the unburned vegetation can enforce dormancy by means of allelopathic compounds, acting as a signal of unfavourable (highly
competitive) niche for germination in pyrophyte species. Here, we assessed the separate effects of heat shock and plant leachates on seed germination of Drosophyllum lusitanicum , an endangered carnivorous plant endemic to Mediterranean fire-prone heathlands. We performed a germination experiment in which seeds were subjected to three treatments: (1) 5 min at 100◦C, (2) watering with plant leachate, and (3) control. Germination rate and seed viability was determined after 63 days. Heat shock stimulated seed germination in D. lusitanicum while plant leachates had inhibitory germination effects without reducing seed viability. Thus, both positive and negative signals could be involved in its successful post-fire recruitment. Fire would break seed dormancy and stimulate seed germination of D. lusitanicum through high temperatures, but also by eliminating allelochemical compounds from the soil. These results help to understand the population dynamics patterns found for D. lusitanicum in natural populations, and highlight the role of fire in the ecology and conservation of this endangered species. Seed dormancy imposed by plant-derived leachates as an adaptive mechanism should be considered more in fire ecology theory.
https://www.web-ecol.net/18/7/2018/7-13vol.18 is.1Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Jimenez J.C., Barichivich J., Mattar C., Takahashi K., Santamaría-Artigas A., Sobrino J.A., Malhi Y.Spatio-temporal patterns of thermal anomalies and drought over tropical forests driven by recent extreme climatic anomaliesPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciencesdrought, el niño, scpdsi, tropical forests, warming, climate effect, drought stress, el nino, extreme event, precipitation (climatology), spatiotemporal analysis, temperature anomaly, tropical forest, tropical region, africa, amazonia, indonesia, brazil, climate change, drought, forest, greenhouse effect, season, temperature, tropic climate, droughts, el nino-southern oscillation, forests, global warming, seasons, tropical climate0962-8436The recent 2015-2016 El Niño (EN) event was considered as strong as the EN in 1997-1998. Given such magnitude, it was expected to result in extreme warming and moisture anomalies in tropical areas. Here we characterize the spatial patterns of temperature anomalies and drought over tropical forests, including tropical South America (Amazonia), Africa and Asia/Indonesia during the 2015-2016 EN event. These spatial patterns of warming and drought are compared with those observed in previous strong EN events (1982-1983 and 1997-1998) and other moderate to strong EN events (e.g. 2004-2005 and 2009-2010). The link between the spatial patterns of drought and sea surface temperature anomalies in the central and eastern Pacific is also explored. We show that indeed the EN2015-2016 led to unprecedented warming compared to the other EN events over Amazonia, Africa and Indonesia, as a consequence of the background global warming trend. Anomalous accumulated extreme drought area over Amazonia was found during EN2015-2016, but this value may be closer to extreme drought area extents in the other two EN events in 1982-1983 and 1997-1998. Over Africa, datasets disagree, and it is difficult to conclude which EN event led to the highest accumulated extreme drought area. Our results show that the highest values of accumulated drought area over Africa were obtained in 2015-2016 and 1997-1998, with a long-term drying trend not observed over the other tropical regions. Over Indonesia, all datasets suggest that EN 1982-1983 and EN 1997-1998 (or even the drought of 2005) led to a higher extreme drought area than EN2015-2016. Uncertainties in precipitation datasets hinder consistent estimates of drought severity over tropical regions, and improved reanalysis products and station records are required.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The impact of the 2015/2016 El Niño on the terrestrial tropical carbon cycle: patterns, mechanisms and implications'. © 2018 The Author(s).http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2017.030020170300Vol.373 is.1760Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes2018Mazzeo, A., Huneeus, N., Ordoñez, C., Orfanoz-Cheuquelaf, A., Menut, L., Mailler, S., Valari, M., Denier van der Gon, H., Gallardo, L., Muñoz, R., Donoso, R., Galleguillos, M., Osses, M., Tolvett, S.
Impact of residential combustion and transport emissions on air pollution in Santiago during winter
Atmospheric Environment
air quality, mitigation policies, nox, on-road emissions, pm2.5, residential emissions, air quality, combustion, dust, housing, nitrogen oxides, particles (particulate matter), roads and streets, sensitivity analysis, chemistry transport model, meteorological measurements, meteorological modeling, mitigation policies, on-road emissions, pm2.5, residential emissions, road transport emissions, atmospheric movements, nitrogen oxide, air quality, atmospheric modeling, atmospheric pollution, climate modeling, environmental factor, extreme event, mitigation, particulate matter, pollutant source, pollutant transport, pollution effect, pollution monitoring, pollution policy, public health, residential location, road traffic, spatial distribution, traffic emission, winter, air pollution, airborne particle, article, chile, concentration (parameters), exhaust gas, meteorology, model, particle size, priority journal, residential area, surface property, traffic and transport, metropolitana1352-2310Santiago (33.5°S, 70.5°W), the capital of Chile, is frequently affected by extreme air pollution events during wintertime deteriorating air quality (AQ) and thus affecting the health of its population. Intense residential heating and on-road transport emissions combined with poor circulation and vertical mixing are the main factors responsible for these events. A modelling system composed of a chemistry-transport model (CHIMERE) and a meteorological model (WRF) was implemented to assess the AQ impacts of residential and transportation sources in the Santiago basin. A two-week period of July 2015 with various days with poor AQ was simulated focusing on the impact on AQ with respect to fully inhalable particles (PM2.5) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Three emission scenarios, within the range of targeted reductions of the decontamination plan of Santiago, were tested; namely 50% reduction of residential emission, 50% reduction of transport emissions and the combination of both. An additional scenario decreasing transport emissions in 10% was carried out to examine whether a linear dependence of surface concentrations on changes in emissions exists.

The system was validated against surface and vertically resolved meteorological measurements. The model reproduces the daily surface concentration variability from the AQ monitoring network of Santiago. However, the model not fully captures the emissions variations inferred from the observations which may be due to missing sources such as resuspension of dust.

Results show that, during the period studied, although both residential and transportation sources contribute to observed AQ levels in Santiago, reducing transport emissions is more effective in terms of reducing the number of days with pollution events than decreasing residential combustion. This difference in impact is largely due to the spatial distribution of the emission sources. While most of the residential combustion is emitted in the outskirts of the city, most of the transport emissions occur within the city, where most of the stations from AQ monitoring network of Santiago are located. As can be expected, the largest improvement of AQ in Santiago is achieved by the combined reduction of emissions in both sectors. Sensitivity analysis with 10% reduction in transport emissions reveals a linear behavior between emissions and concentrations for NOX and approximate linear behavior for PM2.5. The absence of secondary aerosols formation and dust resuspension in the current simulation could explain this deviation from linearity for fine particles. Nevertheless, it suggests that the results can be used for mitigation policies with emissions reductions below the 50% used in this study.
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1352231018304345195-208vol.190Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018McWethy, D. B., Pauchard, A., García, R. A., Holz, A., González, M. E., Veblen, T. T., Stahl, J., Currey, B.Landscape drivers of recent fire activity (2001-2017) in south-central ChilePLOS ONEchile, climate change, controlled study, ecosystem fire history, environmental change, environmental exposure, environmental impact, forest fire, geographic distribution, landscape, population density, review, seasonal variation, trend study, wildfire, biomass, chile, ecosystem, environmental protection, fire, procedures, satellite imagery, statistics and numerical data, theoretical model, biomass, chile, climate change, conservation of natural resources, ecosystem, fires, models, theoretical, satellite imagery1932-6203In recent decades large fires have affected communities throughout central and southern Chile with great social and ecological consequences. Despite this high fire activity, the controls and drivers and the spatiotemporal pattern of fires are not well understood. To identify the large-scale trends and drivers of recent fire activity across six regions in south-central Chile (~32–40 S Latitude) we evaluated MODIS satellite-derived fire detections and compared this data with Chilean Forest Service records for the period 2001–2017. MODIS burned area estimates provide a spatially and temporally comprehensive record of fire activity across an important bioclimatic transition zone between dry Mediterranean shrublands/ sclerophyllous forests and wetter deciduous-broadleaf evergreen forests. Results suggest fire activity was highly variable in any given year, with no statistically significant trend in the number of fires or mean annual area burned. Evaluation of the variables associated with spatiotemporal patterns of fire for the 2001–2017 period indicate vegetation type, biophysical conditions (e.g., elevation, slope), mean annual and seasonal climatic conditions (e.g., precipitation) and mean population density have the greatest influence on the probability of fire occurrence and burned area for any given year. Both the number of fires and annual area burned were greatest in warmer, biomass-rich lowland Bío-Bío and Araucanía regions. Resource selection analyses indicate fire ‘preferentially’ occurs in exotic plantation forests, mixed native-exotic forests, native sclerophyll forests, pasture lands and matorral, vegetation types that all provide abundant, flammable and connected biomass for burning. Structurally and compositionally homogenous exotic plantation forests may promote fire spread greater than native deciduous-Nothofagaceae forests which were once widespread in the southern parts of the study area. In the future, the coincidence of warmer and drier conditions in landscapes dominated by flammable and fuel-rich forest plantations and mixed native-exotic and sclerophyll forests are likely to further promote large fires in south-central Chile. © 2018 McWethy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201195e0201195vol.13 is.8Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Miranda, A., Altamirano, A., Lara, A., Zamorano-Elgueta, C., Hernández, H. J., González, M. E., Pauchard,A., Promis, A.Monitoreo de la superficie de los bosques nativos de Chile: un desafío pendienteBosque (Valdivia)deforestation, land cover change, land use change, national forest monitoring, redd+0717-9200Forest monitoring is important for decision making of forest management and conservation. In Chile, the forest monitoring system was initiated in 1994, which has been continued through the implementation of regional updates. This has enabled a temporal monitoring of the distribution and surface covered by native forest. However, while regional updates have reported increase in the surface covered by native forest, other studies have shown an opposite trend. Therefore, the capacity of the forest monitoring system to measure the temporal variation in forest areas was evaluated. Specifically, a review of reports and official data of the national forest monitoring system was carried out through the fulfillment of three basic criteria: i) comparability, ii) replicability and iii) quality. According to our results, the Chilean forest monitoring system does not fulfill their basic requirements because: (i) methodologies have not been consistent over time; (ii) it does not provide a baseline of land cover or forest loss that allows comparisons with changing forest area; iii) there is not adequate error estimation and how it can affect the results and analysis of monitoring. The national forest monitoring system requires a redefinition of its aims and methods, guiding them to the long term by convening different stakeholders looking for a national agreement.http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-92002018000200265&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en265-275vol.39 is.2Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos; Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Moreno, P. I., Vilanova, I., Villa-Martinez, R., Dunbar, R. B., Mucciarone, D. A., Kaplan, M. R., Garreaud, R., Rojas, M., De Polz-Holz, R., Lambert, F.
