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Papers and publications

1. Papers published in scientific magazines

Línea de InvestigaciónAñoAutoresTítuloRevistaFicha de PublicaciónDOIAbstractAccesoPáginasVolumenIndexKey Words
Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2021Valencia, Felipe; Billi, Marco; Urquiza, AnahíOvercoming energy poverty through micro-grids: An integrated framework for resilient, participatory sociotechnical transitionsEnergy Research & Social Science10.1016/j.erss.2021.102030Nowadays, the sustainability of micro-grids has received much attention in the research community since micro-grids are becoming an appealing alternative to provide clean energy access to rural communities, and by this token, contribute to overcome energy poverty. The aim of this paper was to investigate the sustainability of micro-grids through the analysis of their resilience. In this regard, an integrated framework was developed combining socio-technical transitions with socio-ecological resilience concepts. This allows to pay attention at once to two dimensions of micro-grid sustainability: (i) the ability of the micro-grid to effectively transform the relationship between community, energy, and territory to make it more sustainable in economic, social and environmental terms; (ii) the sustainability of the micro-grid itself, namely, its ability to endure, adapt to and recover from changes in contextual factors which may limit its operativity over time. Methodological guidelines are offered for the participatory co-construction and monitoring of the micro-grid and its monitoring, supporting both dimensions. To illustrate our proposal, the micro-grid installed in Huatacondo, north of Chile, was used as test-bed.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S221462962100123710203075.0Thomson Reuters ISIchile, energy poverty, micro-grids, participatory co-construction, socio-ecological resilience, socio-technical transitions, sustainability
Ciudades Resilientes; Agua y Extremos2021Henríquez, Carla A.; Moreno, Patricio I.; Lambert, Fabrice; Alloway, Brent V.The role of climate and disturbance regimes upon temperate rainforests during the Holocene: A stratigraphic perspective from Lago Fonk (∼40°S), northwestern PatagoniaQuaternary Science Reviews10.1016/j.quascirev.2021.106890https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0277379121000974106890258.0Thomson Reuters ISIcharcoal, explosives, fires, forestry, stratigraphy, volcanoes, centennial/millennial-scale variability, climate regime, disturbance regime, explosive volcanism, fire disturbance, holocenes, lake sediment cores, patagonia, pollen analysis, temperate rainforest, lakes, charcoal, climate variation, disturbance, explosive volcanism, fossil record, holocene, rainforest, stratigraphy, temperate forest, vegetation dynamics, chile, cumbria, england, lake district, longitudinal valley, patagonia, taiwan, united kingdom, eucryphia
Agua y Extremos2021Aguayo, Rodrigo; León-Muñoz, Jorge; Garreaud, René; Montecinos, AldoHydrological droughts in the southern Andes (40–45°S) from an ensemble experiment using CMIP5 and CMIP6 modelsScientific Reports10.1038/s41598-021-84807-4Abstract The decrease in freshwater input to the coastal system of the Southern Andes (40–45°S) during the last decades has altered the physicochemical characteristics of the coastal water column, causing significant environmental, social and economic consequences. Considering these impacts, the objectives were to analyze historical severe droughts and their climate drivers, and to evaluate the hydrological impacts of climate change in the intermediate future (2040–2070). Hydrological modelling was performed in the Puelo River basin (41°S) using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model. The hydrological response and its uncertainty were compared using different combinations of CMIP projects (n = 2), climate models (n = 5), scenarios (n = 3) and univariate statistical downscaling methods (n = 3). The 90 scenarios projected increases in the duration, hydrological deficit and frequency of severe droughts of varying duration (1 to 6 months). The three downscaling methodologies converged to similar results, with no significant differences between them. In contrast, the hydroclimatic projections obtained with the CMIP6 and CMIP5 models found significant climatic (greater trends in summer and autumn) and hydrological (longer droughts) differences. It is recommended that future climate impact assessments adapt the new simulations as more CMIP6 models become available.http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-84807-4553011.0Thomson Reuters ISI
Zonas Costeras2021Vargas, Cristian A.; Cantarero, Sebastian I.; Sepúlveda, Julio; Galán, Alexander; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Walker, Brett; Schneider, Wolfgang; Farías, Laura; D’Ottone, Marcela Cornejo; Walker, Jennifer; Xu, Xiaomei; Salisbury, JoeA source of isotopically light organic carbon in a low-pH anoxic marine zoneNature Communications10.1038/s41467-021-21871-4Abstract Geochemical and stable isotope measurements in the anoxic marine zone (AMZ) off northern Chile during periods of contrasting oceanographic conditions indicate that microbial processes mediating sulfur and nitrogen cycling exert a significant control on the carbonate chemistry (pH, A T , DIC and p CO 2 ) of this region. Here we show that in 2015, a large isotopic fractionation between DIC and POC, a DIC and N deficit in AMZ waters indicate the predominance of in situ dark carbon fixation by sulfur-driven autotrophic denitrification in addition to anammox. In 2018, however, the fractionation between DIC and POC was significantly lower, while the total alkalinity increased in the low-pH AMZ core, suggesting a predominance of heterotrophic processes. An isotope mass-balance model demonstrates that variations in the rates of sulfur- and nitrogen-mediated carbon fixation in AMZ waters contribute ~7–35% of the POC exported to deeper waters. Thus, dark carbon fixation should be included in assessments of future changes in carbon cycling and carbonate chemistry due to AMZ expansion.http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-21871-4160412.0Thomson Reuters ISIcarbon, carbonic acid, nitrogen, organic carbon, oxygen, sulfur, water, anoxic conditions, carbon fixation, carbonate system, denitrification, isotopic fractionation, organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, stable isotope, alkalinity, anaerobic ammonium oxidation, article, carbon cycling, carbon dioxide tension, carbon fixation, denitrification, fractionation, heterotrophy, inorganic nutrient, light, microbial community, ph, salinity, temperature, chile
Zonas Costeras; Agua y Extremos2021Carrasco, Jorge F.; Bozkurt, Deniz; Cordero, Raul R.A review of the observed air temperature in the Antarctic Peninsula. Did the warming trend come back after the early 21st hiatus?Polar Science10.1016/j.polar.2021.100653Recent changes in the near-surface air temperature (nSAT) in the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) suggests that the absence of 21st century warming on Antarctic Peninsula may be coming to end. To examine this, the long-term annual and seasonal variability of the nSAT at eight Antarctic stations located in the AP are analyzed using available data from the SCAR Reader database, complemented with data from the Chilean Weather Service (Frei and O’Higgins). An exponential lter was applied to the original annual and seasonal mean series to obtain a decadal-like variation of the nSAT. A stacked and the standardized anomaly of the nSAT record was constructed to examine the average regional behavior in the AP. Cumulative sum (CUSUM) and changepoint analysis were applied through the stacked nSAT series to highlight signi cant changes caused by variation in weather and climate. The CUSUM and bootstrapping analysis revealed two statistically signi cant breaking points during the 1978–2020 period. The rst one occurred in the late nineties ending a warming period and making the beginning of a cooling period; the second one may have taken place in the mid-2010s and could mark the end of the warming pause. These trends appear to be consistent with the changes observed in the large-scale climate modes (i.e., the Antarctic Annular Mode – AAO).https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1873965221000189100653Thomson Reuters ISIair temperature, antarctic peninsula, change point, reader database, warming and cooling trends
Ciudades Resilientes2021Toro A., Richard; Catalán, Francisco; Urdanivia, Francesco R.; Rojas, Jhojan P.; Manzano, Carlos A.; Seguel, Rodrigo; Gallardo, Laura; Osses, Mauricio; Pantoja, Nicolás; Leiva-Guzman, Manuel A.Air pollution and COVID-19 lockdown in a large South American city: Santiago Metropolitan Area, ChileUrban Climate10.1016/j.uclim.2021.100803The implementation of confinement and physical distancing measures to restrict people's activities and transit in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic allowed us to study how these measures affect the air quality in urban areas with high pollution rates, such as Santiago, Chile. A comparative study between the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, NOx, CO, and O3 during the months of March to May 2020 and the corresponding concentrations during the same period in 2017–2019 is presented. A combination of surface measurements from the air quality monitoring network of the city, remote satellite measurements, and simulations of traffic activity and road transport emissions allowed us to quantify the change in the average concentrations of each pollutant. Average relative changes of traffic emissions (between 61% and 68%) implied statistically significant concentrations reductions of 54%, 13%, and 11% for NOx, CO, and PM2.5, respectively, during the pandemic period compared to historical period. In contrast, the average concentration of O3 increased by 63% during 2020 compared to 2017–2019. The nonlinear response observed in the pollution levels can be attributed to the changes in the vehicular emission patterns during the pandemic and to the role of other sources such as residential emissions or secondary PM.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S221209552100033X10080336.0Thomson Reuters ISIcovid-19 lockdown, traffic emission rates, urban air quality
Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Agua y Extremos; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2021Galleguillos, Mauricio; Gimeno, Fernando; Puelma, Cristóbal; Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio; Lara, Antonio; Rojas, MaisaDisentangling the effect of future land use strategies and climate change on streamflow in a Mediterranean catchment dominated by tree plantationsJournal of Hydrology10.1016/j.jhydrol.2021.126047Climate change (CC) along with Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) have a strong influence in water availability in already fragile Mediterranean ecosystems. In this work the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was implemented for the 2006–2018 period in a rainfed catchment of central Chile (36°) to test the hypothesis that adaptive plantation strategies could mitigate the impacts of climate change and increase streamflow. We also hypothesize that afforestation with exotic tree plantations will reduce water availability in Mediterranean catchments, acting in synergy with climate change. Five LULCC scenarios are analyzed: i) current long-term national Forest Policy (FP), ii) extreme scenario (EX) with large afforestation surfaces, both including the replacement of native shrublands with Pinus radiata; iii) adaptive plantation management scenario (FM), with lower planting density, iv) forced land displacement scenario (FLD), where plantations at the headwaters are moved to lowland areas and replaced with native shrublands, and v) pristine scenario (PR), with only native vegetation. Each LULCC scenario was run with present climate and with projections of different CMIP5 climate models under the RCP 8.5 scenario for the period 2037–2050, and then compared against simulations based on the present land cover and climate. Simulations with the five LULCC scenarios (FP, EX, FM, FLD and PR) with present climate resulted in variations of −2.5, −17.3, 0, 2.3 and 10.9% on mean annual streamflow (Q), while simulations with the current land cover and CC projections produced a 32.1% decrease in mean annual Q. The joint impact of CC and LULCC leads to changes in mean annual Q ranging from −46.2% (EX) to –23.3% (PR). Afforestation with exotic pines will intensify the reduction in water yield, while conservative scenarios focused on native forests protection and restoration could partially mitigate the effect of CC. We make a strong call to rethink current and future land management strategies to cope with lower water availability in a drier future.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022169421000949126047595.0Thomson Reuters ISIcatchments, climate models, conservation, land use, reforestation, runoff, stream flow, land use and land cover change, land-use strategies, mediterranean catchment, mediterranean ecosystem, plantation managements, protection and restoration, soil and water assessment tool, water availability, climate change, afforestation, catchment, climate change, coniferous forest, coniferous tree, land cover, land use, land use change, shrubland, soil and water assessment tool, streamflow, tree planting, mediterranean region, pinus radiata
Ciudades Resilientes; Agua y Extremos; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2021Ancapichún, Santiago; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Christie, Duncan A.; Santos, Guaciara M.; Collado-Fabbri, Silvana; Garreaud, René; Lambert, Fabrice; Orfanoz-Cheuquelaf, Andrea; Rojas, Maisa; Southon, John; Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Creasman, Pearce PaulRadiocarbon bomb-peak signal in tree-rings from the tropical Andes register low latitude atmospheric dynamics in the Southern HemisphereScience of The Total Environment10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145126South American tropical climate is strongly related to the tropical low-pressure belt associated with the South American monsoon system. Despite its central societal role as a modulating agent of rainfall in tropical South America, its long-term dynamical variability is still poorly understood. Here we combine a new (and world's highest) tree-ring 14C record from the Altiplano plateau in the central Andes with other 14C records from the Southern Hemisphere during the second half of the 20th century in order to elucidate the latitudinal gradients associated with the dissemination of the bomb 14C signal. Our tree-ring 14C record faithfully captured the bomb signal of the 1960's with an excellent match to atmospheric 14C measured in New Zealand but with significant differences with a recent record from Southeast Brazil located at almost equal latitude. These results imply that the spreading of the bomb signal throughout the Southern Hemisphere was a complex process that depended on atmospheric dynamics and surface topography generating reversals on the expected north-south gradient in certain years. We applied air-parcel modeling based on climate data to disentangle their different geographical provenances and their preformed (reservoir affected) radiocarbon content. We found that air parcel trajectories arriving at the Altiplano during the bomb period were sourced i) from the boundary layer in contact with the Pacific Ocean (41%), ii) from the upper troposphere (air above the boundary layer, with no contact with oceanic or continental carbon reservoirs) (38%) and iii) from the Amazon basin (21%). Based on these results we estimated the ∆14C endmember values for the different carbon reservoirs affecting our record which suggest that the Amazon basin biospheric 14C isoflux could have been reversed from negative to positive as early as the beginning of the 1970's. This would imply a much faster carbon turnover rate in the Amazon than previously modelled.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969721001923145126774.0Thomson Reuters ISIboundary layers, carbon, forestry, topography, tropics, atmospheric dynamics, carbon reservoirs, continental carbons, geographical provenances, latitudinal gradients, southern hemisphere, tropical climates, upper troposphere, bombs (ordnance), carbon 14, atmospheric circulation, atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric modeling, carbon isotope, latitudinal gradient, paleoclimate, radiocarbon dating, southern hemisphere, tree ring, amazonas (brazil), araucaria, araucaria angustifolia, article, atmosphere, atmospheric circulation, bomb, bomb signal, carbon reservoir effect, chile, controlled study, environmental impact, environmental parameters, geographic distribution, latitude, new zealand, nonhuman, pacific ocean, plant structures, polylepis tarapacana, priority journal, rosaceae, southern hemisphere, surface topography, topography, tree ring, troposphere, turnover rate, bomb, brazil, sea, tree, amazon basin, andes, brazil, new zealand, pacific ocean, bombs, brazil, oceans and seas, pacific ocean, trees
Zonas Costeras; Agua y Extremos2021Bozkurt, Deniz; Bromwich, David H.; Carrasco, Jorge; Rondanelli, RobertoTemperature and precipitation projections for the Antarctic Peninsula over the next two decades: contrasting global and regional climate model simulationsClimate Dynamics10.1007/s00382-021-05667-2This study presents near future (2020–2044) temperature and precipitation changes over the Antarctic Peninsula under the high-emission scenario (RCP8.5). We make use of historical and projected simulations from 19 global climate models (GCMs) participating in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). We compare and contrast GCMs projections with two groups of regional climate model simulations (RCMs): (1) high resolution (15-km) simulations performed with Polar-WRF model forced with bias-corrected NCAR-CESM1 (NC-CORR) over the Antarctic Peninsula, (2) medium resolution (50-km) simulations of KNMI-RACMO21P forced with EC-EARTH (EC) obtained from the CORDEX-Antarctica. A further comparison of historical simulations (1981–2005) with respect to ERA5 reanalysis is also included for circulation patterns and near-surface temperature climatology. In general, both RCM boundary conditions represent well the main circulation patterns of the historical period. Nonetheless, there are important differences in projections such as a notable deepening and weakening of the Amundsen Sea Low in EC and NC-CORR, respectively. Mean annual near-surface temperatures are projected to increase by about 0.5–1.5 ∘C across the entire peninsula. Temperature increase is more substantial in autumn and winter (∼ 2 ∘C). Following opposite circulation pattern changes, both EC and NC-CORR exhibit different warming rates, indicating a possible continuation of natural decadal variability. Although generally showing similar temperature changes, RCM projections show less warming and a smaller increase in melt days in the Larsen Ice Shelf compared to their respective driving fields. Regarding precipitation, there is a broad agreement among the simulations, indicating an increase in mean annual precipitation (∼ 5 to 10%). However, RCMs show some notable differences over the Larsen Ice Shelf where total precipitation decreases (for RACMO) and shows a small increase in rain frequency. We conclude that it seems still difficult to get consistent projections from GCMs for the Antarctic Peninsula as depicted in both RCM boundary conditions. In addition, dominant and common changes from the boundary conditions are largely evident in the RCM simulations. We argue that added value of RCM projections is driven by processes shaped by finer local details and different physics schemes that are introduced by RCMs, particularly over the Larsen Ice Shelf.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00382-021-05667-2Thomson Reuters ISIair temperature, climate change, climate modeling, cmip, downscaling, extreme event, global climate, precipitation assessment, regional climate, antarctic peninsula, antarctica, larsen ice shelf, west antarctica
Agua y Extremos2021Benra, F.; De Frutos, A.; Gaglio, M.; Álvarez-Garretón, C.; Felipe-Lucia, M.; Bonn, A.Mapping water ecosystem services: Evaluating InVEST model predictions in data scarce regionsEnvironmental Modelling & Software10.1016/j.envsoft.2021.104982Sustainable management of water ecosystem services requires reliable information to support decision making. We evaluate the performance of the InVEST Seasonal Water Yield Model (SWYM) against water monitoring records in 224 catchments in southern Chile. We run the SWYM in three years (1998, 2007 and 2013) to account for recent land-use change and climatic variations. We computed squared Pearson correlations between SWYM monthly quickflow predictions and streamflow observations and applied a generalized mixed‐effects model to evaluate annual estimations. Results show relatively low monthly correlations with marked latitudinal and temporal variations while annual estimates show a good match between observed and modeled values, especially for values under 1000 mm/year. Better predictions were observed in regions with high rainfall and in dry years while poorer predictions were found in snow dominated and drier regions. Our results improve SWYM performance and contribute to water supply and regulation decision-making, particularly in data scarce regions.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1364815221000256104982138.0Thomson Reuters ISIecosystems, forecasting, hydrogeology, land use, water management, water supply, climatic variation, land-use change, model prediction, pearson correlation, sustainable management, temporal variation, water ecosystems, water monitoring, decision making, decision support system, ecosystem service, estimation method, least squares method, performance assessment, prediction, streamflow, sustainable development, water supply, chile
