Línea de investigación:

Cambio de uso de suelo

Los cambios de uso de suelo, como la conversión de ecosistemas no perturbados a paisajes extractivos y la consiguiente alteración de los regímenes de fuego natural, han contribuido considerablemente al cambio global. Estos cambios han producido impactos sobre la biodiversidad, la estructura y función del ecosistema, los servicios ecosistémicos y su disponibilidad, así como la proliferación de especies exóticas de animales y plantas, lo que resulta en la homogeneización de la biósfera.

El centro y sur de Chile ha experimentado dichos cambios en los últimos 40 años. El patrón dominante ha sido la conversión de bosques nativos a plantaciones forestales exóticas de pino y eucalipto que se extienden sobre un total de 2,75 millones de hectáreas. Esta región del país es un valioso caso de estudio para la investigación sobre los forzantes y los impactos del cambio de uso de suelo, sus interacciones y modelado y predicción.

La línea de investigación trabajará en el diseño de paisajes diversificados para reemplazar estas áreas homogéneas, incluyendo múltiples categorías de cambio de uso de suelo desde una perspectiva de cuenca con el fin de garantizar la producción combinada de bienes y servicios ecosistémicos. También se presentarán evaluaciones de costos para proyectos de restauración basados ​​en la conversión de plantaciones forestales a bosques nativos.

Todo este conocimiento será crucial para orientar a los toma de decisiones y así garantizar el progreso hacia paisajes más resistentes y resilientes. El desafío específico de comprender los incendios, sus forzamientos, regímenes e impactos, y la relevancia de este tema para política pública, brinda una oportunidad única para producir resultados que puedan ser aplicables a otros problemas y otras regiones.

INVESTIGADOR PRINCIPAL

CO-INVESTIGADOR PRINCIPAL

INVESTIGADORES ASOCIADOS

INVESTIGADORES ADJUNTOS

INVESTIGADOR POSTDOCTORAL

INVESTIGADORA COLABORADORA

ESTUDIANTES

Nombre Apellido
Andrea Leiva
Andrés Ceballos Comisso
Angela Bustos Salazar
Camila Molina González
Celeste Estrella Soto Uribe
Cristobal Puelma Jirón
Dagoberto Poblete
David Banda
Eduardo Mattos
Elda Brant
Elizabeth Ramírez Zamorano
Estefanía Pizarro
Fernando Gimeno Molina
Francisco Díaz
Francisco Enrique Tello Arriagada
Humberto Bernasconi Muñoz
Javiera Chahúan Pérez
Javiera Andrea Wiehoff Matus
Lorenzo Palma
Marco Aurelio Cortés Bianchi
Matias Maximiliano Quiroz Farías
Mauricio Montiel
Nicole Burger Acevedo
Paulina Riquelme Ocampo
Santiago Ancapichún Hernández
Tania Jaclyn Gipoulou Zúñiga
Victor Merino Campos
Victoria Hernández Urrutia

Noticias relacionadas al tema

Línea de InvestigaciónAñoAutoresTítuloRevistaFicha de PublicaciónDOIAbstractAccesoPáginasVolumenIndex
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Castillo-Riffart, Ivan; Galleguillos, Mauricio; Lopatin, Javier; Perez-Quezada, J. F.Predicting Vascular Plant Diversity in Anthropogenic Peatlands: Comparison of Modeling Methods with Free Satellite DataRemote Sensing10.3390/rs9070681Peatlands are ecosystems of great relevance, because they have an important number of ecological functions that provide many services to mankind. However, studies focusing on plant diversity, addressed from the remote sensing perspective, are still scarce in these environments. In the present study, predictions of vascular plant richness and diversity were performed in three anthropogenic peatlands on Chiloé Island, Chile, using free satellite data from the sensors OLI, ASTER, and MSI. Also, we compared the suitability of these sensors using two modeling methods: random forest (RF) and the generalized linear model (GLM). As predictors for the empirical models, we used the spectral bands, vegetation indices and textural metrics. Variable importance was estimated using recursive feature elimination (RFE). Fourteen out of the 17 predictors chosen by RFE were textural metrics, demonstrating the importance of the spatial context to predict species richness and diversity. Non-significant differences were found between the algorithms; however, the GLM models often showed slightly better results than the RF. Predictions obtained by the different satellite sensors did not show significant differences; nevertheless, the best models were obtained with ASTER (richness: R2 = 0.62 and %RMSE = 17.2, diversity: R2 = 0.71 and %RMSE = 20.2, obtained with RF and GLM respectively), followed by OLI and MSI. Diversity obtained higher accuracies than richness; nonetheless, accurate predictions were achieved for both, demonstrating the potential of free satellite data for the prediction of relevant community characteristics in anthropogenic peatland ecosystems. © 2017 by the authors.http://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/9/7/681681Vol.9 is.7Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos; Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Garreaud, R., Alvarez-Garreton, C., Barichivich, J., Boisier, J. P., Christie, D., Galleguillos, M., LeQuesne, C., McPhee, J., Zambrano-Bigiarini, M.The 2010-2015 mega drought in Central Chile: Impacts on regional hydroclimate and vegetationHydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions10.5194/hess-2017-191Since 2010 an uninterrupted sequence of dry years, with annual rainfall deficits ranging from 25 to 45 %, has prevailed in Central Chile (western South America, 30–38° S). Although intense 1- or 2-year droughts are recurrent in this Mediterranean-like region, the ongoing event stands out because of its longevity and large spatial extent. The extraordinary character of the so-called Central Chile Mega Drought (MD) was established against century long historical records and a millennial tree-ring reconstruction of regional precipitation. The largest MD-averaged rainfall relative anomalies occurred in the northern, semi-arid sector of central Chile but the event was unprecedented to the south of 35° S. ENSO neutral conditions have prevailed since 2011 (but for the strong El Niño 2015) contrasting with La Niña conditions that often accompanied past droughts. The precipitation deficit diminished the Andean snowpack and resulted in amplified declines (up to 90 %) of river flow, reservoir volumes and groundwater levels along central Chile and westernmost Argentina. In some semiarid basins we also found a conspicuous decrease in the runoff-to-rainfall coefficient. A substantial decrease in vegetation productivity occurred in the shrubland-dominated, northern sector, but a mix of greening and browning patches occurred farther south where irrigated croplands and exotic forest plantations dominate. The ongoing warming in central Chile, making the MD one of the warmest 6-year period on record, may have also contributed to such complex vegetation changes by increasing potential evapotranspiration. The understanding of the nature and biophysical impacts of the MD contributes to preparedness efforts to face a dry, warm future regional climate scenario.https://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/hess-2017-191/1-37Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Gómez-González, S., Paula, S., Cavieres L.A., Pausas, J.Postfire responses of the woody flora of Central Chile: insights from a germination experimentPloS One10.1371/journal.pone.0180661Fire is a selective agent shaping plant traits and community assembly in fire-prone ecosystems. However, in ecosystems with no fire history, it can be a cause of land degradation when it is suddenly introduced by humans, as plant species may not be able to respond to such novel disturbance. Unlike other Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTE) of the world, natural fires have not been frequent during the Quaternary in the matorral of Central Chile, and thus, plant adaptive responses are expected to be uncommon. We evaluated the effect of heat shock on seed survival and germination of 21 native woody plants of the Chilean matorral and compiled information on smoke-stimulation and resprouting, to evaluate the importance of fire-adaptive responses in the context of the other MTE. We found that in the Chilean woody flora negative seed responses to fire cues were more frequent than positive responses. Although resprouting is a relatively widespread trait, fire-stimulated germination is not as common in the Chilean matorral as in other MTE. The seeds of seven endemic species were strongly damaged by fire cues and this should be considered in post-fire restoration planning. However, our results also showed that many species were resistant to elevated doses of heat shock and in some, germination was even stimulated. Thus, future research should focus on the evolutionary causes of these responses. These findings could help to develop strategies for fire management in the Chilean matorral. In addition, they will improve our understanding of the evolutionary forces that shaped this plant community and to better frame this region among the other MTE worldwide.http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0180661e0180661vol.12Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Holz, A., Paritsis, J., Mundo, I. A., Veblen, T. T., Kitzberger, T., Williamson, G. J., Aráoz, E., Bustos-Schindler, C., González, M. E., Grau, H. R., Quezada, J. M.Southern Annular Mode drives multicentury wildfire activity in southern South AmericaProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences10.1073/pnas.1705168114The Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is the main driver of climate variability at mid to high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere, affecting wildfire activity, which in turn pollutes the air and contributes to human health problems and mortality, and potentially provides strong feedback to the climate system through emissions and land cover changes. Here we report the largest Southern Hemisphere network of annually resolved tree ring fire histories, consisting of 1,767 fire-scarred trees from 97 sites (from 22 °S to 54 °S) in southern South America (SAS), to quantify the coupling of SAM and regional wildfire variability using recently created multicentury proxy indices of SAM for the years 1531–2010 AD. We show that at interannual time scales, as well as at multidecadal time scales across 37–54 °S, latitudinal gradient elevated wildfire activity is synchronous with positive phases of the SAM over the years 1665–1995. Positive phases of the SAM are associated primarily with warm conditions in these biomass-rich forests, in which widespread fire activity depends on fuel desiccation. Climate modeling studies indicate that greenhouse gases will force SAM into its positive phase even if stratospheric ozone returns to normal levels, so that climate conditions conducive to widespread fire activity in SAS will continue throughout the 21st century. © 2017, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.http://www.pnas.org/lookup/doi/10.1073/pnas.17051681149552-9557vol.36ScIELO
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Joetzjer, E., Pillet, M., Ciais, P., Barbier, N., Chave, J., Schlund, M., Maignan, F., Barichivich, J., Luyssaert, S., Hérault, B., von Poncet, F., Poulter, B.Assimilating satellite-based canopy height within an ecosystem model to estimate aboveground forest biomassGeophysical Research Letters10.1002/2017GL074150Despite advances in Earth observation and modeling, estimating tropical biomass remains a challenge. Recent work suggests that integrating satellite measurements of canopy height within ecosystem models is a promising approach to infer biomass. We tested the feasibility of this approach to retrieve aboveground biomass (AGB) at three tropical forest sites by assimilating remotely sensed canopy height derived from a texture analysis algorithm applied to the high-resolution Pleiades imager in the Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems Canopy (ORCHIDEE-CAN) ecosystem model. While mean AGB could be estimated within 10% of AGB derived from census data in average across sites, canopy height derived from Pleiades product was spatially too smooth, thus unable to accurately resolve large height (and biomass) variations within the site considered. The error budget was evaluated in details, and systematic errors related to the ORCHIDEE-CAN structure contribute as a secondary source of error and could be overcome by using improved allometric equations.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2017GL0741506823-6832vol.44Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes2017McRostie, V. B., Gayo, E. M., Santoro, C. M., De Pol-Holz, R., Latorre, C.The pre-Columbian introduction and dispersal of Algarrobo (Prosopis, Section Algarobia) in the Atacama Desert of northern ChilePloS One10.1371/journal.pone.0181759Archaeological and palaeoecological studies throughout the Americas have documented widespread landscape and environmental transformation during the pre-Columbian era. The highly dynamic Formative (or Neolithic) period in northern Chile (ca. 3700–1550 yr BP) brought about the local establishment of agriculture, introduction of new crops (maize, quinoa, manioc, beans, etc.) along with a major population increase, new emergent villages and technological innovations. Even trees such as the Algarrobos (Prosopis section Algarobia) may have been part of this transformation. Here, we provide evidence that these species were not native to the Atacama Desert of Chile (18–27S), appearing only in the late Holocene and most likely due to human actions. We assembled a database composed of 41 taxon specific AMS radiocarbon dates from archaeobotanical and palaeoecological records (rodent middens, leaf litter deposits), as well an extensive bibliographical review comprising archaeobotanical, paleoecological, phylogenetic and taxonomic data to evaluate the chronology of introduction and dispersal of these trees. Although Algarrobos could have appeared as early as 4200 yr BP in northernmost Chile, they only became common throughout the Atacama over a thousand years later, during and after the Formative period. Cultural and natural factors likely contributed to its spread and consolidation as a major silvicultural resource.
http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181759e0181759vol.12Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Ortega-Solís, G., Díaz, I., Mellado-Mansilla, D., Tello, F., Moreno, R., Tejo, C.Ecosystem engineering by Fascicularia bicolor in the canopy of the South-American temperate rainforestForest Ecology and Management10.1016/j.foreco.2017.06.020Ecosystem engineers are organisms that modify habitats and resource flows, they therefore could have a disproportionate impact on the diversity of ecological communities. Evidence suggests that trash basket epiphytes (TBE) can be considered ecosystem engineers of forest canopies, due to their relationship with arboreal soil availability and treetop communities. Here we evaluated whether the TBE Fascicularia bicolor (Bromeliaceae), modulates temperature and humidity in the forest canopy. We also investigated if this bromeliad is related with greater arboreal soil accumulation and is associated to higher diversity of other epiphytic plants and invertebrates in the canopy of the South-American temperate rainforest (SATR), in Chile. We measured temperature and humidity in ten trees within the forest before and after the experimental addition of F. bicolor. We also related the presence of F. bicolor with occurrence of soil macrofauna and other canopy dwelling plants in a comparative field survey. Temperature variability in the canopy was reduced by F. bicolor. Soil availability was higher in siteswith mats of F. bicolor. The richness of vascular epiphytes was unaltered by the presence of F. bicolor,but species composition differed between sites with and without mats on each tree. At the group level,the cover of lichens and bryophytes was greater in sites without F. bicolor, while vascular epiphytes showa larger cover in sites with F. bicolor. The species richness of invertebrates increased in treetop sites colonized by F. bicolor but species composition was not different from soil in branch bifurcations. Our resultsshow that F. bicolor must be considered in forest management practices to determine which trees must belogged, in order to preserve the viability of populations of these key organisms in the treetops of South-American temperate rainforests.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378112717302074417-428Vol.400Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Osborn, T. J., Barichivich, J., Harris, I., van der Schrier, G., & Jones, P. D
Monitoring global drought using the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index.