Onset and Evolution of Southern Annular Mode-Like Changes at Centennial Timescale
Scientific Reports
Ver ficha2045-2322
The Southern Westerly Winds (SWW) are the surface expression of geostrophic winds that encircle the southern mid-latitudes. In conjunction with the Southern Ocean, they establish a coupled system that not only controls climate in the southern third of the world, but is also closely connected to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and CO2 degassing from the deep ocean. Paradoxically, little is known about their behavior since the last ice age and relationships with mid-latitude glacier history and tropical climate variability. Here we present a lake sediment record from Chilean Patagonia (51°S) that reveals fluctuations of the low-level SWW at mid-latitudes, including strong westerlies during the Antarctic Cold Reversal, anomalously low intensity during the early Holocene, which was unfavorable for glacier growth, and strong SWW since ∼7.5 ka. We detect nine positive Southern Annular Mode-like events at centennial timescale since ∼5.8 ka that alternate with cold/wet intervals favorable for glacier expansions (Neoglaciations) in southern Patagonia. The correspondence of key features of mid-latitude atmospheric circulation with shifts in tropical climate since ∼10 ka suggests that coherent climatic shifts in these regions have driven climate change in vast sectors of the Southern Hemisphere at centennial and millennial timescales.http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-21836-6vol.8 is.1Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Osborn, T. J., Barichivich, J., Harris, I., van der Schrier, G., & Jones, P. DGlobal Climate - d. Hydrological cycle - DroughtBulletin of the American Meteorological Society0003-0007http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1S36-S37vol.99 is.8Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Pattnayak, K. C., Gloor, E., Tindall, J. C., Brienen, R. J. W., Barichivich, J., Baker, J. C. A., Spracklen, D. V., Cintra, B. B. L., Coelho, C. A. S.Adding new evidence to the attribution puzzle of the recent water shortage over São Paulo (Brazil)Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanographyclimate change, deforestation, pattern recognition algorithm, sea surface temperature anomaly, water shortages, algorithm, climate change, climate effect, climate forcing, deforestation, future prospect, hydrological response, pattern recognition, precipitation intensity, reservoir, resource scarcity, sea surface temperature, temperature anomaly, water supply, atlantic ocean, atlantic ocean (south), brazil, sao paulo brazil1600-0870View references (44)
São Paulo, Brazil has experienced severe water shortages and record low levels of its water reservoirs in 2013–2014. We evaluate the contributions of Amazon deforestation and climate change to low precipitation levels using a modelling approach, and address whether similar precipitation anomalies might occur more frequently in a warming world. Precipitation records from INMET show that the dry anomaly extended over a fairly large region to the north of São Paulo. Unique features of this event were anomalous sea surface temperature (SST) patterns in the Southern Atlantic, an extension of the sub tropical high into the São Paulo region and moisture flux divergence over São Paulo. The SST anomalies were very similar in 2013/14 and 2014/15, suggesting they played a major role in forcing the dry conditions. The SST anomalies consisted of three zonal bands: a cold band in the tropics, a warm band to the south of São Paulo and another cold band poleward of 40 S. We performed ensemble climate simulations with observed SSTs prescribed, vegetation cover either fixed at 1870 levels or varying over time, and greenhouse gases (GHGs) either fixed at pre-industrial levels (280 ppm CO2) or varying over time. These simulations exhibit similar precipitation deficits over the São Paulo region in 2013/14. From this, we infer that SST patterns and the associated large-scale state of the atmosphere were important factors in determining the precipitation anomalies, while deforestation and increased GHGs only weakly modulated the signal. Finally, analyses of future climate simulations from CMIP5 models indicate that the frequency of such precipitation anomalies is not likely to change in a warmer climate. © 2018, © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/16000870.2018.14816901-14vol.70 is.1Thomson Reuters ISI
Ciudades Resilientes; Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Pfeiffer, M., Latorre, C., Santoro, C.M., Gayo, E.M., Rojas, R., Carrevedo, M.L., McRostie, V.B., Finstad, K., Heimsath, A., Jungers, M., Chong, G., De Pol-Holz, R., Amundson, R.Chronology, stratigraphy and hydrological modelling of extensive wetlands and paleolakes in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert during the late quaternaryQuaternary Science Reviewsatacama desert, hyperaridity, late quaternary, paleogeography, sedimentology, south america, wetlands, arid regions, hydrology, sedimentology, sodium chloride, stratigraphy, water resources, atacama desert, hyperaridity, late quaternary, paleogeography, south america, wetlands, arid region, aridity, chronology, gastropod, hydrological modeling, lake, paleoclimate, pleistocene, recharge, salt pan, wetland, andes, chile, bacillariophyta, gastropoda0277-3791The halite-encrusted salt pans (salars) present at low elevations of the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile are unique features of one of the driest and possibly oldest deserts on Earth. Here we show that these landscapes were shallow freshwater lakes and wetlands during the last glacial period, periodically between ~46.9 ka and 7.7 ka. The moisture appears to have been sourced from increased Andean runoff and most of our chronologies for these deposits were coeval with the Central Andean Pluvial Event (17.5-14.2 ka and 13.8-9.7 ka), but we also find evidence for older as well as slightly younger wet phases. These environments supported a diverse hygrophyte vegetation, as well as an array of diatoms, ostracods and gastropods. Using a regional hydrological model, we estimate that recharge rates from 1.5 to 4 times present were required to activate and maintain these wetlands in the past. Activation in the late Pleistocene was part of a regional enhancement of water resources, extending from the Andes, downstream and through riparian corridors, to the lowest and most arid portions of the desert itself. This fundamentally unique environment was encountered by the earliest human explorers in the region, and most likely facilitated migration and encampments on a landscape that at present lacks macroscopic life on its surface.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0277379117310521224-245Vol.197Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Piret, L., Bertrand, S., Kissel, C., De Pol-Holz, R., Tamayo Hernando, A., Van Daele, M.First evidence of a mid-Holocene earthquake-triggered megaturbidite south of the Chile Triple JunctionSedimentary Geologyearthquake, holocene, patagonia, sediment provenance, turbidite, bathymetry, deposits, geochemistry, grain size and shape, lakes, maps, sediments, submarine geology, chile triple junctions, environmental implications, glacial lake outburst flood, holocenes, paleoenvironmental study, patagonia, sediment provenance, turbidite, earthquakes, deposition, earthquake trigger, fjord, holocene, paleoenvironment, paleoseismicity, provenance, subduction zone, chile, chile triple junction, pacific ocean, foraminifera0037-0738Megaturbidites have been the focus of many paleoseismic and paleoenvironmental studies because they can provide evidence for catastrophic and/or hazardous events with potentially major environmental implications. During a recent research cruise in Baker Fjord, Chile (47°54'S-74°30'W), a megaturbidite was described between the Northern and Southern Patagonian Icefields. Here, we aim to determine the depositional processes of the megaturbidite and identify its origin. Based on the turbidite's location, a possible origin was the early Holocene drainage of paleo-lake General Carrera, which was recently proposed in the literature as having produced a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) that drained through Baker Fjord. Due to the fjord's location in a subduction zone, and close to the Chile Triple Junction, however, seismic activity must also be considered as a potential triggering mechanism. To achieve our goals, we undertook a multi-proxy analysis of sediment core MD07-3121, including sedimentology (grain size, loss-on-ignition, foraminifera counts), magnetic properties, bulk organic geochemistry, and radiocarbon dating, and we analysed bathymetric maps and sub-bottom profiles. Our grain-size results display a diagnostic fining upward trend and show evidence of seiching in the 733-cm-thick megaturbidite. The age of the event (5513-5211 cal yr BP) contradicts the hypothesis of an early Holocene GLOF origin. Bulk organic geochemical results indicate that the sediments that compose the turbidite are clearly of marine origin, which further goes against a GLOF origin. In addition, the megaturbidite is underlain by a 1136 cm thick mass transport deposit (MTD), also composed of marine sediments. According to the sub-bottom profiles, the MTD and the megaturbidite originate from the reworking of thick packages of sediment previously deposited on nearby sills and on the fjord's flanks. Furthermore, similar coeval deposits are found in an adjacent sub-basin. We therefore interpret these deposits to be triggered by an earthquake during the late mid-Holocene. While megathrust and intraslab earthquakes are possible in the region, we argue that a crustal earthquake is the most likely seismic trigger in the study area. This study reveals the first earthquake-triggered megaturbidite south of the Chile Triple Junction.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0037073818300113Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Rozas, V., Le Quesne, C., Rojas-Badilla, M., González, M., González-Reyes, A.Coupled human-climate signals on the fire history of upper Cachapoal Valley, Mediterranean Andes of Chile, since 1201 CEGlobal and Planetary Changeaustrocedrus chilensis, climate drivers, dendrochronology, fire regime, land use history, forestry, fuels, land use, plants (botany), austrocedrus chilensis, dendrochronology, fire regimes, interannual time scale, land use history, multi-decadal time scale, southern south america, vegetation productivity, fires, climate variation, coniferous tree, environmental factor, fire history, indigenous population, land use change, nature-society relations, precipitation (climatology), subalpine environment, temperature effect, wood, woodland, andes, chile, mediterranean region, spain, austrocedrus, bos0921-8181The long-term history of fire regimes in the Mediterranean Andes of Chile is almost unknown. Subalpine woodlands of Austrocedrus chilensis include long-lived trees resilient to low-intensity fires, which can provide valuable tree-ring-based information about fire history. In this work, we performed an annually resolved multicentury reconstruction of past fires from fire-scar records identified in relict Austrocedrus wood found on steep highly-eroded and rocky slopes with coarser fuel structure in the upper Cachapoal Valley, central Andes of Chile. We compared this fire record with historical land-use changes and extensive reconstructions of regional precipitation and temperature, as well as large-scale climatic patterns. The highest fire frequencies were recorded in the Spanish settlement period (1541–1750), when land-clearing activities, cattle ranching, agriculture, and mining practices became widespread after the Spanish conquest. At an interannual time scale, fire occurrence and precipitation were unconnected during the Spanish settlement. By contrast, in the indigenous period (1200–1540), under the influence of the aboriginal Chiquillanes people, fires occurred in wet years with high vegetation productivity. In the livestock grazing period (1751–1950), when large cattle ranches were established, fires occurred in dry years after a wet year. Fires in this period were likely ignited under conditions of high fuel flammability to improve plant production and promote intensive livestock grazing. At a multidecadal time scale, fires were more frequent in cold periods throughout the whole record. These findings suggest that herbaceous fuel accumulation and flammability, modulated by climate variation and human land uses, were the main factors promoting fires spread in this Mediterranean subalpine area. Our research emphasizes the importance of relict Austrocedrus wood for fire history reconstruction and expands knowledge about fire regime shifts over the past eight centuries in southern South America.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0921818117304988137-147vol.167Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos; Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Urrutia-Jalabert, R., González, M. E., González-Reyes, A., Lara, A., Garreaud, R.Climate variability and forest fires in central and south-central ChileEcosphereantarctic oscillation, climate change, el niño–southern oscillation (enso), exotic plantations, forest fires, mediterranean forests, temperate forests2150-8925This paper evaluates the relationship between fire occurrence (number and burned area) and
climate variability (precipitation and maximum temperatures) across central and south-central Chile
(32°–43° S) during recent decades (1976–2013). This region sustains the largest proportion of the Chilean
population, contains ecologically important remnants of endemic ecosystems, the largest extension of
forest exotic plantations, and concentrates most of the fire activity in the country. Fire activity in central
Chile was mainly associated with above-average precipitation during winter of the previous year and
with dry conditions during spring to summer. The later association was particularly strong in the southern,
wetter part of the study region. Maximum temperature had a positive significant relationship with
burned area across the study region, with stronger correlations toward the south. Fires in central Chile
were significantly related to El Nino~ –Southern Oscillation, through rainfall anomalies during the year
previous to the fire season. The Antarctic Oscillation during winter through summer was positively
related to fires across the study area due to drier/warmer conditions associated with the positive polarity
of this oscillation. Climate change projections for the region reveal an all-season decrease in precipitation
and increases in temperature, that may likely result in an increment of the occurrence and the area
affected by fires, as it has been observed during a multi-year drought afflicting central Chile since 2010.