Agua y Extremos2021Díaz, Patricio A.; Peréz-Santos, Iván; Álvarez, Gonzalo; Garreaud, René; Pinilla, Elías; Díaz, Manuel; Sandoval, Alondra; Araya, Michael; Álvarez, Francisco; Rengel, José; Montero, Paulina; Pizarro, Gemita; López, Loreto; Iriarte, Luis; Igor, Gabriela; Reguera, BeatrizMultiscale physical background to an exceptional harmful algal bloom of Dinophysis acuta in a fjord systemScience of The Total Environment10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145621Dinophysis acuta produces diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins and pectenotoxins (PTX). It blooms in thermally-stratified shelf waters in late summer in temperate to cold temperate latitudes. Despite its major contribution to shellfish harvesting bans, little effort has been devoted to study its population dynamics in Chilean Patagonia. In 2017–2018, mesoscale distribution of harmful algal species (75 monitoring stations) revealed the initiation (late spring) and seasonal growth of a dense D. acuta population in the Aysén region, with maximal values at Puyuhuapi Fjord (PF). Vertical phytoplankton distribution and fine-resolution measurements of physical parameters along a 25-km transect in February 16th identified a 15-km (horizontal extension) subsurface thin layer of D. acuta from 4 to 8 m depth. This layer, disrupted at the confluence of PF with the Magdalena Sound, peaked at the top of the pycnocline (6 m, 15.9 °C, 23.4 psu) where static stability was maximal. By February 22nd, it deepened (8 m, 15.5 °C; 23.62 psu) following the excursions of the pycnocline and reached the highest density ever recorded (664 × 103 cells L−1) for this species. Dinophysis acuta was the dominant Dinophysis species in all microplankton net-tows/bottle samples; they all contained DSP toxins (OA, DTX-1) and PTX-2. Modeled flushing rates showed that Puyuhuapi, the only fjord in the area with 2 connections with the open sea, had the highest water residence time. Long term climate variability in the Southern hemisphere showed the effects of a Southern Annular Mode (SAM) in positive mode (+1.1 hPa) overwhelming a moderate La Niña. These effects included positive spring precipitation anomalies with enhanced salinity gradients and summer drought with positive anomalies in air (+1 °C) and sea surface (+2 °C) temperature. Locally, persistent thermal stratification in PF seemed to provide an optimal physical habitat for initiation and bloom development of D. acuta. Thus, in summer 2018, a favourable combination of meteorological and hydrographic processes of multiple scales created conditions that promoted the development of a widespread bloom of D. acuta with its epicentre at the head of Puyuhuapi fjord.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969721006896145621773.0Thomson Reuters ISIalgae control, oceanography, plankton, plants (botany), population statistics, residence time distribution, shellfish, surface waters, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, harmful algal blooms, long-term climate variability, mesoscale distribution, phytoplankton distributions, southern annular mode, thermally stratified, water residence time, protozoa, alga, algal bloom, climate effect, climate variation, flagellate, geographical distribution, growth rate, poisoning, population dynamics, southern hemisphere, toxin, alga, algal bloom, algal growth, article, chile, climate change, dinophysis acuta, environmental monitoring, hydrography, meteorological phenomena, microplankton, nonhuman, physical parameters, priority journal, salinity, sea surface temperature, seasonal variation, southern hemisphere, species distribution, thermoregulation, water residence time, algal bloom, dinoflagellate, estuary, human, chile, patagonia, dinophysis acuta, shellfish poisoning, chile, dinoflagellida, estuaries, harmful algal bloom, humans, shellfish poisoning
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2021Urrutia-Jalabert, R.; Barichivich, J.; Rozas, V.; Lara, A.; Rojas, Y.; Bahamondez, C.; Rojas-Badilla, M.; Gipoulou-Zuñiga, T.; Cuq, E.Climate response and drought resilience of Nothofagus obliqua secondary forests across a latitudinal gradient in south-central ChileForest Ecology and Management10.1016/j.foreco.2021.118962The climate response and resilience of tree growth to drought events have been widely reported for forests from the Northern Hemisphere. However, studies are much scarcer in the extra-tropical forests of southern South America. Mediterranean and Temperate forests of Chile are suffering from a moderate warming and a sustained precipitation decrease, occurring on top of an unprecedented megadrought since 2010. This study evaluated tree-growth patterns, the climate response and drought resilience of nine secondary Nothofagus obliqua forests across a latitudinal gradient from Mediterranean to Temperate climate in the Andes of Chile (35.7° to 40.3° S). Moreover, to improve the understanding of the spatial variation in productivity patterns, this research assessed trends in the maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (peak in the NDVI) across the gradient for 2001–2018. Tree-growth patterns were highly influenced by stand dynamics, with steep decreasing trends in most of the stands related to a gradual canopy closure. Productivity trends had a flat pattern north of 38oS, but positive trends south of this latitude, which were mostly attributed to stand development. Tree growth was positively related to precipitation in all the sites, with annual and summer rainfall being more important in the north (Mediterranean climate) and south (Temperate climate), respectively. Conversely, maximum temperature had a negative effect on growth in most of the studied forests. This implies that projected warmer and drier conditions may have a detrimental effect on N. obliqua growth during coming decades. The two northern stands, located at the species dry range edge, were among the most resilient to drought and have not been strongly affected by the current megadrought in the area. Overall climate conditions, however, do not define the tolerance of stands to droughts, likely because local environmental and forests conditions play a key role. Although droughts have not strongly impacted the growth of N. obliqua across its distribution so far, future studies should assess the effects of the current long-term megadrought on growth resilience, and physiological studies should address the impacts of droughts and heat waves on forest function beyond what growth can unveil.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378112721000517118962485.0Thomson Reuters ISIclimatology, drought, productivity, rain, climate condition, latitudinal gradients, maximum temperature, mediterranean climates, normalized difference vegetation index, northern hemispheres, southern south america, spatial variations, forestry, climate effect, drought resistance, heat wave, latitudinal gradient, ndvi, northern hemisphere, rainfall, secondary forest, spatial variation, drought, forestry, forests, growth, meteorology, productivity, rain, trees, andes, chile, nothofagus obliqua
Agua y Extremos2021Alvarez-Garreton, Camila; Boisier, Juan Pablo; Garreaud, René; Seibert, Jan; Vis, MarcProgressive water deficits during multiyear droughts in basins with long hydrological memory in ChileHydrology and Earth System Sciences10.5194/hess-25-429-2021Abstract. A decade-long (2010–2020) period with precipitation deficits in central–south Chile (30–41∘ S), the so-called megadrought (MD), has led to streamflow depletions of larger amplitude than expected from precipitation anomalies, indicating an intensification in drought propagation. We analysed the catchment characteristics and runoff mechanisms modulating such intensification by using the CAMELS-CL dataset and simulations from the HBV hydrological model. We compared annual precipitation–runoff (P–R) relationships before and during the MD across 106 basins with varying snow-/rainfall regimes and identified those catchments where drought propagation was intensified. Our results show that catchments' hydrological memory – modulated by snow and groundwater – is a key control of drought propagation. Snow-dominated catchments (30–35∘ S) feature larger groundwater contribution to streamflow than pluvial basins, which we relate to the infiltration of snowmelt over the Western Andean Front. This leads to longer memory in these basins, represented by a significative correlation between autumn streamflow (when snow has already melted) and the precipitation from the preceding year. Hence, under persistent drought conditions, snow-dominated catchments accumulate the effects of precipitation deficits and progressively generate less water, compared with their historical behaviour, notably affecting central Chile, a region with limited water supply and which concentrates most of the country's population and water demands. Finally, we addressed a general question: what is worse – an extreme single-year drought or a persistent moderate drought? In snow-dominated basins, where water provision strongly depends on both the current and previous precipitation seasons, an extreme drought induces larger absolute streamflow deficits; however persistent deficits induce a more intensified propagation of the meteorological drought. Hence, the worst scenario would be an extreme meteorological drought following consecutive years of precipitation below average, as occurred in 2019. In pluvial basins of southern Chile (35–41∘ S), hydrologic memory is still an important factor, but water supply is more strongly dependant on the meteorological conditions of the current year, and therefore an extreme drought would have a higher impact on water supply than a persistent but moderate drought.https://hess.copernicus.org/articles/25/429/2021/429-44625.0Thomson Reuters ISIcatchments, groundwater, runoff, snow, stream flow, water supply, annual precipitation, catchment characteristics, hydrological modeling, limited water supplies, meteorological condition, meteorological drought, precipitation anomalies, precipitation deficits, drought, catchment, drought, groundwater-surface water interaction, hydrological modeling, meteorology, precipitation (climatology), rainfall, runoff, snowmelt, streamflow, chile
Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Agua y Extremos2021Barría, Pilar; Chadwick, Cristián; Ocampo-Melgar, Anahí; Galleguillos, Mauricio; Garreaud, Rene; Díaz-Vasconcellos, Raúl; Poblete, David; Rubio-Álvarez, Eduardo; Poblete-Caballero, DagobertoWater management or megadrought: what caused the Chilean Aculeo Lake drying?Regional Environmental Change10.1007/s10113-021-01750-wThe Aculeo Lake is an important natural reservoir of Central Chile, which provides valuable ecosystem services. This lake has suffered a rapid shrinkage of the water levels from year 2010 to 2018, and since October 2018, it is completely dry. This natural disaster is concurrent with a number of severe and uninterrupted drought years, along with sustained increases in water consumption associated to land use/land cover (LULC) changes. Severe water shortages and socio-environmental impacts were triggered by these changes, emphasizing the need to understand the causes of the lake desiccation to contribute in the design of future adaptation strategies. Thereby, the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) hydrological model was used as a tool to quantify the water balance in the catchment. The model was run under a combination of three land use/land cover and two different climate scenarios that sample the cases with and without megadrought and with or without changes in land use. According to the results, the main triggering factor of the lake shrinkage is the severe megadrought, with annual rainfall deficits of about 38%, which resulted in amplified reductions in river flows (44%) and aquifer recharges (24%). The results indicate that the relative impact of the climate factor is more than 10 times larger than the impact of the observed LULC changes in the lake balance, highlighting the urgent need for adaptation strategies to deal with the projected drier futures.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10113-021-01750-w1921.0Thomson Reuters ISIanthropogenic, attribution, decision making, drought, land use/land cover, water budget