State of the Climate 2016, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
10.1175/2017BAMSStateoftheClimate.1
http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/10.1175/2017BAMSStateoftheClimate.1S32-S33
vol.98Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes2017Osorio, D., Steele, J., Sepúlveda, M., Gayo, E. M., Capriles, J. M., Herrera, K., Ugalde, P., De Pol-Holz, R., Latorre, C., Santoro, C. M.The Dry Puna as an ecological megapatch and the peopling of South America: Technology, mobility, and the development of a late Pleistocene/early Holocene Andean hunter-gatherer tradition in northern ChileQuaternary International10.1016/j.quaint.2017.07.010Current scientific evidence shows that humans colonized South America at least 15,000 years ago, but there are still many unknown aspects of this process, including the major and minor migratory routes involved, and the pattern of successive occupation of a diverse continental mosaic of ecosystems. In this context, the role of the Andean highlands (3400 meters above sea level) has been neglected, because of the supposedly harsh conditions for humans including hypoxia and cold climate. Nevertheless, the environmental and cultural resources available in the high Andes constitutes an important “megapatch” that should be assessed in terms of human settlement patterns. We review the evidence for late Pleistocene/early Holocene hunter-gatherer occupation of one part of this megapatch, the northern Chilean Dry Puna, in its palaeoecological context. We focus on lithic technology, faunal remains, radiocarbon dates, and other archaeological materials related to different social activities, which allow us to suggest that groups of hunter-gatherers organized and adapted their way of life to highland ecosystems through logistical mobility, and curatorial strategies for lithic tool kits that included projectile points and other formalized tools. The morphology and technological processes involved are recognized over vast territories along the high Andes. We identify this material expression as the high south central Andean Archaic hunter-gatherer tradition, which also featured long distance mobile settlement systems and communication processes over this broad and distinct megapatch. More speculatively, we outline the hypothesis that these highland ecosystems constituted a suitable migratory route that may have been key for the early peopling of the continent, and contrast it with the alternative hypothesis of the initially secondary and seasonally intermittent exploitation of this habitat by hunter-gatherers dispersing along the Pacific coastal corridor.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1040618216312368vol. in pressThomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos, Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Puchi, P., Muñoz, A. A., González, M. E., Abarzúa, A., Araya, K., Towner, R., Fitzek, R., Holz, A., Stahle, D.Potencial de los anillos de crecimiento de Pilgerodendron uviferum para el estudio histórico de las Iglesias de Chiloé, Patrimonio de la HumanidadBosque10.4067/S0717-92002017000100012Las iglesias de Chiloé son antiguas estructuras de madera reconocidas patrimonio de la humanidad por la UNESCO. Gran parte de su historia de construcción y reparaciones aún se desconoce. Considerando que muchas de las iglesias de Chiloé fueron construidas utilizando madera de Pilgerodendron uviferum, el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el potencial de esta especie para datar piezas de madera de dos de estas históricas construcciones: las iglesias de Vilupulli e Ichuac. En Vilupulli se dataron piezas de 311 y 181 años provenientes de los pilares de la torre. Estas piezas fueron fechadas con cronologías de ancho de anillos de P. uviferum cercanas a las dos iglesias. También utilizando estas cronologías se dataron piezas de 79, 89, 97 y 135 años obtenidas a partir de los pilotes que sostienen el piso de la iglesia de Ichuac. Considerando que Vilupulli fue construida a principios del siglo XX, es posible que las muestras de la torre que presentaron fechas cercanas a 1918, sean parte del proceso tardío de construcción de la iglesia o de una restauración posterior. Por su parte, Ichuac fue construida a finales del siglo XIX, por lo que las piezas del piso que dataron entre 19201929, formarían parte de una posible restauración no descrita previamente en archivos históricos, la cual pudo ocurrir incluso varios años posterior a la fecha del anillo más reciente encontrado en las piezas estudiadas. Se concluye que P. uviferum tiene alto potencial para estudios históricos en estructuras patrimoniales en el sur de Chile.http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-92002017000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en109-121vol.38Thomson Reuters ISI
Ciudades Resilientes; Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Santoro, C. M., Gayo, E. M., Carter, C., Standen, V. G., Castro, V., Valenzuela, D., De Pol-Holz, R., Marquet, P. A., Latorre, C.Loco or no Loco? Holocene Climatic Fluctuations, Human Demography, and Community Based Management of Coastal Resources in Northern ChileFrontiers in Earth Science10.3389/feart.2017.00077The abundance of the southern Pacific mollusk loco (Concholepas concholepas), among other conspicuous marine supplies, are often cited as critical resources behind the long-term cultural and demographic fluctuations of prehistoric hunter-gatherers in the coastal Atacama Desert. These societies inhabited one of the world’s most productive marine environments flanked by one the world’s driest deserts. Both of these environments have witnessed significant ecological variation since people first colonized themat the end of the Pleistocene (c. 13,000 cal yr BP). Here, we examine the relationship between the relative abundance of shellfish (a staple resource) along a 9,500-year sequence of archeological shell midden accumulations at Caleta (a small inlet or cove) Vitor, with past demographic trends (established via summed probability distributions of radiocarbon ages) and technological innovations together with paleoceanographic data on past primary productivity. We find that shellfish extraction varied considerably from one cultural period to the next in terms of the number of species and their abundance, with diversity increasing during periods of regionally decreased productivity. Such shifts in consumption patterns are considered community based management decisions, and for the most part they were synchronous with large and unusual regional demographic fluctuations experienced by prehistoric coastal societies in northern Chile. When taken together with their technological innovations, our data illustrates how these human groups tailored their socio-cultural patterns to what were often abrupt and prolonged environmental changes throughout the Holocene.http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/feart.2017.00077/fullvol.5Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos; Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Simi, E., Moreno, P. I., Villa-Martínez, R., Vilanova, I., de Pol-Holz, R.Climate change and resilience of deciduous Nothofagus forests in central-east Chilean Patagonia over the last 3200 years: RESILIENCE OF DECIDUOUS NOTHOFAGUS FORESTS IN PATAGONIAJournal of Quaternary Science10.1002/jqs.2948We examine the response of Nothofagus forests to climate change and disturbance regimes over the last 3200 years near Coyhaique (45°S), central–east Chilean Patagonia, using fine‐resolution pollen and charcoal records from lake sediment cores. Closed‐canopy deciduous Nothofagus forests have dominated the region with little variation until the arrival of Chilean–European settlers, suggesting a predominance of cool‐temperate and wet conditions. Within this state we identify centennial‐scale episodes of forest fragmentation, increase in littoral macrophytes and volcanic/paleofire disturbance between 2700 and 3000 cal a BP, 2200 and 2500 cal a BP and over the last ∼250 years, which we interpret as intervals with negative hydrologic balance. Natural variability caused little impact on the physiognomy and composition of the vegetation in pre‐European time, in contrast to the accelerated shift that started during the late 19th century associated with deforestation, homogenization and synchronization of ecosystem changes at the landscape level, and spread of exotic plant species brought by Chilean and European settlers during a warm/dry interval. The resilience of deciduous Nothofagus forests to natural disturbance regimes and climate change was exceeded by large‐scale human disturbance since the late 19th century by fire, timber exploitation and livestock grazing. These disturbances caused an ecosystem shift towards artificial meadows and scrublands with frequent high‐magnitude fires.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jqs.2948845-856vol.32 is.6Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Assal,T. J., González, M. E., Sibold, J. S.Burn severity controls on postfire Araucaria-Nothofagus regeneration in the Andean CordilleraJournal of Biogeography10.1111/jbi.13428Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate postfire regeneration patterns of Araucaria-Nothofagus forests on the west slope of the Andes; to evaluate the relationship between remotely sensed burn severity and forest mortality; and to assess controls of burn severity on forest response at local spatio-temporal scales. Location: Araucanía region in the western Andean Range of south-central Chile where fire occurred during the 2001–2002 season. Methods: Sampling of prefire stand structure and postfire vegetation response was performed along a burn severity gradient a decade after the fire. We evaluated the relationship between field-measured tree mortality and satellite-derived burn severity using a generalized linear model. We fit zero-inflated mixture models to regeneration data of each genus to assess the importance of abiotic variables, stand characteristics, and biotic interactions. Results: The relative version of the delta Normalized Burn Ratio explained 85% of the variability in canopy mortality. Nearly 12,000 hectares burned; the majority at high severity (67%). Regeneration densities of both genera were lower at higher levels of burn severity and higher with greater total basal area (live, dead, and down trees). The relative effect size of burn severity on regeneration was nearly twice as large for Nothofagus, which suggests information legacies of Araucaria have cascading effects on postdisturbance material legacies. Main conclusions: Araucaria-Nothofagus mortality from wildfire can be readily mapped using satellite-derived burn severity. Although environmental site characteristics and biotic interactions mediate regeneration, basal area, and burn severity are the main mechanisms controlling regeneration. Forest refugia and postfire regeneration are vulnerable to recurrent fire. Therefore, we expect future fire (either increased severity or frequency), driven by landscape level changes, as a potential mechanism that can reduce local resilience of these forests as initial postfire material legacies (e.g., refugia and regeneration) are removed from the landscape. Our findings highlight an approach to quantify important attributes of forest disturbance and refugia, and identify areas for monitoring postdisturbance regeneration as the forests throughout south-central Chile and Argentina face a multitude of potential change agents.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jbi.13428Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Barichivich, J., Gloor, E., Peylin, P., Brienen, R. J. W., Schöngart, J., Espinoza, J. C., Pattnayak, K. C.Recent intensification of Amazon flooding extremes driven by strengthened Walker circulationScience Advances10.1126/sciadv.aat8785The Amazon basin is the largest watershed on Earth. Although the variability of the Amazon hydrological cycle has been increasing since the late 1990s, its underlying causes have remained elusive. We use water levels in the Amazon River to quantify changes in extreme events and then analyze their cause. Despite continuing research emphasis on droughts, the largest change over recent decades is a marked increase in very severe floods. Increased flooding is linked to a strengthening of the Walker circulation, resulting from strong tropical Atlantic warming and tropical Pacific cooling. Atlantic warming due to combined anthropogenic and natural factors has contributed to enhance the change in atmospheric circulation. Whether this anomalous increase in flooding will last depends on the evolution of the tropical inter-ocean temperature difference.http://advances.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/sciadv.aat8785eaat8785vol.4 is.9Thomson Reuters ISI
Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política, Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Gallardo, L., Barraza, F., Ceballos, A., Galleguillos, M., Huneeus, N., Lambert, F., Ibarra, C., Munizaga, M., O'Ryan, R., Osses, M.,Tolvett, S., Urquiza, A., Véliz, K.Evolution of air quality in Santiago: The role of mobility and lessons from the science-policy interfaceElementa: Science of the Anthropocene10.1525/elementa.293Worldwide, urbanization constitutes a major and growing driver of global change and a distinctive feature of the Anthropocene. Thus, urban development paths present opportunities for technological and societal transformations towards energy efficiency and decarbonization, with benefits for both greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollution mitigation. This requires a better understanding of the intertwined dynamics of urban energy and land use, emissions, demographics, governance, and societal and biophysical processes. In this study, we address several characteristics of urbanization in Santiago (33.5°S, 70.5°W, 500 m a.s.l.), the capital city of Chile. Specifically, we focus on the multiple links between mobility and air quality, describe the evolution of these two aspects over the past 30 years, and review the role scientific knowledge has played in policy-making. We show evidence of how technological measures (e.g., fuel quality, three-way catalytic converters, diesel particle filters) have been successful in decreasing coarse mode aerosol (PM10) concentrations in Santiago despite increasing urbanization (e.g., population, motorization, urban sprawl). However, we also show that such measures will likely be insufficient if behavioral changes do not achieve an increase in the use of public transportation. Our investigation seeks to inform urban development in the Anthropocene, and our results may be useful for other developing countries, particularly in Latin America and the Caribbean where more than 80% of the population is urban.https://www.elementascience.org/article/10.1525/elementa.293/38vol.6 is.1Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Gómez-González, S., Ojeda, F., Fernandes, P.M.Portugal and Chile: Longing for sustainable forestry while rising from the ashesEnvironmental Science & PolicyVer ficha10.1016/j.envsci.2017.11.006The recent catastrophic wildfires in Portugal and Chile shared similar features, not just because they developed under extreme weather conditions but also because extensive forest plantations were involved. Dense forest plantations of flammable pine and eucalypt species favor the development of high-intensity large fires, threatening people and the forest industry sustainability under increasingly frequent and severe drought events. Preventive land-use planning and cost-effective fuel management are key elements of sustainable forestry. Understanding the fire ecology context prior to plantation establishment is also crucial for the success of fire management planning. Although the forest industry has contributed to the economy of these countries, improved regulation and science-based management policies are strongly needed. Fuel treatment strategies can be optimized by risk-based modeling approaches, and should be mandatory in wildland-urban interfaces. The tragedy caused by these wildfires is an opportunity to change towards more sustainable landscape arrangements that reconcile ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation, and protection from life-threatening wildfires.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1462901117307694104-107vol.81Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Gómez-González, S., Paniw, M., Antunes, K., Ojeda, F.Heat shock and plant leachates regulate seed germination of the endangered carnivorous plant Drosophyllum lusitanicumWeb Ecology10.5194/we-18-7-2018In fire-prone ecosystems, many plant species have specialized mechanisms of seed dormancy that ensure a successful recruitment after fire. A well-documented mechanism is the germination stimulated by fire-related cues, such as heat shock and smoke. However, less is known about the role of inhibitory germination signals (e.g. allelopathy) in regulating post-fire recruitment. Plant leachates derived from the unburned vegetation can enforce dormancy by means of allelopathic compounds, acting as a signal of unfavourable (highly
competitive) niche for germination in pyrophyte species. Here, we assessed the separate effects of heat shock and plant leachates on seed germination of Drosophyllum lusitanicum , an endangered carnivorous plant endemic to Mediterranean fire-prone heathlands. We performed a germination experiment in which seeds were subjected to three treatments: (1) 5 min at 100◦C, (2) watering with plant leachate, and (3) control. Germination rate and seed viability was determined after 63 days. Heat shock stimulated seed germination in D. lusitanicum while plant leachates had inhibitory germination effects without reducing seed viability. Thus, both positive and negative signals could be involved in its successful post-fire recruitment. Fire would break seed dormancy and stimulate seed germination of D. lusitanicum through high temperatures, but also by eliminating allelochemical compounds from the soil. These results help to understand the population dynamics patterns found for D. lusitanicum in natural populations, and highlight the role of fire in the ecology and conservation of this endangered species. Seed dormancy imposed by plant-derived leachates as an adaptive mechanism should be considered more in fire ecology theory.
https://www.web-ecol.net/18/7/2018/7-13vol.18 is.1Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Jimenez J.C., Barichivich J., Mattar C., Takahashi K., Santamaría-Artigas A., Sobrino J.A., Malhi Y.Spatio-temporal patterns of thermal anomalies and drought over tropical forests driven by recent extreme climatic anomaliesPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences10.1098/rstb.2017.0300The recent 2015-2016 El Niño (EN) event was considered as strong as the EN in 1997-1998. Given such magnitude, it was expected to result in extreme warming and moisture anomalies in tropical areas. Here we characterize the spatial patterns of temperature anomalies and drought over tropical forests, including tropical South America (Amazonia), Africa and Asia/Indonesia during the 2015-2016 EN event. These spatial patterns of warming and drought are compared with those observed in previous strong EN events (1982-1983 and 1997-1998) and other moderate to strong EN events (e.g. 2004-2005 and 2009-2010). The link between the spatial patterns of drought and sea surface temperature anomalies in the central and eastern Pacific is also explored. We show that indeed the EN2015-2016 led to unprecedented warming compared to the other EN events over Amazonia, Africa and Indonesia, as a consequence of the background global warming trend. Anomalous accumulated extreme drought area over Amazonia was found during EN2015-2016, but this value may be closer to extreme drought area extents in the other two EN events in 1982-1983 and 1997-1998. Over Africa, datasets disagree, and it is difficult to conclude which EN event led to the highest accumulated extreme drought area. Our results show that the highest values of accumulated drought area over Africa were obtained in 2015-2016 and 1997-1998, with a long-term drying trend not observed over the other tropical regions. Over Indonesia, all datasets suggest that EN 1982-1983 and EN 1997-1998 (or even the drought of 2005) led to a higher extreme drought area than EN2015-2016. Uncertainties in precipitation datasets hinder consistent estimates of drought severity over tropical regions, and improved reanalysis products and station records are required.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The impact of the 2015/2016 El Niño on the terrestrial tropical carbon cycle: patterns, mechanisms and implications'. © 2018 The Author(s).http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2017.030020170300Vol.373 is.1760Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes2018Mazzeo, A., Huneeus, N., Ordoñez, C., Orfanoz-Cheuquelaf, A., Menut, L., Mailler, S., Valari, M., Denier van der Gon, H., Gallardo, L., Muñoz, R., Donoso, R., Galleguillos, M., Osses, M., Tolvett, S.
Impact of residential combustion and transport emissions on air pollution in Santiago during winter
Atmospheric Environment
10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.06.043Santiago (33.5°S, 70.5°W), the capital of Chile, is frequently affected by extreme air pollution events during wintertime deteriorating air quality (AQ) and thus affecting the health of its population. Intense residential heating and on-road transport emissions combined with poor circulation and vertical mixing are the main factors responsible for these events. A modelling system composed of a chemistry-transport model (CHIMERE) and a meteorological model (WRF) was implemented to assess the AQ impacts of residential and transportation sources in the Santiago basin. A two-week period of July 2015 with various days with poor AQ was simulated focusing on the impact on AQ with respect to fully inhalable particles (PM2.5) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Three emission scenarios, within the range of targeted reductions of the decontamination plan of Santiago, were tested; namely 50% reduction of residential emission, 50% reduction of transport emissions and the combination of both. An additional scenario decreasing transport emissions in 10% was carried out to examine whether a linear dependence of surface concentrations on changes in emissions exists.