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ecs2.2171e02171vol.9 is.4Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Urrutia-Jalabert, R., Peña, M. P. Coopman, R. E., Carvajal, D. E., Jiménez-Castillo, M., Lara, A., Cosimo, D., Lobos-Catalán, P.
Elucidating the hydraulic vulnerability of the longest-lived Southern Hemisphere conifer to aridificationForest Ecology and Management
climate change, fitzroya cupressoides, hydraulic vulnerability, safety margins, southern south america, temperate rainforests, capacitance, climate change, histology, tissue, conservation actions, conservation strategies, environmental conditions, fitzroya cupressoides, safety margin, southern hemisphere, southern south america, temperate rainforest, forestry, aridification, climate conditions, coniferous forest, conservation management, ecophysiology, endangered species, endemic species, growing season, hydraulic conductivity, rainforest, safety, temperate environment, vulnerability, capacitance, fitzroya, saplings, chile, coastal range taiwan, south america, taiwan, coniferophyta0378-1127
Drier climatic conditions will be the future scenario in many regions worldwide, including southern South America. Few studies have characterized the ecophysiological vulnerability of the endemic tree species that inhabit this area, to climate change. In this study we assessed the hydraulic vulnerability of the longest-lived tree of the Southern Hemisphere, Fitzroya cupressoides, focusing on adult trees and saplings from two highly disturbed populations: the Coastal Range (AC) and Central Depression (FN) of southern Chile, which represent contrasting site conditions. This, as a basis for the design of conservation strategies to safeguard the persistence of these endangered forests in a drier future. We assessed water potentials (WP) throughout a growing season, their relationships with environmental conditions, as well as leaf and stem (branch) traits and hydraulic safety margins. Despite that the studied summer was the second driest in the last seven decades, minimum WP were not that negative (−1.3 to −1.5 MPa); which could be partly explained by a high leaf capacitance in this species. Adult trees and saplings from both sites did not significantly differ in their WP at turgor loss point, and their associated leaf safety margins, which were relatively low in all cases. However, they significantly differed in the xylem WP causing a 50% loss of stem conductivity (P50): adults AC: −5.14, saplings AC: −2.53, adults FN: −3.71, and saplings FN: −3.87 MPa. These values led to a relatively large stem safety margin (SSM) in most cases, and their variation was not explained neither by wood density, nor by tracheid size changes. Moreover, there appears to be an ontogenic adjustment in the more restrictive site AC, which was not seen in FN. Within the continuum of species strategies to cope with water stress, Fitzroya has features of the two ends of the continuum: tissues with large SSM, and tissues that sustain milder operation pressures through capacitance. Although Fitzroya appears to be relatively resistant to water scarcity, saplings from AC, seem to be the most vulnerable to the aridification trend in southern Chile. Moreover, future drying could become a significant extra threat to the highly endangered Central Depression population. Conservation actions are urgently needed to secure the future of Fitzroya forests in southern Chile.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S037811271830793X472-484vol.430Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo, Agua y Extremos2018González, M. E., Gómez-González, S., Lara, A., Garreaud, R., Díaz-Hormazabal, I.The 2010-2015 Megadrought and its influence on the fire regime in central and south-central ChileEcospheredrought, fire regimes, fire-prone vegetation, fire-season length2150-8925Forest fire activity has increased in recent years in central and south-central Chile. Drought conditions have been associated with the increase of large wildfires, area burned and longer fire seasons. This study examines the influence of drought on fire regimes and discusses landscape management opportunities to decrease fire hazard. Specifically, we investigate the effect of the 2010–2015 Megadrought (MD) compared to 1990–2009 period on fire activity (fire-season length, number of fires and burned area across months, fire sizes, regions and vegetation cover types, simultaneity, and duration of fires) in central and south-central Chile (32°–39° S), using contemporary fire statistics derived from the Chilean Forest Service. For large fire events (>200 ha) the average season length increased by 67 d (44%), comparing 2010–2015 to 1990–2009. Earlier and later ignition dates resulted in extended fire seasons in MD years. During the MD, the number, area burned, simultaneity, and duration of large fires increased significantly compared to the control period, including the unprecedented occurrence of large fires during winter. The burned area in large fires increased in all vegetation types, during the MD compared to the control period, especially in the exotic plantation cover type. The regions that were most affected by fire (i.e., total area burned) during the MD wereMaule, B ıo-B ıo, and Araucan ıa (35–39° S) that concentrate >75% of forest plantations in Chile. Although both maximum temperatures and precipitation are drivers of fire activity, a simple attribution analysis indicates that the sustained rainfall deficit during 2010–2015 was the most critical factor in the enhanced fire activity. Future climate change predictions indicate more recurrent, intense, and temporally extended droughts for central and south-central Chile. Under this scenario, land-use planning and fire and forest management strategies must promote a more diverse and less flammable landscape mosaic limiting high load, homogenous, and continuous exotic plantations.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ecs2.2300e02300Vol.9 is.8Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Gómez-González S., M. González, S. Paula, I. Díaz, A. Lara, M. Delgado-BaquerizoTemperature and agriculture are largely associated with fire activity in Central Chile across different temporal periodsForest Ecology and Managementdrought, human impact, land use change, mediterranean-type climate, topography, wildfires, climate change, climate models, conservation, drought, ecology, economics, forestry, land use, topography, human impact, land-use change, large-scale studies, mediterranean-type climate, structural equation models, sustainable forestry, sustainable policies, wildfires, fires, agriculture, anthropogenic effect, fire, fire management, land use change, landscape planning, mediterranean environment, temperature, wildfire, chile0378-1127Wildfires have important ecological and socio-economic implications worldwide. Identifying the major ecological drivers regulating fire activity across space and time is critical to formulating sustainable policies of landscape planning and management under global change scenarios. However, large scale studies quantifying the relative importance of relevant fire drivers across different time periods are largely lacking. We conducted a high-resolution spatial survey in Central Chile and used structural equation models (SEMs) to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of climate, human impact, land uses, and topography on the number of fires and burned area across two distinct periods of time (2000–2005 and 2011–2016). Mean temperature and agricultural use had the highest direct positive effect on the number of fires and burned area in the two studied periods, and thus were the major ecological predictors of fire activity. Human impact was also an important predictor of fire attributes. Topography had multiple indirect effects on fire activity by regulating land use, temperature, and human impact, but direct effects were negligible. Precipitation seasonality, drought and aridity indexes, native forests, and plantations, were less relevant predictors of fire activity. Even so, our SEMs suggested that areas dominated by native forests tended to have lower number of fires than those covered by croplands or plantations. Our results suggest that fire activity in Central Chile will be highly sensitive to increases in human pressure, land use change and warming by climate change. Because the relative importance of the predictors of fire activity was steady over time, the knowledge derived from this study provides critical insights for preventive fire management and landscape planning. The control of stubble burning, native forest restoration and sustainable forestry management could improve social adaptation to a fire-prone future.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378112718315962535-543Vol.433Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos, Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Alvarez-Garreton, C., Mendoza, P. A., Boisier, J. P., Addor, N., Galleguillos, M., Zambrano-Bigiarini, M., Lara, A., Puelma, C., Cortes, G., Garreaud, R., McPhee, J., Ayala, A.The CAMELS-CL dataset - links to files. PANGAEA, https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.894885PANGAEA. Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Sciencehttps://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.894885Not indexed
Agua y Extremos, Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Chávez, R.O., Moreira-Munoz, A., Galleguillos, M., Olea, M., Aguayo, J., Latín, A., Aguilera-Betti, I., Muñoz, A. A., Manriquez, H.GIMMS NDVI time series reveal the extent, duration, and intensity of “blooming desert” events in the hyper-arid Atacama Desert, Northern ChileInternational Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformationephemeral vegetation, extreme events, land surface phenology, npphen, precipitation variability, remote sensing, time series, desert, extreme event, land surface, numerical model, phenology, precipitation intensity, remote sensing, time series, vegetation mapping, atacama desert, chile0303-2434The “blooming desert”, or the explosive development and flowering of ephemeral herbaceous and some woody desert species during years with abnormally high accumulated rainfall, is a spectacular biological phenomenon of the hyper-arid Atacama Desert (northern Chile) attracting botanists, ecologists, geo-scientists, and the general public from all over the world. However, the number of “blooming deserts”, their geographical distribution and spatio-temporal patterns have not been quantitatively assessed to date. Here, we used NDVI data from the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) project to reconstruct the annual land surface phenology (LSP) of the Atacama Desert using a non-parametric statistical approach. From the reconstructed LSP, we detected the “blooming deserts” as positive NDVI anomalies and assessed three dimensions of the events: their temporal extent, intensity of “greening” and spatial extent. We identified 13 “blooming deserts” between 1981 and 2015, of which three (1997–98, 2002–03, and 2011) can be considered major events according to these metrics. The main event occurred in 2011, spanning 180 days between July and December 2011, and spread over 11,136 km 2 of Atacama dry plains. “Blooming deserts” in Atacama have been triggered by the accumulation of precipitation during a period of 2 to 12 months before and during the events. The proposed three-dimensional approach allowed us to characterize different types of “blooming deserts”: with longer episodes or larger spatial distribution or with different “greening” intensities. Its flexibility to reconstruct different LSP and detect anomalies makes this method a useful tool to study these rare phenomena in other deserts in the world also.