Agua y Extremos2021Rojas, Yazmina; Minder, Justin R.; Campbell, Leah S.; Massmann, Adam; Garreaud, ReneAssessment of GPM IMERG satellite precipitation estimation and its dependence on microphysical rain regimes over the mountains of south-central ChileAtmospheric Research10.1016/j.atmosres.2021.105454Satellite data provide crucial information for those places lacking precipitation observations from ground-based sensors, especially over oceans, mountain regions, or developing countries. This is the case over much of South America, including Chile, a country with complex topography that has limited long-term precipitation records and high-elevation data, and no operational weather radars. This study focuses on investigating the skill of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Integrated Multi-Satellite Retrieval for GPM (IMERG: version 6) quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). IMERG is assessed against ground-based observations from two field campaigns that took place near 36°S: The Chilean Coastal Orographic Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE; winter 2015), which collected data over the coastal mountain range, and The Chilean Orographic and Mesoscale Precipitation Study (ChOMPS; winter 2016), which collected observations in a transect from the coast to the Andes. To characterize how IMERG performance depends on microphysical regime, we used data from profiling radars and rain gauge measurements to classify rainfall into regimes including “ice-initiated rain” and “warm rain”, characterized by the presence or absence of a well-defined melting layer respectively. Rain gauge data was used to evaluate performance of IMERG QPE overall and for these two regimes. IMERG depicts the general spatial pattern of observed orographic enhancement but highly underestimates the magnitude of this enhancement. At higher elevations during CCOPE, IMERG underestimated the total amount of rainfall by 50%, while during ChOMPS the underestimation was by 16%. For CCOPE, at higher elevation sites, IMERG underestimated ice-initiated rain by 30% and underestimated warm rain by 70%. For ChOMPS, the underestimation at the Andes site was 33% for ice-initiated rain and 50% for warm rain. IMERG QPE for both field campaigns showed larger underestimations for warm rain periods and at higher elevations than for ice-initiated rain periods. Documenting how IMERG performance varies with terrain and microphysical regime may help guide improvements to satellite-based QPE.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0169809521000065105454253.0Thomson Reuters ISIdeveloping countries, ice, landforms, meteorological radar, radar measurement, rain gages, satellites, space-based radar, topography, complex topographies, global precipitation measurements, ground based sensors, ground-based observations, orographic enhancement, orographic precipitation, quantitative precipitation estimation, satellite precipitation, rain, assessment method, cloud microphysics, estimation method, precipitation assessment, satellite data, satellite imagery, spatiotemporal analysis, chile
Agua y Extremos2021Matskovsky, V.; Venegas-González, A.; Garreaud, R.; Roig, Fidel A.; Gutiérrez, Alvaro G.; Muñoz, Ariel A; Le Quesne, C.; Klock, K.; Canales, C.Tree growth decline as a response to projected climate change in the 21st century in Mediterranean mountain forests of ChileGlobal and Planetary Change10.1016/j.gloplacha.2020.103406Global Climate Models project that observed climate trends are likely to be preserved and the number of extreme events will be increasing during the rest of the 21st century, which may have a detrimental impact on forest ecosystems. These impacts may include forest decline and widespread dieback of the most vulnerable biomes, such as the Mediterranean Forest of Central Chile (MFCC). Nothofagus macrocarpa and Austrocedrus chilensis are two canopy-dominant, endangered tree species in the mountains of MFCC. Here, we project tree growth of these species based on tree-ring width chronologies, a simplified version of a process-based model, and climate change projections. We used the tree ring information derived from ~400 trees from 12 sites distributed across MFCC in combination with the simplified version of process-based Vaganov-Shashkin tree-growth model (VS-Lite) to forecast changes in tree growth for the next four decades. Tree growth projections were made on the basis of monthly values of temperature and precipitation from the output of 35 climate models based on two ensembles of CO2 emission scenarios of the IPCC AR5 (RCP 8.5: higher-emission scenario, and RCP 2.6: lower-emission scenario). For the MFCC region these scenarios result in temperature rise ranging between 0.5 ◦C and 2.0 ◦C, and a precipitation decrease between 5% and 20% by the year 2065, as related to historical conditions. Our results showed that the VS-Lite model is capable of reproducing tree growth decline during the recent extreme dry period, i.e. 2010–2018, which supports its use for tree growth projections in the MFCC region. According to the modeling results, we find that tree growth in both N. macrocarpa and A. chilensis forests distributed in the MFCC region will be adversely affected by future climate changes, mainly starting from the year 2035, under both scenarios. Our work provides evidence of the degree of vulnerability of Mediterranean mountain forests in central Chile according to current climate change projections. The projected decline in tree growth indicates serious risks in the dynamics and survival of these forests relatively soon, so alerts are given about this situation which may require to counteract the deleterious effects of global change on vegetation in this region.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S092181812030297613198.0Thomson Reuters ISIclimate models, ecosystems, forestry, landforms, climate change projections, deleterious effects, endangered tree species, global climate model, mediterranean forest, mediterranean mountains, process-based modeling, tree growth modeling, climate change, biome, chronology, climate change, climate modeling, deciduous tree, dieback, extreme event, forest ecosystem, global change, global climate, growth, mediterranean environment, montane forest, tree, tree ring, twenty first century, chile, austrocedrus chilensis, nothofagus macrocarpa
Zonas Costeras2021Alcamán-Arias, María Estrella; Fuentes-Alburquenque, Sebastián; Vergara-Barros, Pablo; Cifuentes-Anticevic, Jerónimo; Verdugo, Josefa; Polz, Martin; Farías, Laura; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Díez, BeatrizCoastal Bacterial Community Response to Glacier Melting in the Western Antarctic PeninsulaMicroorganisms10.3390/microorganisms9010088Current warming in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has multiple effects on the marine ecosystem, modifying the trophic web and the nutrient regime. In this study, the effect of decreased surface salinity on the marine microbial community as a consequence of freshening from nearby glaciers was investigated in Chile Bay, Greenwich Island, WAP. In the summer of 2016, samples were collected from glacier ice and transects along the bay for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while in situ dilution experiments were conducted and analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metatranscriptomic analysis. The results reveal that certain common seawater genera, such as Polaribacter, Pseudoalteromonas and HTCC2207, responded positively to decreased salinity in both the bay transect and experiments. The relative abundance of these bacteria slightly decreased, but their functional activity was maintained and increased the over time in the dilution experiments. However, while ice bacteria, such as Flavobacterium and Polaromonas, tolerated the increased salinity after mixing with seawater, their gene expression decreased considerably. We suggest that these bacterial taxa could be defined as sentinels of freshening events in the Antarctic coastal system. Furthermore, these results suggest that a significant portion of the microbial community is resilient and can adapt to disturbances, such as freshening due to the warming effect of climate change in Antarctica.https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2607/9/1/88889.0Thomson Reuters ISIbacterial microbial community, coastal antarctic zone, glacial melting
Ciudades Resilientes2021Ruiz Pereira, S.; Marquardt, C.; Beriain, E.; Lambert, F.Permafrost evolution in a mountain catchment near Santiago de ChileJournal of South American Earth Sciences10.1016/j.jsames.2021.103293The Chilean Central Andes near Santiago are a semi-arid region with substantial frozen water reserves in their high altitude cryosphere. Millions of people depend on the Andean cryosphere for freshwater supply. Over the last sixty years, global warming has altered the mountains’ water balance, as the temperature rose, precipitation decreased, and deglacierization exposed hundreds of square kilometers. The distribution of solid water stored in soil permafrost and the potential effects of climate change on it are unknown. Here, we map favorable spots for permafrost occurrence at the “Monos de Agua” catchment, Aconcagua basin at 33°S, between 3600 and 5100 m a.s.l.. We identify these “cold spots” based on ground surface temperature and incoming solar radiation between 2017 and 2019. We suggest that these locations currently present permafrost and frozen water might actually be there. We confirmed a body of frozen water at one of these cold spots using an electrical resistivity survey. Our mapping suggests that at least 15 ± 7% of the catchment's surface is underlain by permafrost. Permafrost occurrence begins around 3600 m a.s.l. with low probability and only at locations with favorable conditions of low exposure and isolation. Permafrost occurrence probability increases with altitude, with the largest fraction present above 4200 m a.s.l. Our results suggest that the permafrost area in this region will decrease between 13 and 87% by the end of the century under the future global warming RCP scenarios. This event represents new challenges for the hydrological memory and water security planning in the Chilean Central Andes.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0895981121001401103293109.0Thomson Reuters ISIaggradation, catchment, environmental degradation, mountain environment, permafrost, solar radiation, surface temperature, aconcagua, andes, argentina, chile, cordillera principal, metropolitana, santiago [metropolitana]
Agua y Extremos2021Moreno, Patricio I.; Videla, Javiera; Kaffman, María José; Henríquez, Carla A.; Sagredo, Esteban A.; Jara-Arancio, Paola; Alloway, Brent V.Vegetation, disturbance, and climate history since the onset of ice-free conditions in the Lago Rosselot sector of Chiloé continental (44°S), northwestern PatagoniaQuaternary Science Reviews10.1016/j.quascirev.2021.106924We present results from Lago Negro, a small closed-basin lake adjacent to Lago Rosselot, to examine the vegetation and environmental history of an insufficiently studied sector of Chiloé Continental (41°30′-44°S) in northwestern Patagonia. Lake sediment cores from Lago Negro reveal 27 tephra deposited since ∼12.7 ka, including two prominent rhyodacite tephra marker beds erupted from Volcán Melimoyu, and a stratified basal clastic unit we attribute to meltwater discharge from an ice tongue that originated from Monte Queulat and covered Lago Rosselot during its expanded position, presumably Antarctic Cold Reversal in age. The pollen record shows closed-canopy North Patagonian rainforests since ∼12.7 ka, with variations in species composition and structure that suggest dynamic responses of the vegetation to past environmental changes. Vegetation responses to climate in the Lago Negro record were modulated, sometimes interrupted, by high magnitude and frequent disturbance regimes, most notably during maxima in explosive volcanic activity (∼9.5–7.2 ka and ∼3.6–1.6 ka) and heightened fire activity. Since Lago Negro is the southernmost palynological site so far investigated in the region and is located within a volcanically active sector, it provides a valuable perspective for assessing past vegetation responses along environmental gradients since the last glaciation. When compared with other sites throughout northwestern Patagonia, our record reveals a distinct north-to-south gradient in temperature and precipitation, with peak temperature and rainfall seasonality in the north, and a west-to-east gradient in disturbance regimes, with maximum frequency and magnitude of explosive volcanic events in the east. These gradients have modulated the response of rainforest vegetation to climate forcing at regional scale since ∼12.7 ka. We identify negligible differences in timing for the majority of key vegetation signals during the initial phase of the Lago Negro record, and propose that plant colonization and expansion along the ∼360 km long corridor through the Pacific slope of the northwestern Patagonian Andes was a rapid process during the Last Glacial Termination.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0277379121001311106924260.0Thomson Reuters ISIclimate change, explosives, glacial geology, lakes, volcanoes, chiloe continental, disturbance paleoecology, glacier advance during the antarctic cold reversal, northwestern patagonium, patagonia, postglacial explosive volcanism, recession and stabilization during young dryas, vegetation and fire history, vegetation history, vegetation response, vegetation, climate forcing, disturbance, environmental change, environmental history, lacustrine deposit, sediment core, tephra, vegetation history, andes, chile, chiloe island, los lagos, patagonia