The system was validated against surface and vertically resolved meteorological measurements. The model reproduces the daily surface concentration variability from the AQ monitoring network of Santiago. However, the model not fully captures the emissions variations inferred from the observations which may be due to missing sources such as resuspension of dust.

Results show that, during the period studied, although both residential and transportation sources contribute to observed AQ levels in Santiago, reducing transport emissions is more effective in terms of reducing the number of days with pollution events than decreasing residential combustion. This difference in impact is largely due to the spatial distribution of the emission sources. While most of the residential combustion is emitted in the outskirts of the city, most of the transport emissions occur within the city, where most of the stations from AQ monitoring network of Santiago are located. As can be expected, the largest improvement of AQ in Santiago is achieved by the combined reduction of emissions in both sectors. Sensitivity analysis with 10% reduction in transport emissions reveals a linear behavior between emissions and concentrations for NOX and approximate linear behavior for PM2.5. The absence of secondary aerosols formation and dust resuspension in the current simulation could explain this deviation from linearity for fine particles. Nevertheless, it suggests that the results can be used for mitigation policies with emissions reductions below the 50% used in this study.
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1352231018304345195-208vol.190Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018McWethy, D. B., Pauchard, A., García, R. A., Holz, A., González, M. E., Veblen, T. T., Stahl, J., Currey, B.Landscape drivers of recent fire activity (2001-2017) in south-central ChilePLOS ONE10.1371/journal.pone.0201195In recent decades large fires have affected communities throughout central and southern Chile with great social and ecological consequences. Despite this high fire activity, the controls and drivers and the spatiotemporal pattern of fires are not well understood. To identify the large-scale trends and drivers of recent fire activity across six regions in south-central Chile (~32–40 S Latitude) we evaluated MODIS satellite-derived fire detections and compared this data with Chilean Forest Service records for the period 2001–2017. MODIS burned area estimates provide a spatially and temporally comprehensive record of fire activity across an important bioclimatic transition zone between dry Mediterranean shrublands/ sclerophyllous forests and wetter deciduous-broadleaf evergreen forests. Results suggest fire activity was highly variable in any given year, with no statistically significant trend in the number of fires or mean annual area burned. Evaluation of the variables associated with spatiotemporal patterns of fire for the 2001–2017 period indicate vegetation type, biophysical conditions (e.g., elevation, slope), mean annual and seasonal climatic conditions (e.g., precipitation) and mean population density have the greatest influence on the probability of fire occurrence and burned area for any given year. Both the number of fires and annual area burned were greatest in warmer, biomass-rich lowland Bío-Bío and Araucanía regions. Resource selection analyses indicate fire ‘preferentially’ occurs in exotic plantation forests, mixed native-exotic forests, native sclerophyll forests, pasture lands and matorral, vegetation types that all provide abundant, flammable and connected biomass for burning. Structurally and compositionally homogenous exotic plantation forests may promote fire spread greater than native deciduous-Nothofagaceae forests which were once widespread in the southern parts of the study area. In the future, the coincidence of warmer and drier conditions in landscapes dominated by flammable and fuel-rich forest plantations and mixed native-exotic and sclerophyll forests are likely to further promote large fires in south-central Chile. © 2018 McWethy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201195e0201195vol.13 is.8Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Miranda, A., Altamirano, A., Lara, A., Zamorano-Elgueta, C., Hernández, H. J., González, M. E., Pauchard,A., Promis, A.Monitoreo de la superficie de los bosques nativos de Chile: un desafío pendienteBosque (Valdivia)10.4067/S0717-92002018000200265Forest monitoring is important for decision making of forest management and conservation. In Chile, the forest monitoring system was initiated in 1994, which has been continued through the implementation of regional updates. This has enabled a temporal monitoring of the distribution and surface covered by native forest. However, while regional updates have reported increase in the surface covered by native forest, other studies have shown an opposite trend. Therefore, the capacity of the forest monitoring system to measure the temporal variation in forest areas was evaluated. Specifically, a review of reports and official data of the national forest monitoring system was carried out through the fulfillment of three basic criteria: i) comparability, ii) replicability and iii) quality. According to our results, the Chilean forest monitoring system does not fulfill their basic requirements because: (i) methodologies have not been consistent over time; (ii) it does not provide a baseline of land cover or forest loss that allows comparisons with changing forest area; iii) there is not adequate error estimation and how it can affect the results and analysis of monitoring. The national forest monitoring system requires a redefinition of its aims and methods, guiding them to the long term by convening different stakeholders looking for a national agreement.http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-92002018000200265&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en265-275vol.39 is.2Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos; Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Moreno, P. I., Vilanova, I., Villa-Martinez, R., Dunbar, R. B., Mucciarone, D. A., Kaplan, M. R., Garreaud, R., Rojas, M., De Polz-Holz, R., Lambert, F.
Onset and Evolution of Southern Annular Mode-Like Changes at Centennial Timescale
Scientific Reports
Ver ficha10.1038/s41598-018-21836-6
The Southern Westerly Winds (SWW) are the surface expression of geostrophic winds that encircle the southern mid-latitudes. In conjunction with the Southern Ocean, they establish a coupled system that not only controls climate in the southern third of the world, but is also closely connected to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and CO2 degassing from the deep ocean. Paradoxically, little is known about their behavior since the last ice age and relationships with mid-latitude glacier history and tropical climate variability. Here we present a lake sediment record from Chilean Patagonia (51°S) that reveals fluctuations of the low-level SWW at mid-latitudes, including strong westerlies during the Antarctic Cold Reversal, anomalously low intensity during the early Holocene, which was unfavorable for glacier growth, and strong SWW since ∼7.5 ka. We detect nine positive Southern Annular Mode-like events at centennial timescale since ∼5.8 ka that alternate with cold/wet intervals favorable for glacier expansions (Neoglaciations) in southern Patagonia. The correspondence of key features of mid-latitude atmospheric circulation with shifts in tropical climate since ∼10 ka suggests that coherent climatic shifts in these regions have driven climate change in vast sectors of the Southern Hemisphere at centennial and millennial timescales.http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-21836-6vol.8 is.1Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Osborn, T. J., Barichivich, J., Harris, I., van der Schrier, G., & Jones, P. DGlobal Climate - d. Hydrological cycle - DroughtBulletin of the American Meteorological Society10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1S36-S37vol.99 is.8Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Pattnayak, K. C., Gloor, E., Tindall, J. C., Brienen, R. J. W., Barichivich, J., Baker, J. C. A., Spracklen, D. V., Cintra, B. B. L., Coelho, C. A. S.Adding new evidence to the attribution puzzle of the recent water shortage over São Paulo (Brazil)Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography10.1080/16000870.2018.1481690View references (44)
São Paulo, Brazil has experienced severe water shortages and record low levels of its water reservoirs in 2013–2014. We evaluate the contributions of Amazon deforestation and climate change to low precipitation levels using a modelling approach, and address whether similar precipitation anomalies might occur more frequently in a warming world. Precipitation records from INMET show that the dry anomaly extended over a fairly large region to the north of São Paulo. Unique features of this event were anomalous sea surface temperature (SST) patterns in the Southern Atlantic, an extension of the sub tropical high into the São Paulo region and moisture flux divergence over São Paulo. The SST anomalies were very similar in 2013/14 and 2014/15, suggesting they played a major role in forcing the dry conditions. The SST anomalies consisted of three zonal bands: a cold band in the tropics, a warm band to the south of São Paulo and another cold band poleward of 40 S. We performed ensemble climate simulations with observed SSTs prescribed, vegetation cover either fixed at 1870 levels or varying over time, and greenhouse gases (GHGs) either fixed at pre-industrial levels (280 ppm CO2) or varying over time. These simulations exhibit similar precipitation deficits over the São Paulo region in 2013/14. From this, we infer that SST patterns and the associated large-scale state of the atmosphere were important factors in determining the precipitation anomalies, while deforestation and increased GHGs only weakly modulated the signal. Finally, analyses of future climate simulations from CMIP5 models indicate that the frequency of such precipitation anomalies is not likely to change in a warmer climate. © 2018, © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/16000870.2018.14816901-14vol.70 is.1Thomson Reuters ISI