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0303243418306202193-203Vol.76Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Fontúrbel F.E., Lara A., Lobos D., Little C.The cascade impacts of climate change could threaten key ecological interactionsEcospheredromiciops gliroides, drought, sephanoides sephaniodes, soil moisture, temperate rainforests, tristerix corymbosus2150-8925Climate change is triggering ecological responses all over the world as a result of frequent, prolonged droughts. It could also affect ecological interactions, particularly pollination and seed dispersal, which play a key role in plant reproduction. We used a tripartite interaction with a mistletoe, its pollinator and its disperser animals to gain insight into this issue. We studied flower and fruit production, and visitation rates during average (2012) and dry (2015) austral summers. Drought in our study area affected precipitation and soil water availability. Although pollinator visits did not significantly differ in these summers, during the dry summer flower and fruit production experienced an important decline, as did seed disperser visits. Also, mistletoe mortality increased from 12% in 2012 to 23% in 2015. This empirical evidence suggests that the cascade effects of climate change may indirectly be hindering ecological interactions in the Valdivian temperate rainforest ecosystem we studied. Long‐term research is essential to provide the knowledge necessary to understand how key ecological processes may be affected in a changing world.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ecs2.2485e02485Vol.9 is.12Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Merino-Campos, V., De Pol-Holz, R., Southon, J., Latorre, C., Collado-Fabbri, S.Marine Radiocarbon Reservoir Age Along the Chilean Continental MarginRadiocarbonchile, radiocarbon ams dating, reservoir correction, reservoir effect, upwelling, accelerator mass spectrometry, age, carbon isotope, continental margin, global ocean, mollusc, museum, radiocarbon dating, reservoir, shell, upwelling, chile, juan fernandez islands, patagonia, filicophyta0033-8222We present 37 new radiocarbon (14C) measurements from mollusk shells fragments sampled along the Chilean continental margin and stored in museum collections with known calendar age. These measurements were used to estimate the modern pre-bomb regional marine 14C age deviations from the global ocean reservoir (∆R). Together with previously published data, we calculated regional mean ∆R values for five oceanographic macro regions along the coast plus one for a mid-latitude open ocean setting. In general, upwelling regions north of 42ºS show consistent although sometimes highly variable ∆R values with regional averages ranging from 141 to 196 14C yr, whereas the mid-latitude open ocean location of the Juan Fernández archipelago and the southern Patagonian region show minor, ∆R of 40±38 14C yr, and 52±47 14C yr respectively. We attribute the alongshore decreasing pattern toward higher latitudes to the main oceanographic features along the Chilean coast such as perennial coastal upwelling in northern zone, seasonally variable upwelling at the central part and the large freshwater influence upon the southernhttps://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0033822218000814/type/journal_article195-210Vol. 61 is.1Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Rey Benayas, J. M., Altamirano, A., Miranda, A., Catalán, G., Prado, M., Lisón, F., Bullock, J. M.Landscape restoration in a mixed agricultural-forest catchment: Planning a buffer strip and hedgerow network in a Chilean biodiversity hotspotAmbioconnectivity, conservation, ecosystem services, farmland, land-sharing, living fences0044-7447Guidance for large-scale restoration of natural or semi-natural linear vegetation elements that takes into account the need to maintain human livelihoods such as farming is often lacking. Focusing on a Chilean biodiversity hotspot, we assessed the landscape in terms of existing woody vegetation elements and proposed a buffer strip and hedgerow network. We used spatial analysis based on Google Earth imagery and QGIS, field surveys, seven guidelines linked to prioritization criteria and seedling availability in the region's nurseries, and estimated the budget for implementing the proposed network. The target landscapes require restoring 0.89 ha km-2 of woody buffer strips to meet Chilean law; 1.4 ha km-2 of new hedgerows is also proposed. The cost of restoration in this landscape is estimated in ca. USD 6900 per planted ha of buffer strips and hedgerows. Financial incentives, education, and professional training of farmers are identified as key issues to implement the suggested restoration actions.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13280-019-01149-2In pressThomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Manuschevich, Daniela; Sarricolea, Pablo; Galleguillos, MauricioIntegrating socio-ecological dynamics into land use policy outcomes: A spatial scenario approach for native forest conservation in south-central ChileLand Use Policydyna-clue, forest transitions, invest, socio-ecological, tree farms, conservation planning, ecosystem service, forest management, forestry policy, land use planning, nature conservation, policy implementation, policy making, spatial analysis, chile, eucalyptus, radiata0264-8377Chile is one of the first documented nations to undergo a forest transition dominated by tree farm expansion. Scenario modelling can inform the possible outcomes of forest conservation policies, especially when the scenarios are rooted in the political dynamics that shaped the current legislation. In Chile, tree farms of non-native Radiata Pine and Eucalyptus provide a fast return on investment. Today, fast-growing plantations compete for land area with forest conservation, putting the unique bundle of ecosystem services provided by the latter at risk. Based on a previous political analysis, we propose scenarios projected to 2030 to compare a business-as-usual scenario with A) a conservation scenario based on strict land use restrictions B) an optimistic conservation scenario; C) an unrestricted industrial land use scenario; and D) a restricted industrial land use scenario. The scenarios differ in terms of the implemented policy instruments and the land area required for each land use. We compared these scenarios in terms of carbon stock, control of erosion and wood production, all of which are relevant in the current Chilean political debate. A conservation scenario (A), that combines incentives and restrictions, would imply the largest increase in native forest and regulation services, namely carbon stock and erosion control. In contrast, an unrestricted industrial land use scenario (C) leads to the worst outcomes in terms of erosion compared to a business-as-usual scenario. This study seeks to link political and economic processes underpinning land use change to environmental outcomes, while contributing to the larger discussion on forest policy, forest transitions and environmental outcomes. © 2019https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S026483771830751831-42vol.84.0 is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Soto, L.; Galleguillos, M.; Seguel, O.; Sotomayor, B.; Lara, A.Assessment of soil physical properties' statuses under different land covers within a landscape dominated by exotic industrial tree plantations in south-central ChileJournal of Soil and Water Conservationdegraded landscape, forestry industry, land use and land cover changes (lulcc), mediterranean ecosystem, soil properties, anthropogenic effect, bulk density, forestry practice, land cover, land degradation, land use change, mediterranean environment, plantation forestry, pore space, shear strength, chile, eucalyptus, pinus radiata0022-4561Land use and land cover changes (LULCC) within a highly anthropized Mediterranean landscape dominated by industrial tree plantation leads to degradation of soil physical properties. This process has been more intense in the coastal range of south-central%%%Chile due to its soils, which are highly susceptible to erosion, combined with a long history of intensive land use changes during the last century, transitioning from native forest (NF) to agriculture and the more recent establishment of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus spp. exotic tree plantations. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the statuses of soil physical properties over different land cover situations. Historical land cover maps were determined via supervised classifications using the maximum likelihood classifier applied to satellite imagery. Five land use and land cover categories (LULC) were defined according to main land cover transitions associated with active and abandoned forestry operations that have been reported in the region: NF, pine plantation (P), eucalyptus plantation (Eu), early successional (E-S), and secondary successional (S-S). Successional stages were generated using change detection statistics considering changes between 2001 and 2014 maps. Soil samples were collected at%%%three depths in 39 plots that describe the five LULC. High clay contents were found in all%%%the LULC except Eu and P. These sites have shown more signs of degradation, with lower%%%organic matter (SOM) and macropores and higher shear strength (ShS). Soil organic matter was consistent with litter contribution and quality, establishing lower bulk density (Db) for NF and S-S and higher values for Eu and E-S. ShS and dispersion rate (DR) exhibit a correlation with SOM with lower ShS and higher DR when SOM increased. Relevant differences were identified for structural stability index (SSI) between LULC depending on soil physical quality, besides a positive correlation with SOM. Those results show the need to generate appropriate conditions of vegetation cover in order to recover soils subjected to current forestry management of industrial plantations.http://www.jswconline.org/lookup/doi/10.2489/jswc.74.1.1212-23vol.74.0 is.1.0Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Tejo, Camila F.; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.A vertical forest within the forest: millenary trees from the Valdivian rainforest as biodiversity hubsEcologyanthropogenic effect, biodiversity, biota, coniferous tree, endangered species, forest canopy, forest ecosystem, rainforest, red list, temperate forest, tree, argentina, chile, los rios [chile], valdivia0012-9658Alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides (Molina) I.M. Johnst., Cupressaceae), known as Lahuan by the Mapuche people, is the most iconic endemic conifer of southern Chile and adjacent Argentina (Fig. 1). It can reach monumental dimensions (up to 5 m in diameter and over 50 m in height) and has remarkable longevity (Lara et al. 1999, Clement et al. 2001, Donoso‐Zeggers 2006, Urrutia‐Jalabert et al. 2015). The oldest alerce tree recorded is over 3,600 years old, making this species the second longest‐lived tree in the world after the North American Bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D. K. Bailey) (Lara and Villalba 1993).http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ecy.2584e02584vol. is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos; Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Collins, James A.; Lamy, Frank; Kaiser, Jérôme; Ruggieri, Nicoletta; Henkel, Susann; De Pol‐Holz, Ricardo; Garreaud, René; Arz, Helge W.Centennial‐Scale SE Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Variability Over the Past 2,300 YearsPaleoceanography and Paleoclimatologyclimate change, convection, cooling, el nino-southern oscillation, holocene, medieval warm period, reconstruction, sea ice, sea surface temperature, pacific ocean, pacific ocean (southeast), southern ocean, weddell sea2572-4517Detailed temperature reconstructions over the past 2,000 years are important for contextualizing modern climate change. The midlatitude SE Pacific is a key region in this regard in terms of understanding the climatic linkages between the tropics and southern high latitudes. Multicentennial timescale temperature variability remains, however, poorly understood, due to a lack of long, high-temporal-resolution temperature records from this region and from the southern high latitudes in general. We present a unique alkenone sea surface temperature (SST) record from 44°S on the southern Chilean margin in the SE Pacific spanning the last 2,300 years at decadal resolution. The record displays relatively large changes including a cooling transition from 14 to 12.5 °C between 1,100 and 600 cal yr BP, in line with other Chile margin SST records and coeval with Antarctic cooling. This cooling is attributable to reduced Southern Ocean deep convection, driven by a late Holocene sea-ice increase in the Weddell Sea associated with increased El-Niño Southern Oscillation variability. Superimposed on the late Holocene cooling, we observe multicentennial timescale SST variability, including relatively cool SSTs (12.5 °C) from 950 to 500 cal yr BP, corresponding to the Medieval Climate Anomaly, and warmer SSTs (13 °C) from 500 to 200 cal yr BP, corresponding to the Little Ice Age. These oscillations may reflect either multicentennial internal variability of the Southern Ocean deep convection and/or multicentennial variability in the phasing of El-Niño Southern Oscillation and Southern Annular Mode events. ©2019. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2018PA003465vol. is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Altamirano, Adison; Miranda, Alejandro; Meli, Paula; Dehennin, Joris; Muys, Bart; Prado, Marco; Catalán, Germán; Smith-Ramírez, Cecilia; Bustamante-Sánchez, Marcela; Lisón, Fulgencio; María Rey-Benayas, JoséSpatial congruence among indicators of recovery completeness in a Mediterranean forest landscape: Implications for planning large-scale restorationEcological Indicatorsboosted regression tree, landscape forest restoration, natural regeneration, restoration indicator, vegetation recovery, cost effectiveness, recovery, reforestation, restoration, boosted regression trees, environmental gradient, environmental variables, forest restoration, geo-spatial informations, natural regeneration, quadratic mean diameter, vegetation recovery, conservation, basal area, diameter, forest ecosystem, mediterranean environment, plantation, regeneration, restoration ecology, seedling emergence, spatial analysis, species richness, chile1470-160XNatural regeneration has been proposed as a cost-effective forest restoration approach for both small and largescale initiatives. However, attributes for assessing the success of forest restoration through natural regeneration may vary among them in spatial patterns depending on the scale of analysis and on environmental gradients. Here we analysed the spatial patterns of recovery completeness (i.e. how similar attributes in restored forests are to the same attributes in reference forests) in response to environmental factors in a Mediterranean forest landscape of Central Chile. We evaluated (1) forest recovery completeness using basal area (BA), quadratic mean diameter (QMD), adult species density (ASD), adult species richness (ASR), and seedling species richness (SSR); (2) the spatial congruence of recovery completeness estimated by each of these indicators; and (3) the environmental factors potentially shaping these spatial patterns. We used field measurements and geospatial information sources to quantify and predict indicator responses by fitting boosted regression tree models. To assess the spatial congruence of predictions we overlaid high-level recovery completeness values for all indicators. Overall recovery completeness in the study area was 72.7%, suggesting positive prospects for attaining fully restored forests. Recovery completeness had a resulted higher for diversity (92.3%−99.6%) than structural forest attributes (33.5%−76.9%); however, spatial congruence among recovery indicators was low due to the uneven spatial responses of each indicator. The maximum potential spatial congruence was<10%, and was predicted only by two environmental variables (soil bulk density and slope). Our results suggest that low spatial congruence among forest recovery indicators may hinder the monitoring of restoration at large scales. The implications of such divergence in defining restoration success can be enormous given the current global challenge of forest restoration. Although our research was tested in a threatened region of global importance, our results may have wider significance for restoration planning providing cautionary notes and recommendations for the appropriate use of forest recovery indicators when monitoring large-scale restoration projects.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1470160X19302274752-759vol.102.0 is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Moreno, Karen; Bostelmann, Juan Enrique; Macías, Cintia; Navarro-Harris, Ximena; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Pino, MarioA late Pleistocene human footprint from the Pilauco archaeological site, northern Patagonia, ChilePLOS ONEcarbon 14, adult, ape, article, artifact, chile, demography, digit (body part), foot, fossil, hallux, human, morphology, radiometric dating, sedimentology, stratigraphy, walking speed1932-6203The present study describes the discovery of a singular sedimentary structure corresponding to an ichnite that was excavated at the paleo-archaeological site Pilauco (Osorno, Chile). The trace fossil is associated with megafauna bones, plant material and unifacial lithic tools. Here we present a detailed analysis of the Pilauco ichnite and associated sedimentary structures, as well as new radiocarbon data. The ichnological analysis confidently assigns the trace to the ichnospecies Hominipes modernus—a hominoid footprint usually related to Homo sapiens. Some particular characteristics of the Pilauco trace include an elongated distal hallux, lateral digit impressions obliterated by the collapsed sediment, and sediment lumps inside and around the trace. In order to evaluate the origin of the ichnite, trackmaking experiments are performed on re-hydrated fossil bed sediments. The results demonstrate that a human agent could easily generate a footprint morphology equivalent to the sedimentary structure when walking on a saturated substrate. Based on the evidence, we conclude that the trackmaker might well have been a bare-footed adult human. This finding, along with the presence of lithic artifacts in the same sedimentary levels, might represent further evidence for a pre-Clovis South American colonization of northern Patagonia, as originally proposed for the nearby Monte Verde site.http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0213572e0213572vol.14.0 is.4.0Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Lopatin, Javier; Kattenborn, Teja; Galleguillos, Mauricio; Perez-Quezada, Jorge F.; Schmidtlein, SebastianUsing aboveground vegetation attributes as proxies for mapping peatland belowground carbon stocksRemote Sensing of Environmentbelowground carbon stocks, hyperspectral, pls path modeling, random forests, sem, uav, vegetation attributes, carbon, climate change, decision trees, remote sensing, scanning electron microscopy, unmanned aerial vehicles (uav), wetlands, anthropogenic impacts, carbon stocks, floristic compositions, hyperspectral, path models, random forests, structural equation modeling, structural information, vegetation, aboveground biomass, allometry, belowground biomass, carbon sequestration, mapping method, path analysis, peatland, spectral analysis, unmanned vehicle, vegetation cover, tracheophyta0344-257Peatlands are key reservoirs of belowground carbon (C) and their monitoring is important to assess the rapid changes in the C cycle caused by climate change and direct anthropogenic impacts. Frequently, information of peatland area and vegetation type estimated by remote sensing has been used along with soil measurements and allometric functions to estimate belowground C stocks. Despite the accuracy of such approaches, there is still the need to find mappable proxies that enhance predictions with remote sensing data while reducing field and laboratory efforts. Therefore, we assessed the use of aboveground vegetation attributes as proxies to predict peatland belowground C stocks. First, the ecological relations between remotely detectable vegetation attributes (i.e. vegetation height, aboveground biomass, species richness and floristic composition of vascular plants) and belowground C stocks were obtained using structural equation modeling (SEM). SEM was formulated using expert knowledge and trained and validated using in-situ information. Second, the SEM latent vectors were spatially mapped using random forests regressions with UAV-based hyperspectral and structural information. Finally, this enabled us to map belowground C stocks using the SEM functions parameterized with the random forests derived maps. This SEM approach resulted in higher accuracies than a direct application of a purely data-driven random forests approach with UAV data, with improvements of r2 from 0.39 to 0.54, normalized RMSE from 31.33% to 20.24% and bias from −0.73 to 0.05. Our case study showed that: (1) vegetation height, species richness and aboveground biomass are good proxies to map peatland belowground C stocks, as they can be estimated using remote sensing data and hold strong relationships with the belowground C gradient; and (2) SEM is facilitates to incorporate theoretical knowledge in empirical modeling approaches.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0034425719302305111217vol.231.0 is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos; Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Alvarez-Garreton, Camila; Lara, Antonio; Boisier, Juan Pablo; Galleguillos, MauricioThe Impacts of Native Forests and Forest Plantation on Water Supply in ChileForestschile, forest plantation, grassland, land use and land cover change, native forest, ndc, shrubland, water provision, water supply, catchments, decision making, land use, large dataset, reforestation, regression analysis, runoff, chile, forest plantation, grassland, land use and land cover change, native forests, shrublands, water provision, water supply, eucalyptus, pinus radiata1999-4907Over the past 40 years, south-central Chile has experienced important land-use-induced land cover changes, with massive conversion from native forests (NF) to Pinus radiata D.Don and Eucalyptus spp. exotic forest plantations (FP). Several case studies have related this conversion to a reduction in water supply within small catchments (<100 ha). In this work, we explore the impacts of NF and FP on streamflow by using a large-sample catchment dataset recently developed for Chile. We select 25 large forested catchments (>20,000 ha) in south-central Chile (35° S–41° S), analyze their land cover and precipitation spatial distributions, and fit a regression model to quantify the influence of NF, FP, grassland (GRA) and shrubland (SHR) partitions on annual runoff. To assess potential effects of land cover changes on water supply, we use the fitted model (R2 = 0.84) in synthetic experiments where NF, GRA and SHR covers within the catchments are replaced by patches of FP. We show that annual runoff consistently decreases with increments of FP, although the magnitude of the change (ranging from 2.2% to 7.2% mean annual runoff decrease for 10,000 ha increment in FP) depends on several factors, including the initial land cover partition within the basin, the replaced land cover class, the area of the catchment, and the type of catchment (drier or humid). Finally, in the context of the mitigation strategies pledged in the Chilean NDC (Nationally Determined Contributions defined after the Paris Agreement), which include the afforestation of 100,000 ha (mainly native forest) by 2030, we quantify the impacts on water supply due to the afforestation of 100,000 ha with different combinations of NF and FP. We show that annual runoff is highly sensitive to the relative area of FP to NF: ratios of FP to NF areas of 10%, 50% and 90% would lead to 3%, −18% and −40% changes in mean annual