Zonas Costeras; Agua y Extremos2021Aguirre, Catalina; Flores-Aqueveque, Valentina; Vilches, Pablo; Vásquez, Alicia; Rutllant, José A.; Garreaud, RenéRecent Changes in the Low-Level Jet along the Subtropical West Coast of South AmericaAtmosphere10.3390/atmos12040465Surface winds along the subtropical west coast of South America are characterized by the quasi-weekly occurrences of low-level jet events. These short lived but intense wind events impact the coastal ocean environment. Hence, identifying long-term trends in the coastal low-level jet (CLLJ) is essential for understanding changes in marine ecosystems. Here we use ERA5 reanalysis (1979–2019) and an objective algorithm to track anticyclones to investigate recent changes in CLLJ events off central Chile (25–43 °S). Results present evidence that the number of days with intense wind (≥10 ms−1), and the number and duration of CLLJ events have significantly changed off central Chile in recent decades. There is an increase in the number of CLLJ events in the whole study area during winter (June-July-August; JJA), while during summer (December–January–February; DJF) a decrease is observed at lower latitudes (29–34 °S), and an increase is found at the southern boundary of the Humboldt system. We suggest that changes in the central pressures and frequency of extratropical, migratory anticyclones that reach the coast of South America, which force CLLJs, have played an important role in the recent CLLJ changes observed in this region.https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4433/12/4/46546512.0Thomson Reuters ISIatmospheric pressure, tropics, central chile, coastal ocean environment, extratropical, long-term trend, low level jet, south america, surface winds, wind events, ecosystems, algorithm, anticyclone, climate modeling, coastal zone, jet, long-term change, surface wind, upwelling, chile
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2021Lavergne, Céline; Aguilar-Muñoz, Polette; Calle, Natalia; Thalasso, Frédéric; Astorga-España, Maria Soledad; Sepulveda-Jauregui, Armando; Martinez-Cruz, Karla; Gandois, Laure; Mansilla, Andrés; Chamy, Rolando; Barret, Maialen; Cabrol, LéaTemperature differently affected methanogenic pathways and microbial communities in sub-Antarctic freshwater ecosystemsEnvironment International10.1016/j.envint.2021.106575Freshwater ecosystems are responsible for an important part of the methane (CH4) emissions which are likely to change with global warming. This study aims to evaluate temperature-induced (from 5 to 20 °C) changes on microbial community structure and methanogenic pathways in five sub-Antarctic lake sediments from Magallanes strait to Cape Horn, Chile. We combined in situ CH4 flux measurements, CH4 production rates (MPRs), gene abundance quantification and microbial community structure analysis (metabarcoding of the 16S rRNA gene). Under unamended conditions, a temperature increase of 5 °C doubled MPR while microbial community structure was not affected. Stimulation of methanogenesis by methanogenic precursors as acetate and H2/CO2, resulted in an increase of MPRs up to 127-fold and 19-fold, respectively, as well as an enrichment of mcrA-carriers strikingly stronger under acetate amendment. At low temperatures, H2/CO2-derived MPRs were considerably lower (down to 160-fold lower) than the acetate-derived MPRs, but the contribution of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis increased with temperature. Temperature dependence of MPRs was significantly higher in incubations spiked with H2/CO2 (c. 1.9 eV) compared to incubations spiked with acetate or unamended (c. 0.8 eV). Temperature was not found to shape the total microbial community structure, that rather exhibited a site-specific variability among the studied lakes. However, the methanogenic archaeal community structure was driven by amended methanogenic precursors with a dominance of Methanobacterium in H2/CO2-based incubations and Methanosarcina in acetate-based incubations. We also suggested the importance of acetogenic H2-production outcompeting hydrogenotrohic methanogenesis especially at low temperatures, further supported by homoacetogen proportion in the microcosm communities. The combination of in situ-, and laboratory-based measurements and molecular approaches indicates that the hydrogenotrophic pathway may become more important with increasing temperatures than the acetoclastic pathway. In a continuously warming environment driven by climate change, such issues are crucial and may receive more attention.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0160412021002002106575154.0Thomson Reuters ISIbacteria, ecosystems, genes, hydrogen production, lakes, methane, rna, temperature distribution, water, 16s rrna amplicon, archaeon, ch$-4$, freshwater ecosystem, lows-temperatures, methanogenesis, methanogenic pathways, microbial communities, microbial community structures, production rates, global warming, climate change, climate effect, community structure, environmental disturbance, freshwater ecosystem, global warming, lacustrine deposit, limnology, methanogenesis, methanogenic bacterium, microbial community, rna, subantarctic region, temperature effect, cape horn, chile, horn island [wollaston islands], magallanes, magellan strait, tierra del fuego [(isg) south america], wollaston islands, archaea, methanobacterium, methanosarcina, fresh water, rna 16s, antarctica, chile, genetics, microflora, temperature, antarctic regions, chile, fresh water, microbiota, rna, ribosomal, 16s, temperature
Ciudades Resilientes; Agua y Extremos2021Aldunce, Paulina; Lillo-Ortega, Gloria; Araya-Valenzuela, Dámare; Maldonado-Portilla, Pamela; Gallardo, LauraEvaluating adaptation to drought in a changing climate: experience at the local scale in the Aconcagua ValleyClimate and Development10.1080/17565529.2021.1893150Since 2010, a severe drought has affected central Chile, resulting in losses that prompt the need to evaluate and improve adaptation responses. The evaluation process requires the engagement of multiple actors in order to collect knowledge of their experiences and to inform future design and implementation of adaptation responses. A case study was conducted in four counties of the Aconcagua Valley, Chile, to evaluate the usefulness of existing drought response measures, and to identify strengths and weaknesses, and relevant actors’ recommendations for overcoming them. We applied the Index for the Usefulness of Adaptation Practices (IUPA), a multi-criteria tool that systematically identifies the perceived usefulness of measures. The most salient strengths of the evaluated measures were: replicability, pertinence, and efficacy; representing key factors that could facilitate the implementation of drought responses in similar contexts. The most salient weaknesses were: lack of integration with other policy domains and projects, low environmental protection, diminished autonomy in decision-making, and inequity. Proposed recommendations to overcome these weaknesses have real potential for implementation because they emerged from local actors. Results present empirical evidence of the utility of participatory approaches for a context-specific evaluation of measures, contributing to enhance adaptation to climate variability and change.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17565529.2021.18931501-12Thomson Reuters ISIchile, climate change, drought, evaluation of adaptation, index for the usefulness of adaptation practices (iupa)
Zonas Costeras2021Baldrich, Ángela M.; Pérez-Santos, Iván; Álvarez, Gonzalo; Reguera, Beatriz; Fernández-Pena, Concepción; Rodríguez-Villegas, Camilo; Araya, Michael; Álvarez, Francisco; Barrera, Facundo; Karasiewicz, Stéphane; Díaz, Patricio A.Niche differentiation of Dinophysis acuta and D. acuminata in a stratified fjordHarmful Algae10.1016/j.hal.2021.102010Dinophysis acuta and D. acuminata are associated with lipophilic toxins in Southern Chile. Blooms of the two species coincided during summer 2019 in a highly stratified fjord system (Puyuhuapi, Chilean Patagonia). High vertical resolution measurements of physical parameters were carried out during 48 h sampling to i) explore physiological status (e.g., division rates, toxin content) and ii) illustrate the fine scale distribution of D. acuta and D. acuminata populations with a focus on water column structure and co-occurring plastid-bearing ciliates. The species-specific resources and regulators defining the realized niches (sensu Hutchinson) of the two species were identified. Differences in vertical distribution, daily vertical migration and in situ division rates (with record values, 0.76 d−1, in D. acuta), in response to the environmental conditions and potential prey availability, revealed their niche differences. The Outlying Mean Index (OMI) analysis showed that the realized niche of D. acuta (cell maximum 7 × 103 cells L−1 within the pycnocline) was characterized by sub-surface estuarine waters (salinity 23 – 25), lower values of turbulence and PAR, and a narrow niche breath. In contrast, the realized niche of D. acuminata (cell maximum 6.8 × 103 cells L−1 just above the pycnocline) was characterized by fresher (salinity 17 – 20) outflowing surface waters, with higher turbulence and light intensity and a wider niche breadth. Results from OMI and PERMANOVA analyses of co-occurring microplanktonic ciliates were compatible with the hypothesis of species such as those from genera Pseudotontonia and Strombidium constituting an alternative ciliate prey to Mesodinium. The D. acuta cell maximum was associated with DSP (OA and DTX-1) toxins and pectenotoxins; that of D. acuminata only with pectenotoxins. Results presented here contribute to a better understanding of the environmental drivers of species-specific blooms of Dinophysis and management of their distinct effects in Southern Chile.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1568988321000378102010103.0Thomson Reuters ISIcell differentiation, chile, ciliate, dinoflagellate, estuary, cell differentiation, chile, ciliophora, dinoflagellida, estuaries