Ciudades Resilientes; Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Pfeiffer, M., Latorre, C., Santoro, C.M., Gayo, E.M., Rojas, R., Carrevedo, M.L., McRostie, V.B., Finstad, K., Heimsath, A., Jungers, M., Chong, G., De Pol-Holz, R., Amundson, R.Chronology, stratigraphy and hydrological modelling of extensive wetlands and paleolakes in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert during the late quaternaryQuaternary Science Reviews10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.08.001The halite-encrusted salt pans (salars) present at low elevations of the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile are unique features of one of the driest and possibly oldest deserts on Earth. Here we show that these landscapes were shallow freshwater lakes and wetlands during the last glacial period, periodically between ~46.9 ka and 7.7 ka. The moisture appears to have been sourced from increased Andean runoff and most of our chronologies for these deposits were coeval with the Central Andean Pluvial Event (17.5-14.2 ka and 13.8-9.7 ka), but we also find evidence for older as well as slightly younger wet phases. These environments supported a diverse hygrophyte vegetation, as well as an array of diatoms, ostracods and gastropods. Using a regional hydrological model, we estimate that recharge rates from 1.5 to 4 times present were required to activate and maintain these wetlands in the past. Activation in the late Pleistocene was part of a regional enhancement of water resources, extending from the Andes, downstream and through riparian corridors, to the lowest and most arid portions of the desert itself. This fundamentally unique environment was encountered by the earliest human explorers in the region, and most likely facilitated migration and encampments on a landscape that at present lacks macroscopic life on its surface.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0277379117310521224-245Vol.197Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Piret, L., Bertrand, S., Kissel, C., De Pol-Holz, R., Tamayo Hernando, A., Van Daele, M.First evidence of a mid-Holocene earthquake-triggered megaturbidite south of the Chile Triple JunctionSedimentary Geology10.1016/j.sedgeo.2018.01.002Megaturbidites have been the focus of many paleoseismic and paleoenvironmental studies because they can provide evidence for catastrophic and/or hazardous events with potentially major environmental implications. During a recent research cruise in Baker Fjord, Chile (47°54'S-74°30'W), a megaturbidite was described between the Northern and Southern Patagonian Icefields. Here, we aim to determine the depositional processes of the megaturbidite and identify its origin. Based on the turbidite's location, a possible origin was the early Holocene drainage of paleo-lake General Carrera, which was recently proposed in the literature as having produced a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) that drained through Baker Fjord. Due to the fjord's location in a subduction zone, and close to the Chile Triple Junction, however, seismic activity must also be considered as a potential triggering mechanism. To achieve our goals, we undertook a multi-proxy analysis of sediment core MD07-3121, including sedimentology (grain size, loss-on-ignition, foraminifera counts), magnetic properties, bulk organic geochemistry, and radiocarbon dating, and we analysed bathymetric maps and sub-bottom profiles. Our grain-size results display a diagnostic fining upward trend and show evidence of seiching in the 733-cm-thick megaturbidite. The age of the event (5513-5211 cal yr BP) contradicts the hypothesis of an early Holocene GLOF origin. Bulk organic geochemical results indicate that the sediments that compose the turbidite are clearly of marine origin, which further goes against a GLOF origin. In addition, the megaturbidite is underlain by a 1136 cm thick mass transport deposit (MTD), also composed of marine sediments. According to the sub-bottom profiles, the MTD and the megaturbidite originate from the reworking of thick packages of sediment previously deposited on nearby sills and on the fjord's flanks. Furthermore, similar coeval deposits are found in an adjacent sub-basin. We therefore interpret these deposits to be triggered by an earthquake during the late mid-Holocene. While megathrust and intraslab earthquakes are possible in the region, we argue that a crustal earthquake is the most likely seismic trigger in the study area. This study reveals the first earthquake-triggered megaturbidite south of the Chile Triple Junction.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0037073818300113Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Rozas, V., Le Quesne, C., Rojas-Badilla, M., González, M., González-Reyes, A.Coupled human-climate signals on the fire history of upper Cachapoal Valley, Mediterranean Andes of Chile, since 1201 CEGlobal and Planetary Change10.1016/j.gloplacha.2018.05.013The long-term history of fire regimes in the Mediterranean Andes of Chile is almost unknown. Subalpine woodlands of Austrocedrus chilensis include long-lived trees resilient to low-intensity fires, which can provide valuable tree-ring-based information about fire history. In this work, we performed an annually resolved multicentury reconstruction of past fires from fire-scar records identified in relict Austrocedrus wood found on steep highly-eroded and rocky slopes with coarser fuel structure in the upper Cachapoal Valley, central Andes of Chile. We compared this fire record with historical land-use changes and extensive reconstructions of regional precipitation and temperature, as well as large-scale climatic patterns. The highest fire frequencies were recorded in the Spanish settlement period (1541–1750), when land-clearing activities, cattle ranching, agriculture, and mining practices became widespread after the Spanish conquest. At an interannual time scale, fire occurrence and precipitation were unconnected during the Spanish settlement. By contrast, in the indigenous period (1200–1540), under the influence of the aboriginal Chiquillanes people, fires occurred in wet years with high vegetation productivity. In the livestock grazing period (1751–1950), when large cattle ranches were established, fires occurred in dry years after a wet year. Fires in this period were likely ignited under conditions of high fuel flammability to improve plant production and promote intensive livestock grazing. At a multidecadal time scale, fires were more frequent in cold periods throughout the whole record. These findings suggest that herbaceous fuel accumulation and flammability, modulated by climate variation and human land uses, were the main factors promoting fires spread in this Mediterranean subalpine area. Our research emphasizes the importance of relict Austrocedrus wood for fire history reconstruction and expands knowledge about fire regime shifts over the past eight centuries in southern South America.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0921818117304988137-147vol.167Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos; Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Urrutia-Jalabert, R., González, M. E., González-Reyes, A., Lara, A., Garreaud, R.Climate variability and forest fires in central and south-central ChileEcosphere10.1002/ecs2.2171This paper evaluates the relationship between fire occurrence (number and burned area) and
climate variability (precipitation and maximum temperatures) across central and south-central Chile
(32°–43° S) during recent decades (1976–2013). This region sustains the largest proportion of the Chilean
population, contains ecologically important remnants of endemic ecosystems, the largest extension of
forest exotic plantations, and concentrates most of the fire activity in the country. Fire activity in central
Chile was mainly associated with above-average precipitation during winter of the previous year and
with dry conditions during spring to summer. The later association was particularly strong in the southern,
wetter part of the study region. Maximum temperature had a positive significant relationship with
burned area across the study region, with stronger correlations toward the south. Fires in central Chile
were significantly related to El Nino~ –Southern Oscillation, through rainfall anomalies during the year
previous to the fire season. The Antarctic Oscillation during winter through summer was positively
related to fires across the study area due to drier/warmer conditions associated with the positive polarity
of this oscillation. Climate change projections for the region reveal an all-season decrease in precipitation
and increases in temperature, that may likely result in an increment of the occurrence and the area
affected by fires, as it has been observed during a multi-year drought afflicting central Chile since 2010.
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ecs2.2171e02171vol.9 is.4Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Urrutia-Jalabert, R., Peña, M. P. Coopman, R. E., Carvajal, D. E., Jiménez-Castillo, M., Lara, A., Cosimo, D., Lobos-Catalán, P.
Elucidating the hydraulic vulnerability of the longest-lived Southern Hemisphere conifer to aridificationForest Ecology and Management
10.1016/j.foreco.2018.08.027Drier climatic conditions will be the future scenario in many regions worldwide, including southern South America. Few studies have characterized the ecophysiological vulnerability of the endemic tree species that inhabit this area, to climate change. In this study we assessed the hydraulic vulnerability of the longest-lived tree of the Southern Hemisphere, Fitzroya cupressoides, focusing on adult trees and saplings from two highly disturbed populations: the Coastal Range (AC) and Central Depression (FN) of southern Chile, which represent contrasting site conditions. This, as a basis for the design of conservation strategies to safeguard the persistence of these endangered forests in a drier future. We assessed water potentials (WP) throughout a growing season, their relationships with environmental conditions, as well as leaf and stem (branch) traits and hydraulic safety margins. Despite that the studied summer was the second driest in the last seven decades, minimum WP were not that negative (−1.3 to −1.5 MPa); which could be partly explained by a high leaf capacitance in this species. Adult trees and saplings from both sites did not significantly differ in their WP at turgor loss point, and their associated leaf safety margins, which were relatively low in all cases. However, they significantly differed in the xylem WP causing a 50% loss of stem conductivity (P50): adults AC: −5.14, saplings AC: −2.53, adults FN: −3.71, and saplings FN: −3.87 MPa. These values led to a relatively large stem safety margin (SSM) in most cases, and their variation was not explained neither by wood density, nor by tracheid size changes. Moreover, there appears to be an ontogenic adjustment in the more restrictive site AC, which was not seen in FN. Within the continuum of species strategies to cope with water stress, Fitzroya has features of the two ends of the continuum: tissues with large SSM, and tissues that sustain milder operation pressures through capacitance. Although Fitzroya appears to be relatively resistant to water scarcity, saplings from AC, seem to be the most vulnerable to the aridification trend in southern Chile. Moreover, future drying could become a significant extra threat to the highly endangered Central Depression population. Conservation actions are urgently needed to secure the future of Fitzroya forests in southern Chile.