runoff, respectively. Our results can be used in the discussion of public policies and decision-making involving forests and land cover changes, as they provide scientifically-based tools to quantify expected impacts on water resources. In particular, this knowledge is relevant for decision making regarding mitigation strategies pledged in the Chilean NDC.https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/10/6/473473vol.10.0 is.6Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Alaniz, Alberto J.; Pérez‐Quezada, Jorge F.; Galleguillos, Mauricio; Vásquez, Alexis E.; Keith, David A.Operationalizing the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems in public policyConservation Lettersassessment criteria, conservation planning, ecosystem conservation, land use planning, policy instruments, prioritization, threatened ecosystems1755-263X, 1755-263XThreats to ecosystems are closely linked to human development, whereas lack, insufficiency, and inefficiency of public policies are important drivers of environmental decline. Previous studies have discussed the contribution of IUCN's Red List of Ecosystems (RLE) in conservation issues; however, its applications in different policy fields and instruments for achieving biodiversity conservation have not been explored in detail. Here, we introduce a framework to operationalize the RLE in public policy, facilitating work of governments, practitioners, and decision makers. Our analysis identified 20 policy instruments that could reduce risks to ecosystems highlighted by different Red List criteria. We discuss how RLE could inform the policy process by analyzing different instruments that could be designed, implemented, and modified to achieve risk reduction. We also present practical examples from around the world showing how ecosystem conservation could be improved by operationalizing the RLE in policy instruments. The RLE criteria can inform the policy process by helping to shape objectives and identifying policy instruments that directly address the causes and severity of risks illuminated in Red List assessments. We conclude that RLE could be expanded into a broader holistic spectrum of policy instruments, which could be a key to achieving the ecosystem conservation.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/conl.12665vol. is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Miranda, Alejandro; Vásquez, Inao A.; Becerra, Pablo; Smith-Ramírez, Cecilia; Delpiano, Cristian A.; Hernández-Moreno, Angela; Altamirano, AdisonTraits of perch trees promote seed dispersal of endemic fleshy-fruit species in degraded areas of endangered Mediterranean ecosystemsJournal of Arid Environmentsbird seed dispersal, chilean sclerophyllous forests, forest restoration, seed rain1401-963The presence and attributes of perch trees in degraded areas may promote seed dispersal. We evaluated the effect of the distance from remnant forest fragments on seed rain of different fleshy-fruit tree species and examined whether the seed rain is favoured by some traits of the perch trees (Acacia caven), such as canopy diameter and tree height. The study was carried out in two localities of central Chile with extensive “espinales” adjacent to remnant fragments of sclerophyllous forest. We installed 210 seed traps under the same number of A. caven trees along 10 transects in the two study areas. We set up the seed traps between 1 and 100 m away from forest fragments. We found a significant negative relationship between seed rain and distance. We also found a positive relationship between seed rain and the height and canopy diameter of the perch tree. Our results suggest that different woody species are able to disperse into the espinal, and that bigger A. caven trees are better perches than smaller individuals. We propose that at distances up to at least 100 m from forest fragments, seed availability does not limit natural regeneration into espinales.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0140196319300862103995vol. is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos; Ciudades Resilientes; Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Muñoz, Ariel A.; Klock-Barría, Karin; Sheppard, Paul R.; Aguilera-Betti, Isabella; Toledo-Guerrero, Isadora; Christie, Duncan A.; Gorena, Tamara; Gallardo, Laura; González-Reyes, Álvaro; Lara, Antonio; Lambert, Fabrice; Gayo, Eugenia; Barraza, Francisco; Chávez, Roberto O.Multidecadal environmental pollution in a mega-industrial area in central Chile registered by tree ringsScience of The Total Environmentbaseline, cupressus macrocarpa, dendrochemistry, industrial pollution, trace metals, air quality, aluminum alloys, pollution control, trace elements, trees (mathematics), baseline, dendrochemistry, industrial pollution, macrocarpa, trace metal, forestry, cupressus macrocarpa0048-9697One of the most polluted areas in Chile is the Ventanas Industrial Area (VIA; 32.74°S / 71.48°W), which started in 1958 and today comprises around 16 industries in an area of ca. 4 km2. A lack of consistent long-term instrumental records precludes assessing the history of contamination in the area and also limits the evaluation of mitigation actions taken since the late 1980s. Here, we use dendrochemistry as an environmental proxy to analyze environmental changes over several decades at the VIA. We present chemical measurements of tree rings from planted, exotic Cupressus macrocarpa growing near the VIA with 4-year resolution over a period of 52 years (1960–2011). These data provide unprecedented information on regional anthropogenic pollution and are compared with a tree-ring elemental record of 48 years (1964–2011) from the Isla Negra (INE) control site not exposed to VIA emissions. For the 48 years of overlap between both sites, higher concentrations of Zn, V, Co, Cd, Ag, Fe, Cr, and Al were especially registered after the year 2000 at VIA compared to INE for the periods under study. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, As, Fe, Mo, Cr, and Zn increased through time, particularly over the period 1980–1990. Decontamination plans activated in 1992 appear to have had a positive effect on the amount of some elements, but the chemical concentration in the tree rings suggest continued accumulation of pollutants in the environment. Only after several years of implementation of the mitigation measures have some elements tended to decrease in concentration, especially at the end of the evaluated period. Dendrochemistry is a useful tool to provide a long-term perspective of the dynamics of trace metal pollution and represents a powerful approach to monitor air quality variability to extend the instrumental records back in time.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969719338653133915vol.696.0 is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Agua y Extremos2019Becerra-Rodas, Constanza; Little, Christian; Lara, Antonio; Sandoval, Jorge; Osorio, Sebastián; Nimptsch, JorgeThe Role of Streamside Native Forests on Dissolved Organic Matter in Forested and Agricultural Watersheds in Northwestern PatagoniaForests1999-4907Streamside native forests are known for their key role in water provision, commonly referred to as buffers that control the input or output of nutrients from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems (i.e., nitrogen or carbon cycle). In order to assess the functional role of indigenous forests along streamside channels, we measured 10 parameters associated with DOM (Dissolved Organic Matter) at 42 points in 12 small catchments (15–200 ha) dominated by native forests (reference, WNF), forest plantations (WFP) and agricultural lands (WAL) in which the land cover portion was calculated in the entire watershed and along 30 and 60-m wide buffer strips. We found that watersheds WFP and WAL were statistically different than WNF, according to DIC concentrations (Dissolved Inorganic Carbon) and the intensity of the maximum fluorescence of DOM components. Using linear models, we related streamside native forest coverage in buffer strips with DOM parameters. The increase of streamside native forest coverage in 60 m wide buffer strips (0–100%) was related to lower DIC concentrations (0.89 to 0.28 mg C L−1). In watersheds WFP and WAL, the humic and fulvic-like components (0.42 to 1.42 R.U./mg C L−1) that predominated were related to an increase in streamside native forest coverage in the form of a 60 m wide buffer strip (0–75%). This is evidence that streamside native forests influence outputs of detritus and lowered in-stream processing with concomitant downstream transport, and functional integrity and water quality. We propose that DOM quantity and quality may be a potential tool for the identification of priority areas near streams for conservation and ecological restoration in terms of recovery of water quality as an important ecosystem service. The results of this study are useful to inform policy and regulations about the width of streamside native forests as well as their characteristics and restrictions.https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/10/7/595595vol.10.0 is.7Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Agua y Extremos2020Lara, A.; Villalba, R.; Urrutia-Jalabert, R.; González-Reyes, A.; Aravena, J.C.; Luckman, B.H.; Cuq, E.; Rodríguez, C.; Wolodarsky-Franke, A.+A 5680-year tree-ring temperature record for southern South AmericaQuaternary Science Reviews0277-3791It is widely documented that the Earth’s surface temperatures have increased in recent decades. However, temperature increment patterns are not uniform around the globe, showing different or even contrasting trends. Here we present a mean maximum summer temperature record, based on tree-ring widths, over the past 5682 years (3672BC – 2009AD) for southern South America (SSA), covering from mid-Holocene to the present. This is the longest such record for the Southern Hemisphere (SH), and expands available annual proxy climate records for this region in more than 2060 years. Our record explains 49% of the temperature variation, and documents two major warm periods between 3140–2800BC and 70BC – 150AD, which coincide with the lack of evidence of glacier advances in SSA. Recent decades in the reconstruction (1959–2009) show a warming trend that is not exceptional in the context of the last five millennia. The long-term relationship between our temperature reconstruction and a reconstructed total solar irradiance record, with coinciding cycles at 293, 372, 432–434, 512 and 746 years, indicate a persistent influence of solar forcing on centennial climate variability in SSA. At interannual to interdecadal scales, reconstructed temperature is mainly related to the internal climate variability of the Pacific Ocean, including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and longer oscillations. Our study reveals the need to characterize regional-scale climate variability and its drivers, which in the context of global-scale processes such as anthropogenic warming, interact to modulate local climate affecting humans and ecosystems.