Zonas Costeras2021Rodríguez-Villegas, Camilo; Lee, Matthew R.; Salgado, Pablo; Figueroa, Rosa I.; Baldrich, Ángela; Pérez-Santos, Iván; Tomasetti, Stephen J.; Niklitschek, Edwin; Díaz, Manuel; Álvarez, Gonzalo; Marín, Sandra L.; Seguel, Miriam; Farías, Laura; Díaz, Patricio A.Drivers of dinoflagellate benthic cyst assemblages in the NW Patagonian Fjords System and its adjacent oceanic shelf, with a focus on harmful speciesScience of The Total Environment10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147378In recent decades, the alteration of coastal food webs (via aquaculture, fishing, and leisure activities), nutrient loading, and an expansion of monitoring programs have prompted an apparent worldwide rise in Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs). Over this time, a parallel increase in HABs has also been observed in the Chilean southern austral region (Patagonia fjords). HAB species like Alexandrium catenella—responsible for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)—are of great public concern due to their negative socioeconomic impacts and significant northward geographical range expansion. Many toxic dinoflagellate species (like A. catenella) produce benthic resting cysts, yet a holistic understanding of the physical-chemical and biological conditions influencing the distributions of cysts in this region is lacking. In this study, we measured a combination of hydrographic (temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen) and sediment physical-chemical properties (temperature, pH and redox potential), in addition to meiofaunal abundances –as sediment bioturbators and potential cyst predators– to determine the factors influencing dinoflagellate cyst distribution, with emphasis on A. catenella in and around a “hotspot” area of southern Chile. An analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) test revealed significant differences (p < 0.011) in cyst assemblages between the fjords and oceanic environments. Permutational Analysis of Variance (PERMANOVA) showed significant effects of sediment temperature and silt proportion in explaining differences in the cyst assemblages. A generalized linear model (GLM) indicated that sediment temperature, silt/sand, anoxic conditions, and low abundances of Harpacticoida —a meiofauna herbivore group and potential bioturbator— are associated with the higher resting cyst abundances of the harmful species A. catenella. The implications for A. catenella resting cysts dynamics are discussed, highlighting physical-chemical and biological interactions and their potential for PSP outbreak initiation.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969721024499147378785.0Thomson Reuters ISIdissolved oxygen, expansion, leisure, ph, sediments, silt, alexandrium catenellum, algae blooms, chemical and biologicals, chilean patagonium, dinoflagellate resting cyst, harmful algae, meiofauna, paralytic shellfish poisoning, redox potentials, redoxpotential, redox reactions, ammonia, nitrite, river water, algal bloom, benthic foraminifera, dinoflagellate, meiofauna, physicochemical property, redox conditions, species diversity, species richness, alexandrium catenella, analysis of variance, article, dinoflagellate, harmful organism, hydrography, meiofauna, nonhuman, paralytic shellfish poisoning, ph, physical chemistry, population abundance, priority journal, salinity, sea, sea surface temperature, sediment, species composition, species distribution, chile, patagonia, alexandrium, alexandrium catenella, catenella, dinophyceae, harpacticoida
Zonas Costeras2021Farías, L.; Tenorio, S.; Sanzana, K.; Faundez, J.Temporal methane variability in the water column of an area of seasonal coastal upwelling: A study based on a 12 year time seriesProgress in Oceanography10.1016/j.pocean.2021.102589Temporal distribution of dissolved CH4 was analysed in a zone of strong seasonal coastal upwelling off central Chile (36.5°S,73°W). Observations were taken from a twelve-year time series that included monthly sampling of the water at eight depths. CH4 concentration fluctuated between 1.75 and 100.9 nmol L-1 (or 67.11% and 3965% of saturation), with the highest levels at bottom waters, which increase as upwelling evolved. Three kind of CH4 profiles were identified; a classical diffusion–advection distribution, with bottom/surface CH4 concentration ratio > 2, was predominantly observed in ~ 54% of the all profiles and attributed to high CH4 production in the sediments during coastal upwelling season (austral spring-summer); a period of higher biological productivity, as well as in hypoxic/anoxic condition. In contrast, relatively homogeneous profiles (CH4 level ratio between bottom and surface depth < 2) was observed about ~ 46% of all profiles during periods of extreme vertical mixing (such as winter storms). Furthermore, irregular CH4 profile with superficial peaks occurring between the surface and 15–30 m depth was likely observed. These peaks indicated that local production rates exceed turbulent mixing rates, suggesting a rapid CH4 cycling due to microbial processes on the surface. Despite the fact that strong seasonality was observed in most oceanographic variables, according to favourable and non-favourable upwelling periods, only a weak seasonality was observed in CH4 content and its air-sea flux, the latter ranged from 1.27 to 47.02 µmol m−2 d-1 (mean ± SD: 10.94 ± 7.48). The annual weighted mean CH4 effluxes during upwelling (64%) and non-upwelling (36%) periods fluctuated from 1.66 to 6.22 mmol m−2 (mean ± SD: 3.40 ± 1.43), highlighting the importance of the continental shelf under the influence of coastal upwelling as a significant CH4 source toward the atmosphere.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0079661121000768102589195.0Thomson Reuters ISImixing, storms, time series, biological productivity, coastal upwelling, concentration ratio, continental shelves, local production, microbial process, temporal distribution, turbulent mixing, coastal engineering, bottom water, continental shelf, methane, microbial activity, pollutant source, seasonality, temporal variation, time series, upwelling, water column, chile
Zonas Costeras2021De La Fuente, María José; De la Iglesia, Rodrigo; Farias, Laura; Daims, Holger; Lukumbuzya, Michael; Vargas, Ignacio T.Electrochemical enrichment of marine denitrifying bacteria to enhance nitrate metabolization in seawaterJournal of Environmental Chemical Engineering10.1016/j.jece.2021.105604High concentrations of nitrate from industrial discharges to coastal marine environments are a matter of concern owing to their ecological consequences. In the last years, Bioelectrochemical Denitrification Systems (BEDS) have emerged as a promising nitrate removal technology. However, they still have limitations, such as the enrichment strategy for specific microbial communities in the electrodes under natural conditions. In this study, three-electrode electrochemical cells were used to test microbial enrichment from natural seawater by applying three reported potentials associated with the dissimilatory denitrification process (−130, −260, and −570 mV vs. Ag/AgCl). The microbial community analysis showed that by applying −260 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) to the working electrode, it was possible to significantly enrich denitrifying microorganisms, specifically Marinobacter, in comparison with the control. Furthermore, −260 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) led to a significantly higher nitrate removal than other conditions, which, combined with cyclic voltammetry analysis, suggested that the polarized electrodes worked as external electron donors for nitrate reduction. Hence, this work demonstrates for the first time that it is possible to enrich marine denitrifying microorganisms by applying an overpotential of −260 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) without the need for a culture medium, the addition of an exogenous electron donor (i.e., organic matter) or a previously enriched inoculum.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22133437210058191056049.0Thomson Reuters ISIcyclic voltammetry, denitrification, ecology, electric discharges, electrochemical electrodes, nitrates, seawater, ag/agcl, bioelectrochemical denitrification system, denitrifying bacteria, denitrifying microorganisms, electrochemicals, electron donors, industrial discharges, metabolization, microbial enrichment, nitrates removal, bacteria
Zonas Costeras; Agua y Extremos2021Demortier, Alan; Bozkurt, Deniz; Jacques-Coper, MartínIdentifying key driving mechanisms of heat waves in central ChileClimate Dynamics10.1007/s00382-021-05810-zThis study explores the main drivers of heat wave (HW) events in central Chile using state-of-the-art reanalysis data (ERA5) and observations during the extended austral summer season (November to March) for the period 1979–2018. Frequency and intensity aspects of the HW events are considered using the total number of the HW events per season and the amplitude. We first contrast ERA5 with several surface meteorological stations in central Chile to evaluate its ability to capture daily maximum temperature variability and the HW events. We then use synoptic- and large-scale fields and teleconnection patterns to address the most favorable conditions of the HW events from a climatological perspective as well as from the extreme January 2017 HW event that swept central Chile with temperature records and wildfires. ERA5 tends to capture temperature extremes and the HW events at the inland stations; on the contrary, it has difficulties in capturing the maximum temperature variability at the coastal stations, which is plausible given the complex terrain features and confined coastal climate zone (only ∼7% of all grid boxes within central Chile). The composite HW days based on ERA5 reveals a mid-level trough-ridge dipole pattern exhibiting a blocking anticyclone on the surface over a large part of southwest South America. Relatively dry and warm easterly flow appears to accompany the anomalous warming in a large part of central Chile. The temporal evolution of the HW events yields a wave-like propagation pattern and enhancement of trough-ridge pattern along the South Pacific. This meridional dipole pattern is found to be largely associated with the Pacific South American pattern. In addition, the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) appears to be a key component of the HW events in central Chile. In particular, while active MJO phases 2 and 7 promote sub-seasonal patterns that favor the South Pacific dipole mode, synoptic anomalies can superimpose on them and favor the formation of a migrating anticyclone over central-southern Chile and coastal lows over central Chile. Agreeing with the climatological findings, the extreme January 2017 HW analysis suggests that an eastward migratory mid-latitude trough-ridge pattern associated with MJO phase 2 was at work. We highlight that in addition to large- and synoptic-scale features, sub-synoptic processes such as coastal lows can have an important role in shaping the HW events and can lead to amplification of temperature extremes during the HW events.https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00382-021-05810-zThomson Reuters ISIatmospheric teleconnections, blocking pattern, central chile, heat waves, mjo, temperature extremes