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S037811271830793X472-484vol.430Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo, Agua y Extremos2018González, M. E., Gómez-González, S., Lara, A., Garreaud, R., Díaz-Hormazabal, I.The 2010-2015 Megadrought and its influence on the fire regime in central and south-central ChileEcosphere10.1002/ecs2.2300Forest fire activity has increased in recent years in central and south-central Chile. Drought conditions have been associated with the increase of large wildfires, area burned and longer fire seasons. This study examines the influence of drought on fire regimes and discusses landscape management opportunities to decrease fire hazard. Specifically, we investigate the effect of the 2010–2015 Megadrought (MD) compared to 1990–2009 period on fire activity (fire-season length, number of fires and burned area across months, fire sizes, regions and vegetation cover types, simultaneity, and duration of fires) in central and south-central Chile (32°–39° S), using contemporary fire statistics derived from the Chilean Forest Service. For large fire events (>200 ha) the average season length increased by 67 d (44%), comparing 2010–2015 to 1990–2009. Earlier and later ignition dates resulted in extended fire seasons in MD years. During the MD, the number, area burned, simultaneity, and duration of large fires increased significantly compared to the control period, including the unprecedented occurrence of large fires during winter. The burned area in large fires increased in all vegetation types, during the MD compared to the control period, especially in the exotic plantation cover type. The regions that were most affected by fire (i.e., total area burned) during the MD wereMaule, B ıo-B ıo, and Araucan ıa (35–39° S) that concentrate >75% of forest plantations in Chile. Although both maximum temperatures and precipitation are drivers of fire activity, a simple attribution analysis indicates that the sustained rainfall deficit during 2010–2015 was the most critical factor in the enhanced fire activity. Future climate change predictions indicate more recurrent, intense, and temporally extended droughts for central and south-central Chile. Under this scenario, land-use planning and fire and forest management strategies must promote a more diverse and less flammable landscape mosaic limiting high load, homogenous, and continuous exotic plantations.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ecs2.2300e02300Vol.9 is.8Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Gómez-González S., M. González, S. Paula, I. Díaz, A. Lara, M. Delgado-BaquerizoTemperature and agriculture are largely associated with fire activity in Central Chile across different temporal periodsForest Ecology and Management10.1016/j.foreco.2018.11.041Wildfires have important ecological and socio-economic implications worldwide. Identifying the major ecological drivers regulating fire activity across space and time is critical to formulating sustainable policies of landscape planning and management under global change scenarios. However, large scale studies quantifying the relative importance of relevant fire drivers across different time periods are largely lacking. We conducted a high-resolution spatial survey in Central Chile and used structural equation models (SEMs) to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of climate, human impact, land uses, and topography on the number of fires and burned area across two distinct periods of time (2000–2005 and 2011–2016). Mean temperature and agricultural use had the highest direct positive effect on the number of fires and burned area in the two studied periods, and thus were the major ecological predictors of fire activity. Human impact was also an important predictor of fire attributes. Topography had multiple indirect effects on fire activity by regulating land use, temperature, and human impact, but direct effects were negligible. Precipitation seasonality, drought and aridity indexes, native forests, and plantations, were less relevant predictors of fire activity. Even so, our SEMs suggested that areas dominated by native forests tended to have lower number of fires than those covered by croplands or plantations. Our results suggest that fire activity in Central Chile will be highly sensitive to increases in human pressure, land use change and warming by climate change. Because the relative importance of the predictors of fire activity was steady over time, the knowledge derived from this study provides critical insights for preventive fire management and landscape planning. The control of stubble burning, native forest restoration and sustainable forestry management could improve social adaptation to a fire-prone future.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378112718315962535-543Vol.433Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos, Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Alvarez-Garreton, C., Mendoza, P. A., Boisier, J. P., Addor, N., Galleguillos, M., Zambrano-Bigiarini, M., Lara, A., Puelma, C., Cortes, G., Garreaud, R., McPhee, J., Ayala, A.The CAMELS-CL dataset - links to files. PANGAEA, https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.894885PANGAEA. Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science10.1594/PANGAEA.894885https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.894885Not indexed
Agua y Extremos, Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Chávez, R.O., Moreira-Munoz, A., Galleguillos, M., Olea, M., Aguayo, J., Latín, A., Aguilera-Betti, I., Muñoz, A. A., Manriquez, H.GIMMS NDVI time series reveal the extent, duration, and intensity of “blooming desert” events in the hyper-arid Atacama Desert, Northern ChileInternational Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation10.1016/j.jag.2018.11.013The “blooming desert”, or the explosive development and flowering of ephemeral herbaceous and some woody desert species during years with abnormally high accumulated rainfall, is a spectacular biological phenomenon of the hyper-arid Atacama Desert (northern Chile) attracting botanists, ecologists, geo-scientists, and the general public from all over the world. However, the number of “blooming deserts”, their geographical distribution and spatio-temporal patterns have not been quantitatively assessed to date. Here, we used NDVI data from the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) project to reconstruct the annual land surface phenology (LSP) of the Atacama Desert using a non-parametric statistical approach. From the reconstructed LSP, we detected the “blooming deserts” as positive NDVI anomalies and assessed three dimensions of the events: their temporal extent, intensity of “greening” and spatial extent. We identified 13 “blooming deserts” between 1981 and 2015, of which three (1997–98, 2002–03, and 2011) can be considered major events according to these metrics. The main event occurred in 2011, spanning 180 days between July and December 2011, and spread over 11,136 km 2 of Atacama dry plains. “Blooming deserts” in Atacama have been triggered by the accumulation of precipitation during a period of 2 to 12 months before and during the events. The proposed three-dimensional approach allowed us to characterize different types of “blooming deserts”: with longer episodes or larger spatial distribution or with different “greening” intensities. Its flexibility to reconstruct different LSP and detect anomalies makes this method a useful tool to study these rare phenomena in other deserts in the world also.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0303243418306202193-203Vol.76Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Fontúrbel F.E., Lara A., Lobos D., Little C.The cascade impacts of climate change could threaten key ecological interactionsEcosphere10.1002/ecs2.2485Climate change is triggering ecological responses all over the world as a result of frequent, prolonged droughts. It could also affect ecological interactions, particularly pollination and seed dispersal, which play a key role in plant reproduction. We used a tripartite interaction with a mistletoe, its pollinator and its disperser animals to gain insight into this issue. We studied flower and fruit production, and visitation rates during average (2012) and dry (2015) austral summers. Drought in our study area affected precipitation and soil water availability. Although pollinator visits did not significantly differ in these summers, during the dry summer flower and fruit production experienced an important decline, as did seed disperser visits. Also, mistletoe mortality increased from 12% in 2012 to 23% in 2015. This empirical evidence suggests that the cascade effects of climate change may indirectly be hindering ecological interactions in the Valdivian temperate rainforest ecosystem we studied. Long‐term research is essential to provide the knowledge necessary to understand how key ecological processes may be affected in a changing world.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ecs2.2485e02485Vol.9 is.12Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Merino-Campos, V., De Pol-Holz, R., Southon, J., Latorre, C., Collado-Fabbri, S.Marine Radiocarbon Reservoir Age Along the Chilean Continental MarginRadiocarbon10.1017/RDC.2018.81We present 37 new radiocarbon (14C) measurements from mollusk shells fragments sampled along the Chilean continental margin and stored in museum collections with known calendar age. These measurements were used to estimate the modern pre-bomb regional marine 14C age deviations from the global ocean reservoir (∆R). Together with previously published data, we calculated regional mean ∆R values for five oceanographic macro regions along the coast plus one for a mid-latitude open ocean setting. In general, upwelling regions north of 42ºS show consistent although sometimes highly variable ∆R values with regional averages ranging from 141 to 196 14C yr, whereas the mid-latitude open ocean location of the Juan Fernández archipelago and the southern Patagonian region show minor, ∆R of 40±38 14C yr, and 52±47 14C yr respectively. We attribute the alongshore decreasing pattern toward higher latitudes to the main oceanographic features along the Chilean coast such as perennial coastal upwelling in northern zone, seasonally variable upwelling at the central part and the large freshwater influence upon the southernhttps://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0033822218000814/type/journal_article195-210Vol. 61 is.1Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Rey Benayas, J. M., Altamirano, A., Miranda, A., Catalán, G., Prado, M., Lisón, F., Bullock, J. M.Landscape restoration in a mixed agricultural-forest catchment: Planning a buffer strip and hedgerow network in a Chilean biodiversity hotspotAmbio10.1007/s13280-019-01149-2Guidance for large-scale restoration of natural or semi-natural linear vegetation elements that takes into account the need to maintain human livelihoods such as farming is often lacking. Focusing on a Chilean biodiversity hotspot, we assessed the landscape in terms of existing woody vegetation elements and proposed a buffer strip and hedgerow network. We used spatial analysis based on Google Earth imagery and QGIS, field surveys, seven guidelines linked to prioritization criteria and seedling availability in the region's nurseries, and estimated the budget for implementing the proposed network. The target landscapes require restoring 0.89 ha km-2 of woody buffer strips to meet Chilean law; 1.4 ha km-2 of new hedgerows is also proposed. The cost of restoration in this landscape is estimated in ca. USD 6900 per planted ha of buffer strips and hedgerows. Financial incentives, education, and professional training of farmers are identified as key issues to implement the suggested restoration actions.