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0277379119306924106087vol.228.0 is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Moreira, Francisco; Ascoli, Davide; Safford, Hugh; Adams, Mark; Moreno, Jose Manuel; Pereira, Jose Cardoso; Catry, Filipe; Armesto, Juan; Bond, William J; Gonzalez, Mauro; Curt, Thomas; Koutsias, Nikos; McCaw, Lachlan; Price, Owen; Pausas, Juli; Rigolot, Eric; Stephens, Scott; Tavsanoglu, Cagatay; Vallejo, Ramon; Van Wilgen, Brian; Xanthopoulos, Gavriil; Fernandes, PauloWildfire management in Mediterranean-type regions: paradigm change neededEnvironmental Research Letters1748-9326During the last decades, climate and land use changes led to an increased prevalence of megafires in Mediterranean-type climate regions (MCRs). Here, we argue that current wildfire management policies in MCRs are destined to fail. Focused on fire suppression, these policies largely ignore ongoing climate warming and landscape-scale buildup of fuels. The result is a "firefighting trap" that contributes to ongoing fuel accumulation precluding suppression under extreme fire weather, and resulting in more severe and larger fires. We believe that a "business as usual" approach to wildfire in MCRs will not solve the fire problem, and recommend that policy and expenditures be rebalanced between suppression and mitigation of the negative impacts of fire. This requires a paradigm shift: policy effectiveness should not be primarily measured as a function of area burned (as it usually is), but rather as a function of avoided socio-ecological damage and loss.http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/ab541evol. is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Agua y Extremos2018Alvarez-Garreton, Camila; Mendoza, Pablo A.; Boisier, Juan Pablo; Addor, Nans; Galleguillos, Mauricio; Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio; Lara, Antonio; Puelma, Cristóbal; Cortes, Gonzalo; Garreaud, Rene; McPhee, James; Ayala, AlvaroThe CAMELS-CL dataset: catchment attributes and meteorology for large sample studies – Chile datasetHydrology and Earth System Sciencesarid regions, catchments, remote sensing, reservoirs (water), snow, time series, uncertainty analysis, catchment water balance, hydroclimatic conditions, in-situ measurement, multiple data sources, potential evapotranspiration, precipitation products, regional variation, snow water equivalent, runoff, catchment, climate conditions, data set, headwater, hydrometeorology, land cover, meteorological hazard, precipitation (climatology), streamflow, water budget, chile, camelidae1607-7938We introduce the first catchment dataset for large sample studies in Chile. This dataset includes 516 catchments; it covers particularly wide latitude (17.8 to 55.0°S) and elevation (0 to 6993ma.s.l.) ranges, and it relies on multiple data sources (including ground data, remote-sensed products and reanalyses) to characterise the hydroclimatic conditions and landscape of a region where in situ measurements are scarce. For each catchment, the dataset provides boundaries, daily streamflow records and basin-averaged daily time series of precipitation (from one national and three global datasets), maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, potential evapotranspiration (PET; from two datasets), and snow water equivalent. We calculated hydro-climatological indices using these time series, and leveraged diverse data sources to extract topographic, geological and land cover features. Relying on publicly available reservoirs and water rights data for the country, we estimated the degree of anthropic intervention within the catchments. To facilitate the use of this dataset and promote common standards in large sample studies, we computed most catchment attributes introduced by Addor et al. (2017) in their Catchment Attributes and MEteorology for Large-sample Studies (CAMELS) dataset, and added several others. We used the dataset presented here (named CAMELS-CL) to characterise regional variations in hydroclimatic conditions over Chile and to explore how basin behaviour is influenced by catchment attributes and water extractions. Further, CAMELS-CL enabled us to analyse biases and uncertainties in basin-wide precipitation and PET. The characterisation of catchment water balances revealed large discrepancies between precipitation products in arid regions and a systematic precipitation underestimation in headwater mountain catchments (high elevations and steep slopes) over humid regions. We evaluated PET products based on ground data and found a fairly good performance of both products in humid regions (r > 0.91) and lower correlation (r < 0.76) in hyper-arid regions. Further, the satellite-based PET showed a consistent overestimation of observation-based PET. Finally, we explored local anomalies in catchment response by analysing the relationship between hydrological signatures and an attribute characterising the level of anthropic interventions. We showed that larger anthropic interventions are correlated with lower than normal annual flows, runoff ratios, elasticity of runoff with respect to precipitation, and flashiness of runoff, especially in arid catchments. CAMELS-CL provides unprecedented information on catchments in a region largely underrepresented in large sample studies. This effort is part of an international initiative to create multi-national large sample datasets freely available for the community. CAMELS-CL can be visualised from http://camels.cr2.cl and downloaded from https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.894885.https://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/22/5817/2018/5817-5846vol.22 is.11Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2019Hoyos-Santillan, Jorge; Miranda, Alejandro; Lara, Antonio; Rojas, Maisa; Sepulveda-Jauregui, ArmandoProtecting Patagonian peatlands in ChileScience-0036-8075In their Letter “Seeing Chile's forest for the tree plantations” (27 September, p. 1388), A. P. Durán and O. Barbosa explain how Chile's current proposal for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (1) inadequately addresses forest management with exotic tree plantations. We agree, but we are even more concerned that the proposal overlooks other ecosystems entirely. Chilean Patagonian peatlands cover 3.1 million hectares (2) and contain approximately 4800 million tons of carbon accumulated over 18,000 years (3, 4). This is 4.7 times more carbon than the aboveground biomass of forests in Chile (4, 5). Peat in Chile is classified as a fossil resource, allowing it to be exploited by the Ministry of Mining (6). Chile should invest in the protection of this important ecosystem. Because of the slow peat accumulation in sub-Antarctic regions (less than 1 mm per year) (4), exploitation of peatlands compromises their carbon sequestration capacity, shifting peatlands from net carbon sinks into net carbon sources (7). Protecting Chile's Patagonian peatlands would help the country achieve carbon neutrality by 2050 (8, 9). To protect the peatlands, Chile must end their classification as fossil resources. Instead, Chile should present peatland preservation as part of its greenhouse gas reduction contributions at the 2019 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP25) (now planned for Madrid, Spain, instead of Chile). Patagonian peatlands should also be recognized as overlooked carbon sinks of regional importance in Chile's new Climate Change Law (10).http://www.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/science.aaz92441207-1208vol.366.0 is.6470Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo, Agua y Extremos2019Troncoso, M., Rudloff, V.Tras la huella del Cambio ClimáticoCR2 publicationEl cambio climático es una realidad y Chile no está exento de su amenaza. En la última década se ha observado un aumento generalizado de las temperaturas a nivel global, además de otros eventos y alteraciones climáticas en distintas latitudes del planeta, las que han repercutido desfavorablemente en la población. Esto, sumado a la acelerada extinción de especies en el último siglo, nos muestra lo vulnerable que es la vida frente al cambio climático. Nuestro país también se ha visto afectado con las recientes olas de calor y un prolongado défcit de precipitaciones en gran parte de su territorio, lo cual corresponde a la antesala de las proyecciones climáticas para este fn de siglo. Entonces, ¿cómo será la vida en el futuro cercano? El cambio climático que estamos presenciando ha sido producto de la actividad humana, y afecta tanto a las personas y todas sus actividades, como a los ecosistemas que habitan el planeta. Es entonces fundamental hacernos cargo de este problema como sociedad, y para ello debemos entenderlo, estudiarlo y analizarlo desde distintos ángulos, como es desde las ciencias sociales y ciencias naturales. La presente guía de apoyo educacional busca abordar el cambio climático desde este último punto: las ciencias naturales. Presentación; ¿Por qué hacer esta guía de actividades? La comunidad científca ha sido clave en evidenciar el cambio climático, mostrando los motivos y sus posibles consecuencias. Pero esto no basta, ya que toda la sociedad debe ser partícipe a la hora de actuar en su contra. Luego, las personas deben entender la ciencia en torno al cambio climático, y esto comienza desde lo básico: el método científco. Esta guía es, pues, un viaje hacia la indagación científca dentro del marco del medio ambiente, y es importante que profesores y estudiantes trabajen juntos en este nuevo camino. ¿Por qué Chile es vulnerable al cambio climático? ¿Qué estamos haciendo y qué haremos en el futuro? Son preguntas que se están haciendo cada vez más frecuentes tanto en jóvenes como adultos. Es por tanto ahora el momento de que el aula de clases se vuelva un espacio de conversación sobre el cambio climático, y no solo como un tema de carácter global, sino también dentro la experiencia del entorno próximo. Solo mediante la observación de nuestro contexto, el medio ambiente y nuestra historia, es que como sociedad podremos hacer frente al cambio climático.http://www.cr2.cl/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Tras-la-Huella-del-Cambio-Clima%CC%81tico.pdfpublished onlineNot indexed
Ciudades Resilientes, Cambio de Uso de Suelo, Zonas Costeras, Agua y Extremos, Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política, Transversal2019Gallardo, L., Rudnick, A., Barraza, J., Fleming, Z., Rojas, M., Gayó, E. M., Aguirre, C., Farías, L., Boisier, J. P., Garreaud, R., Barría, P., Miranda, A., Lara, A., Gómez-González, S., Arriagada, R. A.El Antropoceno en Chile: evidencias y formas de avanzarCR2 publicationEn el siglo XXI, el desarrollo de Chile está en juego debido a las amenazas planteadas por el Antropoceno. Esta época se caracteriza por la influencia humana sobre el sistema terrestre. Sin embargo, si se enfrenta con audacia, ofrece una oportunidad para un desarrollo sostenible. Independientemente de si hemos entrado en una nueva era geológica, el Antropoceno cuestiona nuestra forma de vivir en el planeta azul del sistema solar. O, dicho de otra manera, la forma de entender el progreso y el desarrollo. En un país con grandes desigualdades sociales, altamente vulnerable al cambio global, enfrentar este desafío es de crucial importancia y puede ofrecer nuevas oportunidades.http://www.cr2.cl/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Informe-Antropoceno-castellano.pdfpublished onlineNot indexed