Agua y Extremos2021Villa-Martínez, Rodrigo; Moreno, Patricio I.Development and resilience of deciduous Nothofagus forests since the Last Glacial Termination and deglaciation of the central Patagonian AndesPalaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology10.1016/j.palaeo.2021.110459Resolving the history of vegetation, fire, and glaciation on the eastern slope of the central Patagonian Andes (44°-49°S) since the Last Glacial Termination (T1) has proved difficult. This is due to the steep environmental gradients, vegetation heterogeneity, and scarcity of dated glacial deposits and geomorphic features. Unsurprisingly, published records show important heterogeneities which limit our understanding of the timing and magnitude of climate and vegetation changes, and their driving mechanisms since T1. In this paper, we describe sediment cores from small closed-basin lakes located in the deciduous Nothofagus forest zone near Coyhaique, Chile. Our results indicate that the Coyhaique glacier lobe abandoned its final Last Glacial Maximum position just before ~17.9 cal kyr BP and underwent a step-wise recession that included a halt/readvance that culminated at ~16.8 cal kyr BP, contemporaneous with the formation of an ice-dammed proglacial lake in the Coyhaique/Balmaceda sector. This glacial lake stood at its highest level between ~17.9–17.2 cal kyr BP (<726 and > 650 m.a.s.l.), lowered between ~17.2–16.2 cal kyr BP (<650 and > 570 m.a.s.l.), and disappeared thereafter. Herbs and shrubs, currently dominant in high Andean and Patagonian steppe environments, colonized the ice-free terrains distal to the glacier margins and proglacial lakes under cold and dry conditions. This was followed by a steady increase in Nothofagus between ~16.6–14.8 cal kyr BP that led to the establishment of forests starting at ~14.8 cal kyr BP. The Holocene started with a sudden increase in Nothofagus and disappearance of conifers in the context of increase fire activity between ~11.7–9.4 cal kyr BP. Closed-canopy Nothofagus forests persisted virtually unaltered from ~9.4 cal kyr BP to the present day, despite frequent explosive volcanism and millennial-scale variations in fire regimes, attesting to their extraordinary postglacial resilience which contrasts with their behavior during T1. Recent large-scale deforestation by fire, livestock grazing, and the spread of non-native invasive plant species drove the fastest and largest-magnitude shifts seen during the last ~16,500 years.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0031018221002443110459574.0Thomson Reuters ISIdeciduous forest, deglaciation, ecosystem resilience, forest canopy, glacial lake, holocene, last glacial maximum, proglacial environment, sediment core, andes, coihaique, patagonia, coniferophyta, nothofagus
Zonas Costeras2021Farías, L.; Troncoso, M.; Sanzana, K.; Verdugo, J.; Masotti, I.Spatial Distribution of Dissolved Methane Over Extreme Oceanographic Gradients in the Subtropical Eastern South Pacific (17° to 37°S)Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans10.1029/2020JC016925Methane (CH4) is one of the most powerful greenhouse gases with the capacity to influence the Earth's radiative budget as well as contribute to atmospheric chemistry. Natural oceanic production makes up to ∼4% of the overall global CH4 emissions, however, there is uncertainty around the accuracy of this value due to a lack of accurate measurements. Such is the case in the Subtropical Eastern South Pacific Ocean (SESP), a region with pronounced chlorophyll-a and oxygen gradients, which in turn affect the microbial CH4 cycling. This study was conducted during spring-summer (2014–2016) in the SESP. The region (∼17°–37°S/71°–110°W) is separated into (i) eutrophic, (ii) mesotrophic, and (iii) oligotrophic areas, according to oceanographic and biogeochemical criteria. The SESP presents high CH4 zonal variability with levels ranging from 0.63 to 33.4 nmol L−1, corresponding to 29% and 1,423% saturation, respectively. High CH4 concentrations (>1,000% saturation) are observed in the narrow eutrophic area subjected to coastal upwelling. These conditions clearly differ to those observed in the extended oligotrophic subtropical gyre (∼100% saturation). Furthermore, CH4 also tends to accumulate in the mesotrophic area (with upto 1,423% saturation), where oceanographic conditions as stratification, mesoscale eddies and island mass effect could trigger the presence of a microbial biomass that may be able to induce CH4 regeneration. The CH4 efflux is estimated to be between 0.13 and 19.1 µmol m−2 d−1 (mean ± SD = 4.72 ± 4.67) and the SESP has an emission rate of ∼87.9 Gg CH4 yr−1.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2020JC016925126.0Thomson Reuters ISIaccuracy assessment, atmospheric chemistry, biogeochemistry, biomass, chlorophyll a, concentration (composition), greenhouse gas, gyre, mesoscale eddy, methane, nutrient cycling, radiative transfer, saturation, spatial distribution, upwelling, pacific ocean, pacific ocean (south)
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2021Vásquez-Lavín, Felipe; Carrasco, Moisés; Barrientos, Manuel; Gelcich, Stefan; Ponce Oliva, Roberto D.Estimating discount rates for environmental goods: Are People’s responses inadequate to frequency of payments?Journal of Environmental Economics and Management10.1016/j.jeem.2021.102446Most stated preference studies estimate discount rates using a split-sample approach. Each sample faces a different payment frequency (for instance, 1, 5, 10) together with a randomly assigned bid vector; both the frequency of payments and the bid are fixed for a specific individual. This paper evaluates whether allowing respondents to choose their preferred payment frequency affects the estimated discount rate. We use data from a contingent valuation survey of a network of marine reserves and estimate discount rates using both an exogenous and endogenous approach. The former calculates the mean of the willingness to pay (WTP) for each sample and then finds the discount rate that makes the present value of each payment frequency equivalent. The latter estimates the WTP and the discount rate jointly. Results show that allowing people to choose the payment schedule significantly reduces the implicit discount rate. We observed the highest reductions in discount rates when we used all the information available from the valuation questions to bound the WTP distribution. Our analysis suggests that the exogenous approach would not be recommended for testing the adequacy of people's responses to the frequency of payments.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0095069621000292102446107.0Thomson Reuters ISIeconomic analysis, contingent valuations, discount rates, endogenous approaches, environmental goods, marine reserve, present value, stated-preference studies, willingness to pay, behavioral research, contingent valuation, discount rate, environmental economics, estimation method, marine park, willingness to pay
Ciudades Resilientes2021Morawska, Lidia; Zhu, Tong; Liu, Nairui; Amouei Torkmahalleh, Mehdi; de Fatima Andrade, Maria; Barratt, Benjamin; Broomandi, Parya; Buonanno, Giorgio; Carlos Belalcazar Ceron, Luis; Chen, Jianmin; Cheng, Yan; Evans, Greg; Gavidia, Mario; Guo, Hai; Hanigan, Ivan; Hu, Min; Jeong, Cheol H.; Kelly, Frank; Gallardo, Laura; Kumar, Prashant; Lyu, Xiaopu; Mullins, Benjamin J.; Nordstrøm, Claus; Pereira, Gavin; Querol, Xavier; Yezid Rojas Roa, Nestor; Russell, Armistead; Thompson, Helen; Wang, Hao; Wang, Lina; Wang, Tao; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Xue, Tao; Ye, CelineThe state of science on severe air pollution episodes: Quantitative and qualitative analysisEnvironment International10.1016/j.envint.2021.106732Severe episodic air pollution blankets entire cities and regions and have a profound impact on humans and their activities. We compiled daily fine particle (PM2.5) data from 100 cities in five continents, investigated the trends of number, frequency, and duration of pollution episodes, and compared these with the baseline trend in air pollution. We showed that the factors contributing to these events are complex; however, long-term measures to abate emissions from all anthropogenic sources at all times is also the most efficient way to reduce the occurrence of severe air pollution events. In the short term, accurate forecasting systems of such events based on the meteorological conditions favouring their occurrence, together with effective emergency mitigation of anthropogenic sources, may lessen their magnitude and/or duration. However, there is no clear way of preventing events caused by natural sources affected by climate change, such as wildfires and desert dust outbreaks.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0160412021003573106732156.0Thomson Reuters ISIclimate change, air pollution episodes, anthropogenic sources, fine particles (pm$-2.5$/), formation of secondary pollutant, mitigating air pollutant, pollution emissions, pollution episodes, quantitative and qualitative analysis, severe air pollution event, urban air pollution, air pollution, accuracy assessment, atmospheric pollution, emission, episodic event, forecasting method, human activity, qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, trend analysis, urban pollution, air pollutant, article, climate change, desert, forecasting, human, meteorology, qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, wildfire
Agua y Extremos2021Bozkurt, D.; Sen, O. L.; Ezber, Y.; Guan, B.; Viale, M.; Caglar, F.Influence of African Atmospheric Rivers on Precipitation and Snowmelt in the Near East's HighlandsJournal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres10.1029/2020JD033646Atmospheric rivers (ARs) traveling thousands of kilometers over arid North Africa could interact with the highlands of the Near East (NE), and thus affect the region's hydrometeorology and water resources. Here, we use a state-of-the-art AR tracking database, and reanalysis and observational datasets to investigate the climatology (1979–2017) and influences of these ARs in snowmelt season (March–April). The Red Sea and northeast Africa are found to be the major source regions of these ARs, which are typically associated with the eastern Mediterranean trough positioned over the Balkan Peninsula and a blocking anticyclone over the NE-Caspian region, triggering southwesterly air flow toward the NE's highlands. Approximately 8% of the ARs are relatively strong (integrated water vapor transport>275kg m1 s1). AR days exhibit enhanced precipitation over the crescent-shaped orography of the NE region. Mean AR days indicate wetter (up to+2mm day1) and warmer (up to+1.5°C) conditions than all-day climatology. On AR days, while snowpack tends to decrease (up to 30%) in the Zagros Mountains, it can show decreases or increases in the Taurus Mountains depending largely on elevation. A further analysis with the observations and reanalysis indicates that extreme ARs coinciding with large scale sensible heat transport can significantly increase the daily discharges. These results suggest that ARs can have notable impacts on the hydrometeorology and water resources of the region, particularly of lowland Mesopotamia, a region that is famous with great floods in the ancient narratives.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2020JD033646126.0Thomson Reuters ISIairflow, anticyclone, atmospheric moisture, hydrometeorology, orography, precipitation assessment, snowmelt, trough, water vapor, balkans, indian ocean, mesopotamia, north africa, red sea [indian ocean], taurides, turkey, zagros
Ciudades Resilientes2021Menares, Camilo; Perez, Patricio; Parraguez, Santiago; Fleming, Zoë L.Forecasting PM2.5 levels in Santiago de Chile using deep learning neural networksUrban Climate10.1016/j.uclim.2021.100906Air pollution has been shown to have a direct effect on human health. In particular, PM2.5 has been proven to be related to cardiovascular and respiratory problems. Therefore, it is important to have accurate models to predict high pollution events for this and other pollutants. We present different models that forecast PM2.5 maximum concentrations using a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) based neural network and a Deep Feedforward Neural Network (DFFNN). Ten years of air pollution and meteorological measurements from the network of monitoring stations in the city of Santiago, Chile were used, focusing on the behaviour of three zones of the city. All missing values were rebuilt using a method based on discrete cosine transforms and photochemical predictors selected through unsupervised clustering. Deep learning techniques provide significant improvements compared to a traditional multi-layer neural networks, particularly the LSTM model configured with a 7-day memory window (synoptic scale of pollution patterns) can capture critical pollution events at sites with both primary and secondary air pollution problems. Furthermore, the LSTM model consistently outperform deterministic models currently used in Santiago, Chile.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S221209552100136X10090638.0Thomson Reuters ISIair quality forecasting, deep neural networks, fine particulate matter, lstm, machine learning, meteorology forecast