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13280-019-01149-2In pressThomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Manuschevich, Daniela; Sarricolea, Pablo; Galleguillos, MauricioIntegrating socio-ecological dynamics into land use policy outcomes: A spatial scenario approach for native forest conservation in south-central ChileLand Use Policy10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.01.042Chile is one of the first documented nations to undergo a forest transition dominated by tree farm expansion. Scenario modelling can inform the possible outcomes of forest conservation policies, especially when the scenarios are rooted in the political dynamics that shaped the current legislation. In Chile, tree farms of non-native Radiata Pine and Eucalyptus provide a fast return on investment. Today, fast-growing plantations compete for land area with forest conservation, putting the unique bundle of ecosystem services provided by the latter at risk. Based on a previous political analysis, we propose scenarios projected to 2030 to compare a business-as-usual scenario with A) a conservation scenario based on strict land use restrictions B) an optimistic conservation scenario; C) an unrestricted industrial land use scenario; and D) a restricted industrial land use scenario. The scenarios differ in terms of the implemented policy instruments and the land area required for each land use. We compared these scenarios in terms of carbon stock, control of erosion and wood production, all of which are relevant in the current Chilean political debate. A conservation scenario (A), that combines incentives and restrictions, would imply the largest increase in native forest and regulation services, namely carbon stock and erosion control. In contrast, an unrestricted industrial land use scenario (C) leads to the worst outcomes in terms of erosion compared to a business-as-usual scenario. This study seeks to link political and economic processes underpinning land use change to environmental outcomes, while contributing to the larger discussion on forest policy, forest transitions and environmental outcomes. © 2019https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S026483771830751831-42vol.84.0 is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Soto, L.; Galleguillos, M.; Seguel, O.; Sotomayor, B.; Lara, A.Assessment of soil physical properties' statuses under different land covers within a landscape dominated by exotic industrial tree plantations in south-central ChileJournal of Soil and Water Conservation10.2489/jswc.74.1.12Land use and land cover changes (LULCC) within a highly anthropized Mediterranean landscape dominated by industrial tree plantation leads to degradation of soil physical properties. This process has been more intense in the coastal range of south-central%%%Chile due to its soils, which are highly susceptible to erosion, combined with a long history of intensive land use changes during the last century, transitioning from native forest (NF) to agriculture and the more recent establishment of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus spp. exotic tree plantations. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the statuses of soil physical properties over different land cover situations. Historical land cover maps were determined via supervised classifications using the maximum likelihood classifier applied to satellite imagery. Five land use and land cover categories (LULC) were defined according to main land cover transitions associated with active and abandoned forestry operations that have been reported in the region: NF, pine plantation (P), eucalyptus plantation (Eu), early successional (E-S), and secondary successional (S-S). Successional stages were generated using change detection statistics considering changes between 2001 and 2014 maps. Soil samples were collected at%%%three depths in 39 plots that describe the five LULC. High clay contents were found in all%%%the LULC except Eu and P. These sites have shown more signs of degradation, with lower%%%organic matter (SOM) and macropores and higher shear strength (ShS). Soil organic matter was consistent with litter contribution and quality, establishing lower bulk density (Db) for NF and S-S and higher values for Eu and E-S. ShS and dispersion rate (DR) exhibit a correlation with SOM with lower ShS and higher DR when SOM increased. Relevant differences were identified for structural stability index (SSI) between LULC depending on soil physical quality, besides a positive correlation with SOM. Those results show the need to generate appropriate conditions of vegetation cover in order to recover soils subjected to current forestry management of industrial plantations.http://www.jswconline.org/lookup/doi/10.2489/jswc.74.1.1212-23vol.74.0 is.1.0Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Tejo, Camila F.; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.A vertical forest within the forest: millenary trees from the Valdivian rainforest as biodiversity hubsEcology10.1002/ecy.2584Alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides (Molina) I.M. Johnst., Cupressaceae), known as Lahuan by the Mapuche people, is the most iconic endemic conifer of southern Chile and adjacent Argentina (Fig. 1). It can reach monumental dimensions (up to 5 m in diameter and over 50 m in height) and has remarkable longevity (Lara et al. 1999, Clement et al. 2001, Donoso‐Zeggers 2006, Urrutia‐Jalabert et al. 2015). The oldest alerce tree recorded is over 3,600 years old, making this species the second longest‐lived tree in the world after the North American Bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D. K. Bailey) (Lara and Villalba 1993).http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ecy.2584e02584vol. is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos; Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Collins, James A.; Lamy, Frank; Kaiser, Jérôme; Ruggieri, Nicoletta; Henkel, Susann; De Pol‐Holz, Ricardo; Garreaud, René; Arz, Helge W.Centennial‐Scale SE Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Variability Over the Past 2,300 YearsPaleoceanography and Paleoclimatology10.1029/2018PA003465Detailed temperature reconstructions over the past 2,000 years are important for contextualizing modern climate change. The midlatitude SE Pacific is a key region in this regard in terms of understanding the climatic linkages between the tropics and southern high latitudes. Multicentennial timescale temperature variability remains, however, poorly understood, due to a lack of long, high-temporal-resolution temperature records from this region and from the southern high latitudes in general. We present a unique alkenone sea surface temperature (SST) record from 44°S on the southern Chilean margin in the SE Pacific spanning the last 2,300 years at decadal resolution. The record displays relatively large changes including a cooling transition from 14 to 12.5 °C between 1,100 and 600 cal yr BP, in line with other Chile margin SST records and coeval with Antarctic cooling. This cooling is attributable to reduced Southern Ocean deep convection, driven by a late Holocene sea-ice increase in the Weddell Sea associated with increased El-Niño Southern Oscillation variability. Superimposed on the late Holocene cooling, we observe multicentennial timescale SST variability, including relatively cool SSTs (12.5 °C) from 950 to 500 cal yr BP, corresponding to the Medieval Climate Anomaly, and warmer SSTs (13 °C) from 500 to 200 cal yr BP, corresponding to the Little Ice Age. These oscillations may reflect either multicentennial internal variability of the Southern Ocean deep convection and/or multicentennial variability in the phasing of El-Niño Southern Oscillation and Southern Annular Mode events. ©2019. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2018PA003465vol. is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Altamirano, Adison; Miranda, Alejandro; Meli, Paula; Dehennin, Joris; Muys, Bart; Prado, Marco; Catalán, Germán; Smith-Ramírez, Cecilia; Bustamante-Sánchez, Marcela; Lisón, Fulgencio; María Rey-Benayas, JoséSpatial congruence among indicators of recovery completeness in a Mediterranean forest landscape: Implications for planning large-scale restorationEcological Indicators10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.03.046Natural regeneration has been proposed as a cost-effective forest restoration approach for both small and largescale initiatives. However, attributes for assessing the success of forest restoration through natural regeneration may vary among them in spatial patterns depending on the scale of analysis and on environmental gradients. Here we analysed the spatial patterns of recovery completeness (i.e. how similar attributes in restored forests are to the same attributes in reference forests) in response to environmental factors in a Mediterranean forest landscape of Central Chile. We evaluated (1) forest recovery completeness using basal area (BA), quadratic mean diameter (QMD), adult species density (ASD), adult species richness (ASR), and seedling species richness (SSR); (2) the spatial congruence of recovery completeness estimated by each of these indicators; and (3) the environmental factors potentially shaping these spatial patterns. We used field measurements and geospatial information sources to quantify and predict indicator responses by fitting boosted regression tree models. To assess the spatial congruence of predictions we overlaid high-level recovery completeness values for all indicators. Overall recovery completeness in the study area was 72.7%, suggesting positive prospects for attaining fully restored forests. Recovery completeness had a resulted higher for diversity (92.3%−99.6%) than structural forest attributes (33.5%−76.9%); however, spatial congruence among recovery indicators was low due to the uneven spatial responses of each indicator. The maximum potential spatial congruence was<10%, and was predicted only by two environmental variables (soil bulk density and slope). Our results suggest that low spatial congruence among forest recovery indicators may hinder the monitoring of restoration at large scales. The implications of such divergence in defining restoration success can be enormous given the current global challenge of forest restoration. Although our research was tested in a threatened region of global importance, our results may have wider significance for restoration planning providing cautionary notes and recommendations for the appropriate use of forest recovery indicators when monitoring large-scale restoration projects.