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Creed, Irena F.; Jones, Julia A.; Archer, Emma; Claassen, Marius; Ellison, David; McNulty, Steven G.; van Noordwijk, Meine; Vira, Bhaskar; Wei, Xiaohua; Bishop, Kevin; Blanco, Juan A.; Gush, Mark; Gyawali, Dipak; Jobbágy, Esteban; Lara, Antonio; Little, Christian; Martin-Ortega, Julia; Mukherji, Aditi; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Pol, Paola Ovando; Sullivan, Caroline A.; Xu, JianchuManaging Forests for Both Downstream and Downwind WaterFrontiers in Forests and Global Change2624-893Xhttps://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/ffgc.2019.00064/full64vol.2.0 is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Eldridge, David J.; Delgado‐Baquerizo, Manuel; Quero, José L.; Ochoa, Victoria; Gozalo, Beatriz; García‐Palacios, Pablo; Escolar, Cristina; García‐Gómez, Miguel; Prina, Aníbal; Bowker, Mathew A.; Bran, Donaldo E.; Castro, Ignacio; Cea, Alex; Derak, Mchich; Espinosa, Carlos I.; Florentino, Adriana; Gaitán, Juan J.; Gatica, Gabriel M.; Gómez‐González, Susana; Ghiloufi, Wahida; Gutierrez, Julio R.; Guzman, Elizabeth; Hernández, Rosa M.; Hughes, Frederic M.; Muiño, Walter; Monerris, Jorge; Ospina, Abelardo; Ramírez, David A.; Ribas‐Fernández, Yanina A.; Romão, Roberto L.; Torres‐Díaz, Cristian; Koen, Terrance B.; Maestre, Fernando T.Surface indicators are correlated with soil multifunctionality in global drylandsJournal of Applied Ecology0021-8901, 1365-2664Multiple ecosystem functions need to be considered simultaneously to manage and protect the many ecosystem services that are essential to people and their environments. Despite this, cost effective, tangible, relatively simple, and globally‐relevant methodologies to monitor in situ soil multifunctionality, i.e. the provision of multiple ecosystem functions by soils, have not been tested at the global scale. We combined correlation analysis and structural equation modelling to explore whether we could find easily measured, field‐based indicators of soil multifunctionality (measured using functions linked to the cycling and storage of soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus). To do this, we gathered soil data from 120 dryland ecosystems from five continents. Two soil surface attributes measured in situ (litter incorporation and surface aggregate stability) were the most strongly associated with soil multifunctionality, even after accounting for geographic location and other drivers such as climate, woody cover, soil pH and soil electric conductivity. The positive relationships between surface stability and litter incorporation on soil multifunctionality was greater beneath the canopy of perennial vegetation than in adjacent, open areas devoid of vascular plants. The positive associations between surface aggregate stability and soil functions increased with increasing mean annual temperature. Synthesis and applications. Our findings demonstrate that a reduced suite of easily measured in situ soil surface attributes can be used as potential indicators of soil multifunctionality in drylands worldwide. These attributes, which relate to plant litter (origin, incorporation, cover), and surface stability, are relatively cheap and easy to assess with minimal training, allowing operators to sample many sites across widely varying climatic areas and soil types. The correlations of these variables are comparable to the influence of climate or soil, and would allow cost‐effective monitoring of soil multifunctionality under changing land use and environmental conditions. This would provide important information for evaluating the ecological impacts of land degradation, desertification and climate change in drylands worldwide.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1365-2664.135401365-2664.13540vol. is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2020Eldridge, David J.; Delgado‐Baquerizo, Manuel; Quero, José L.; Ochoa, Victoria; Gozalo, Beatriz; García‐Palacios, Pablo; Escolar, Cristina; García‐Gómez, Miguel; Prina, Aníbal; Bowker, Mathew A.; Bran, Donaldo E.; Castro, Ignacio; Cea, Alex; Derak, Mchich; Espinosa, Carlos I.; Florentino, Adriana; Gaitán, Juan J.; Gatica, Gabriel; Gómez‐González, Susana; Ghiloufi, Wahida; Gutierrez, Julio R.; Gusmán-Montalván, Elizabeth; Hernández, Rosa M.; Hughes, Frederic M.; Muiño, Walter; Monerris, Jorge; Ospina, Abelardo; Ramírez, David A.; Ribas‐Fernández, Yanina A.; Romão, Roberto L.; Torres‐Díaz, Cristian; Koen, Terrance B.; Maestre, Fernando T.Surface indicators are correlated with soil multifunctionality in global drylandsJournal of Applied Ecologybias correction, merging, precipitation, precipitation products, random forest, rf-mep, decision trees, precipitation (chemical), rain gages, topography, environmental applications, ground based measurement, probability of detection, random forests, spatiotemporal distributions, rain, algorithm, correction, data set, ground-based measurement, measurement method, model validation, numerical method, precipitation (climatology), raingauge, trmm, uncertainty analysis, chile0021-8901, 1365-2664Multiple ecosystem functions need to be considered simultaneously to manage and protect the several ecosystem services that are essential to people and their environments. Despite this, cost effective, tangible, relatively simple and globally relevant methodologies to monitor in situ soil multifunctionality, that is, the provision of multiple ecosystem functions by soils, have not been tested at the global scale. We combined correlation analysis and structural equation modelling to explore whether we could find easily measured, field-based indicators of soil multifunctionality (measured using functions linked to the cycling and storage of soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus). To do this, we gathered soil data from 120 dryland ecosystems from five continents. Two soil surface attributes measured in situ (litter incorporation and surface aggregate stability) were the most strongly associated with soil multifunctionality, even after accounting for geographic location and other drivers such as climate, woody cover, soil pH and soil electric conductivity. The positive relationships between surface stability and litter incorporation on soil multifunctionality were greater beneath the canopy of perennial vegetation than in adjacent, open areas devoid of vascular plants. The positive associations between surface aggregate stability and soil functions increased with increasing mean annual temperature. Synthesis and applications. Our findings demonstrate that a reduced suite of easily measured in situ soil surface attributes can be used as potential indicators of soil multifunctionality in drylands world-wide. These attributes, which relate to plant litter (origin, incorporation, cover), and surface stability, are relatively cheap and easy to assess with minimal training, allowing operators to sample many sites across widely varying climatic areas and soil types. The correlations of these variables are comparable to the influence of climate or soil, and would allow cost-effective monitoring of soil multifunctionality under changing land-use and environmental conditions. This would provide important information for evaluating the ecological impacts of land degradation, desertification and climate change in drylands world-wide.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1365-2664.13540424-435vol.57 is.2.0Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2020Thalasso, Frédéric; Sepulveda-Jauregui, Armando; Gandois, Laure; Martinez-Cruz, Karla; Gerardo-Nieto, Oscar; Astorga-España, María S.; Teisserenc, Roman; Lavergne, Céline; Tananaev, Nikita; Barret, Maialen; Cabrol, LéaSub-oxycline methane oxidation can fully uptake CH4 produced in sediments: case study of a lake in SiberiaScientific Reports2045-2322It is commonly assumed that methane (CH4) released by lakes into the atmosphere is mainly produced in anoxic sediment and transported by diffusion or ebullition through the water column to the surface of the lake. In contrast to that prevailing idea, it has been gradually established that the epilimnetic CH4 does not originate exclusively from sediments but is also locally produced or laterally transported from the littoral zone. Therefore, CH4 cycling in the epilimnion and the hypolimnion might not be as closely linked as previously thought. We utilized a high-resolution method used to determine dissolved CH4 concentration to analyze a Siberian lake in which epilimnetic and hypolimnetic CH4 cycles were fully segregated by a section of the water column where CH4 was not detected. This layer, with no detected CH4, was well below the oxycline and the photic zone and thus assumed to be anaerobic. However, on the basis of a diffusion-reaction model, molecular biology, and stable isotope analyses, we determined that this layer takes up all the CH4 produced in the sediments and the deepest section of the hypolimnion. We concluded that there was no CH4 exchange between the hypolimnion (dominated by methanotrophy and methanogenesis) and the epilimnion (dominated by methane lateral transport and/or oxic production), resulting in a vertically segregated lake internal CH4 cycle.http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-60394-83423vol.10 is.1.0Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2020Fuentes‐Ramirez, Andres; Salas‐Eljatib, Christian; González, Mauro E; Urrutia‐Estrada, Jonathan; Arroyo‐Vargas, Paola; Santibañez, PabloInitial response of understorey vegetation and tree regeneration to a mixed‐severity fire in old‐growth Araucaria–Nothofagus forestsApplied Vegetation Scienceabundance, araucaria araucana, nothofagus pumilio, plant diversity, post-fire vegetation recovery, severity gradient, spatial distribution, species richness1402-2001, 1654-109XQuestions: Fire is a key factor influencing Araucaria araucana forests, but the impact of fire severity on the understorey vegetation is not well understood. In this study we seek to answer the following questions: (a) how do initial plant diversity, composition and spatial distribution of the understorey vegetation change in response to different levels of fire severity; and (b) does the abundance of dominant tree species exhibit different patterns across a fire severity gradient shortly after fire?. Location: Old-growth Araucaria araucana–Nothofagus pumilio forests in the Andes of south-central Chile (38° S, 71° W) burned in 2015. Methods: We evaluated the post-fire plant regeneration across a fire severity gradient ranging from unburned forests to areas of high fire severity. One year after fire (in February 2016), we measured woody and herbaceous species richness, abundance, height, origin (native vs exotic species), life forms and the spatial pattern of plant recovery. Results: Plant species richness and abundance were significantly higher within the unburned forest and low fire severity areas one year after fire, compared to areas of high and moderate fire severity. Overall, nearly 50% of the species present in the unburned forest were not found in areas of high severity, including the tree Nothofagus pumilio. Rapid vegetative resprouting of pioneer species such as Chusquea culeou resulted in an aggregated spatial distribution of plants after fire. Conclusions: Plant diversity and the abundance of Araucaria araucana and Nothofagus pumilio were reduced in areas of high fire severity one year after fire. Exotic species were more abundant within areas of low severity, being likely mediated by cattle browsing. Our research makes clear the potential changes in forest composition and structure if dominant tree species are not capable of recovering after fire. We recommend the exclusion of cattle within fire-affected areas and planting Nothofagus pumilio in areas of high fire severity. © 2020 International Association for Vegetation Sciencehttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/avsc.12479avsc.12479vol.in press is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2020Vásquez-Lavín, Felipe; Vargas O, Leonardo; Hernández, José I.; Ponce Oliva, Roberto D.Water demand in the Chilean manufacturing industry: Analysis of the economic value of water and demand elasticitiesWater Resources and Economics22124284In this article, we estimate both the economic value of water and own-price and cross-price elasticities of water for the Chilean manufacturing industry using the production function approach. Estimating the production function allows us to estimate the marginal productivity of water which corresponds to its economic value. Our estimations are based on panel data obtained from the National Industrial Survey for the period 1995–2014, accounting for more than 10,000 industrial plants. We use a translog specification for the production function, considering water, capital, labor, energy, and intermediate material as explanatory variables. We find substitution patterns among most inputs, except for energy and water, which are found to be complements. Our results suggest that the manufacturing sector is characterized by an elastic water demand, with an average economic value of water of 8.071 [USD/m3]. Based on our findings, there is room to increase water prices in most sectors without affecting the competitiveness of firms. Knowing the economic value of water and its price elasticity could help policymakers to design water policies that promote more efficient use of this scarce resource.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212428420300049100159vol.in press is.Thomson Reuters ISI