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1470160X19302274752-759vol.102.0 is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Moreno, Karen; Bostelmann, Juan Enrique; Macías, Cintia; Navarro-Harris, Ximena; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Pino, MarioA late Pleistocene human footprint from the Pilauco archaeological site, northern Patagonia, ChilePLOS ONE10.1371/journal.pone.0213572The present study describes the discovery of a singular sedimentary structure corresponding to an ichnite that was excavated at the paleo-archaeological site Pilauco (Osorno, Chile). The trace fossil is associated with megafauna bones, plant material and unifacial lithic tools. Here we present a detailed analysis of the Pilauco ichnite and associated sedimentary structures, as well as new radiocarbon data. The ichnological analysis confidently assigns the trace to the ichnospecies Hominipes modernus—a hominoid footprint usually related to Homo sapiens. Some particular characteristics of the Pilauco trace include an elongated distal hallux, lateral digit impressions obliterated by the collapsed sediment, and sediment lumps inside and around the trace. In order to evaluate the origin of the ichnite, trackmaking experiments are performed on re-hydrated fossil bed sediments. The results demonstrate that a human agent could easily generate a footprint morphology equivalent to the sedimentary structure when walking on a saturated substrate. Based on the evidence, we conclude that the trackmaker might well have been a bare-footed adult human. This finding, along with the presence of lithic artifacts in the same sedimentary levels, might represent further evidence for a pre-Clovis South American colonization of northern Patagonia, as originally proposed for the nearby Monte Verde site.http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0213572e0213572vol.14.0 is.4.0Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Lopatin, Javier; Kattenborn, Teja; Galleguillos, Mauricio; Perez-Quezada, Jorge F.; Schmidtlein, SebastianUsing aboveground vegetation attributes as proxies for mapping peatland belowground carbon stocksRemote Sensing of Environment10.1016/j.rse.2019.111217Peatlands are key reservoirs of belowground carbon (C) and their monitoring is important to assess the rapid changes in the C cycle caused by climate change and direct anthropogenic impacts. Frequently, information of peatland area and vegetation type estimated by remote sensing has been used along with soil measurements and allometric functions to estimate belowground C stocks. Despite the accuracy of such approaches, there is still the need to find mappable proxies that enhance predictions with remote sensing data while reducing field and laboratory efforts. Therefore, we assessed the use of aboveground vegetation attributes as proxies to predict peatland belowground C stocks. First, the ecological relations between remotely detectable vegetation attributes (i.e. vegetation height, aboveground biomass, species richness and floristic composition of vascular plants) and belowground C stocks were obtained using structural equation modeling (SEM). SEM was formulated using expert knowledge and trained and validated using in-situ information. Second, the SEM latent vectors were spatially mapped using random forests regressions with UAV-based hyperspectral and structural information. Finally, this enabled us to map belowground C stocks using the SEM functions parameterized with the random forests derived maps. This SEM approach resulted in higher accuracies than a direct application of a purely data-driven random forests approach with UAV data, with improvements of r2 from 0.39 to 0.54, normalized RMSE from 31.33% to 20.24% and bias from −0.73 to 0.05. Our case study showed that: (1) vegetation height, species richness and aboveground biomass are good proxies to map peatland belowground C stocks, as they can be estimated using remote sensing data and hold strong relationships with the belowground C gradient; and (2) SEM is facilitates to incorporate theoretical knowledge in empirical modeling approaches.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0034425719302305111217vol.231.0 is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos; Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Alvarez-Garreton, Camila; Lara, Antonio; Boisier, Juan Pablo; Galleguillos, MauricioThe Impacts of Native Forests and Forest Plantation on Water Supply in ChileForests10.3390/f10060473Over the past 40 years, south-central Chile has experienced important land-use-induced land cover changes, with massive conversion from native forests (NF) to Pinus radiata D.Don and Eucalyptus spp. exotic forest plantations (FP). Several case studies have related this conversion to a reduction in water supply within small catchments (<100 ha). In this work, we explore the impacts of NF and FP on streamflow by using a large-sample catchment dataset recently developed for Chile. We select 25 large forested catchments (>20,000 ha) in south-central Chile (35° S–41° S), analyze their land cover and precipitation spatial distributions, and fit a regression model to quantify the influence of NF, FP, grassland (GRA) and shrubland (SHR) partitions on annual runoff. To assess potential effects of land cover changes on water supply, we use the fitted model (R2 = 0.84) in synthetic experiments where NF, GRA and SHR covers within the catchments are replaced by patches of FP. We show that annual runoff consistently decreases with increments of FP, although the magnitude of the change (ranging from 2.2% to 7.2% mean annual runoff decrease for 10,000 ha increment in FP) depends on several factors, including the initial land cover partition within the basin, the replaced land cover class, the area of the catchment, and the type of catchment (drier or humid). Finally, in the context of the mitigation strategies pledged in the Chilean NDC (Nationally Determined Contributions defined after the Paris Agreement), which include the afforestation of 100,000 ha (mainly native forest) by 2030, we quantify the impacts on water supply due to the afforestation of 100,000 ha with different combinations of NF and FP. We show that annual runoff is highly sensitive to the relative area of FP to NF: ratios of FP to NF areas of 10%, 50% and 90% would lead to 3%, −18% and −40% changes in mean annual runoff, respectively. Our results can be used in the discussion of public policies and decision-making involving forests and land cover changes, as they provide scientifically-based tools to quantify expected impacts on water resources. In particular, this knowledge is relevant for decision making regarding mitigation strategies pledged in the Chilean NDC.https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/10/6/473473vol.10.0 is.6Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Alaniz, Alberto J.; Pérez‐Quezada, Jorge F.; Galleguillos, Mauricio; Vásquez, Alexis E.; Keith, David A.Operationalizing the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems in public policyConservation Letters10.1111/conl.12665Threats to ecosystems are closely linked to human development, whereas lack, insufficiency, and inefficiency of public policies are important drivers of environmental decline. Previous studies have discussed the contribution of IUCN's Red List of Ecosystems (RLE) in conservation issues; however, its applications in different policy fields and instruments for achieving biodiversity conservation have not been explored in detail. Here, we introduce a framework to operationalize the RLE in public policy, facilitating work of governments, practitioners, and decision makers. Our analysis identified 20 policy instruments that could reduce risks to ecosystems highlighted by different Red List criteria. We discuss how RLE could inform the policy process by analyzing different instruments that could be designed, implemented, and modified to achieve risk reduction. We also present practical examples from around the world showing how ecosystem conservation could be improved by operationalizing the RLE in policy instruments. The RLE criteria can inform the policy process by helping to shape objectives and identifying policy instruments that directly address the causes and severity of risks illuminated in Red List assessments. We conclude that RLE could be expanded into a broader holistic spectrum of policy instruments, which could be a key to achieving the ecosystem conservation.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/conl.12665vol. is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Miranda, Alejandro; Vásquez, Inao A.; Becerra, Pablo; Smith-Ramírez, Cecilia; Delpiano, Cristian A.; Hernández-Moreno, Angela; Altamirano, AdisonTraits of perch trees promote seed dispersal of endemic fleshy-fruit species in degraded areas of endangered Mediterranean ecosystemsJournal of Arid Environments10.1016/j.jaridenv.2019.103995The presence and attributes of perch trees in degraded areas may promote seed dispersal. We evaluated the effect of the distance from remnant forest fragments on seed rain of different fleshy-fruit tree species and examined whether the seed rain is favoured by some traits of the perch trees (Acacia caven), such as canopy diameter and tree height. The study was carried out in two localities of central Chile with extensive “espinales” adjacent to remnant fragments of sclerophyllous forest. We installed 210 seed traps under the same number of A. caven trees along 10 transects in the two study areas. We set up the seed traps between 1 and 100 m away from forest fragments. We found a significant negative relationship between seed rain and distance. We also found a positive relationship between seed rain and the height and canopy diameter of the perch tree. Our results suggest that different woody species are able to disperse into the espinal, and that bigger A. caven trees are better perches than smaller individuals. We propose that at distances up to at least 100 m from forest fragments, seed availability does not limit natural regeneration into espinales.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0140196319300862103995vol. is.Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos; Ciudades Resilientes; Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Muñoz, Ariel A.; Klock-Barría, Karin; Sheppard, Paul R.; Aguilera-Betti, Isabella; Toledo-Guerrero, Isadora; Christie, Duncan A.; Gorena, Tamara; Gallardo, Laura; González-Reyes, Álvaro; Lara, Antonio; Lambert, Fabrice; Gayo, Eugenia; Barraza, Francisco; Chávez, Roberto O.Multidecadal environmental pollution in a mega-industrial area in central Chile registered by tree ringsScience of The Total Environment10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133915One of the most polluted areas in Chile is the Ventanas Industrial Area (VIA; 32.74°S / 71.48°W), which started in 1958 and today comprises around 16 industries in an area of ca. 4 km2. A lack of consistent long-term instrumental records precludes assessing the history of contamination in the area and also limits the evaluation of mitigation actions taken since the late 1980s. Here, we use dendrochemistry as an environmental proxy to analyze environmental changes over several decades at the VIA. We present chemical measurements of tree rings from planted, exotic Cupressus macrocarpa growing near the VIA with 4-year resolution over a period of 52 years (1960–2011). These data provide unprecedented information on regional anthropogenic pollution and are compared with a tree-ring elemental record of 48 years (1964–2011) from the Isla Negra (INE) control site not exposed to VIA emissions. For the 48 years of overlap between both sites, higher concentrations of Zn, V, Co, Cd, Ag, Fe, Cr, and Al were especially registered after the year 2000 at VIA compared to INE for the periods under study. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, As, Fe, Mo, Cr, and Zn increased through time, particularly over the period 1980–1990. Decontamination plans activated in 1992 appear to have had a positive effect on the amount of some elements, but the chemical concentration in the tree rings suggest continued accumulation of pollutants in the environment. Only after several years of implementation of the mitigation measures have some elements tended to decrease in concentration, especially at the end of the evaluated period. Dendrochemistry is a useful tool to provide a long-term perspective of the dynamics of trace metal pollution and represents a powerful approach to monitor air quality variability to extend the instrumental records back in time.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969719338653133915vol.696.0 is.Thomson Reuters ISI