Agua y Extremos2021Guerrero, Fabián; Hernández, Carla; Toledo, Mario; Espinoza, Lorena; Carrasco, Yulian; Arriagada, Andrés; Muñoz, Ariel; Taborga, Lautaro; Bergmann, Jan; Carmona, CamiloLeaf Thermal and Chemical Properties as Natural Drivers of Plant Flammability of Native and Exotic Tree Species of the Valparaíso Region, ChileInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health10.3390/ijerph18137191Forest fires are one of the main environmental threats in Chile. Fires in this Mediterranean climate region frequently affect native forests and exotic plantations, including in several cases urban and rural settlements. Considering the scarcity of information regarding the fire response dynamics of tree species that are frequently affected by fires, this study aims to establish a flammability classification according to the evolution of the fire initiation risk presented by the most affected forest species in the Valparaíso region. Three exotic species, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus radiata, and Acacia dealbata, and two native species, Cryptocarya alba and Quillaja saponaria, were studied. Flammability assays indicate that E. globulus, A. dealbata, and C. alba are extremely flammable, whereas P. radiata and Q. saponaria are flammable. Furthermore, E. globulus and A. dealbata have the highest heating values while Q. saponaria has the lowest values. The extreme flammability of E. globulus, A. dealbata, and C. alba indicates a high susceptibility to ignite. Furthermore, the high heat of combustion of E. globulus and A. dealbata can be associated with a high energy release, increasing the risk of fires spreading. In contrast, Q. saponaria has the lowest predisposition to ignite and capacity to release heat. Accordingly, this work shows that all studied tree species contain organic metabolites that are potentially flammable (sesquiterpenes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohol esters, ketones, diterpenes, and triterpenes) and can be considered as drivers of flammability in vegetation. Finally, these preliminary results will aid in the construction of more resilient landscapes in the near future.https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/13/7191719118.0Thomson Reuters ISIaliphatic hydrocarbon, fire behavior, fire management, forest fire, leaf, mediterranean environment, metabolite, physicochemical property, risk assessment, vegetation classification, chile, valparaiso [chile], acacia dealbata, cryptocarya alba, eucalyptus globulus, pinus radiata, quillaja saponaria, radiata, saponaria, chile, fire, forest, plant leaf, southern europe, tree, chile, fires, forests, mediterranean region, plant leaves, trees
Ciudades Resilientes2021Valdés Salgado, Macarena; Smith, Pamela; Opazo, Mariel A.; Huneeus, NicolásLong-Term Exposure to Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and COVID-19 Incidence and Mortality Rate in Chile during 2020International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health10.3390/ijerph18147409Background: Several countries have documented the relationship between long-term exposure to air pollutants and epidemiological indicators of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as incidence and mortality. This study aims to explore the association between air pollutants, such as PM2.5 and PM10, and the incidence and mortality rates of COVID-19 during 2020. Methods: The incidence and mortality rates were estimated using the COVID-19 cases and deaths from the Chilean Ministry of Science, and the population size was obtained from the Chilean Institute of Statistics. A chemistry transport model was used to estimate the annual mean surface concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 in a period before the current pandemic. Negative binomial regressions were used to associate the epidemiological information with pollutant concentrations while considering demographic and social confounders. Results: For each microgram per cubic meter, the incidence rate increased by 1.3% regarding PM2.5 and 0.9% regarding PM10. There was no statistically significant relationship between the COVID-19 mortality rate and PM2.5 or PM10. Conclusions: The adjusted regression models showed that the COVID-19 incidence rate was significantly associated with chronic exposure to PM2.5 and PM10, even after adjusting for other variables.https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/14/7409740918.0Thomson Reuters ISIcovid-19, environmental risk, health impact, health risk, mortality, particulate matter, public health, air pollution, article, chile, climate, concentration (parameter), controlled study, coronavirus disease 2019, demography, environmental indicator, epidemiological data, human, incidence, long term exposure, major clinical study, mortality rate, pandemic, pm10 exposure, pm2.5 exposure, population size, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, social aspect, south america, adverse event, air pollutant, air pollution, environmental exposure, epidemiology, incidence, mortality, particulate matter, south america, sars coronavirus, air pollutants, air pollution, chile, covid-19, environmental exposure, humans, incidence, mortality, pandemics, particulate matter, sars-cov-2
Zonas Costeras2021Pizarro, Jaime; Vergara, Pablo M.; Cerda, Sergio; Cordero, Raúl R.; Castillo, Ximena; Rowe, Penny M.; Casassa, Gino; Carrasco, Jorge; Damiani, Alessandro; Llanillo, Pedro J.; Lambert, Fabrice; Rondanelli, Roberto; Huneeus, Nicolas; Fernandoy, Francisco; Alfonso, Juan; Neshyba, StevenContaminant emissions as indicators of chemical elements in the snow along a latitudinal gradient in southern AndesScientific Reports10.1038/s41598-021-93895-1Abstract The chemical composition of snow provides insights on atmospheric transport of anthropogenic contaminants at different spatial scales. In this study, we assess how human activities influence the concentration of elements in the Andean mountain snow along a latitudinal transect throughout Chile. The concentration of seven elements (Al, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn and Zn) was associated to gaseous and particulate contaminants emitted at different spatial scales. Our results indicate carbon monoxide (CO) averaged at 20 km and nitrogen oxide (NOx) at 40 km as the main indicators of the chemical elements analyzed. CO was found to be a significant predictor of most element concentrations while concentrations of Cu, Mn, Mg and Zn were positively associated to emissions of NOx. Emission of 2.5 μm and 10 μm particulate matter averaged at different spatial scales was positively associated to concentration of Li. Finally, the concentration of Zn was positively associated to volatile organic compounds (VOC) averaged at 40 km around sampling sites. The association between air contaminants and chemical composition of snow suggests that regions with intensive anthropogenic pollution face reduced quality of freshwater originated from glacier and snow melting.http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-93895-11453011.0Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos2021Pérez-Santos, Iván; Díaz, Patricio A.; Silva, Nelson; Garreaud, René; Montero, Paulina; Henríquez-Castillo, Carlos; Barrera, Facundo; Linford, Pamela; Amaya, Constanza; Contreras, Sergio; Aracena, Claudia; Pinilla, Elías; Altamirano, Robinson; Vallejos, Luis; Pavez, Javiera; Maulen, JuanOceanography time series reveals annual asynchrony input between oceanic and estuarine waters in Patagonian fjordsScience of The Total Environment10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149241The postglacial Patagonian fjord system along the west coast of southern South America is one of the largest stretches of the southern hemisphere (SH) fjord belt, influenced by the SH westerly wind belt and continental freshwater input. This study reports a 3-year monthly time series (2017–2020) of physical and biogeochemical parameters obtained from the Reloncaví Marine Observatory (OMARE, Spanish acronym) at the northernmost embayment and fjord system of Patagonia. The main objective of this work was to understand the land–atmosphere–ocean interactions and to identify the mechanisms that modulate the density of phytoplankton. A key finding of this study was the seasonally varying asynchronous input of oceanic and estuarine water. Surface lower salinity and warmer estuarine water arrived in late winter to summer, contributing to water column stability, followed by subsurface higher salinity and less warmer oceanic water during fall–winter. In late winter 2019, an interannual change above the picnocline due to the record-high polarity of the Indian Ocean Dipole inhibited water column stability. The biogeochemical parameters (NO3−, NO2−, PO43−, Si(OH)4, pH, and dissolved oxygen) responded to the surface annual salinity variations, and oceanic water mass contributed greatly to the subsurface inorganic nutrient input. The water column N/P ratio indicated that no eutrophication occurred, even under intense aquaculture activity, likely because of the high ventilation dynamics of the Reloncaví Sound. Finally, a shift in phytoplankton composition, characterized by surface chlorophyll-a maxima in late winter and deepening of spring–summer blooms related to the physicochemical conditions of the water column, was observed. Our results support the ecosystem services provided by local oceanography processes in the north Patagonian fjords. Here, the anthropogenic impact caused by economic activities could be, in part, chemically reduced by the annual ventilation cycle mediated by the exchange of oceanic water masses into Patagonian fjords.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S004896972104314X149241798.0Thomson Reuters ISIbiochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, economics, ecosystems, estuaries, eutrophication, observatories, oceanography, phytoplankton, time series, atmospheric mode, biogeochemicals, column stability, estuarine waters, marine observatories, oceanic waters, patagonian fjord, southern hemisphere, times series, water columns, biogeochemistry, oxygen, picnocline, unclassified drug, water, annual variation, biogeochemistry, estuarine dynamics, estuarine environment, eutrophication, fjord, land-atmosphere interaction, land-sea interaction, nearshore dynamics, physical oceanography, southern hemisphere, time series, water column, water mass, westerly, air conditioning, aquaculture, aquatic environment, article, atmosphere, biogeochemical cycle, cell polarity, controlled study, estuary, falling, inorganic nutrient, nonhuman, oceanography, ph, physical chemistry, phytoplankton, salinity, subsurface runoff, summer, time series analysis, water column stability, winter, south america
Agua y Extremos2021Soto, Doris; León-Muñoz, Jorge; Garreaud, René; Quiñones, Renato A.; Morey, FranciscoScientific warnings could help to reduce farmed salmon mortality due to harmful algal bloomsMarine Policy10.1016/j.marpol.2021.104705The increasing occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) affecting mariculture has been related to climatic factors but also to increasing eutrophication of coastal zones, to which aquaculture may also contribute. The role of climate change on HABs may be increasingly relevant but scientific efforts to separate this from other causal factors are to date inconclusive. HABs have been a permanent threat to the aquaculture industry in southern Chile, yet government and farmers may have not paid enough attention to scientific information and advice, even when risk-based predictions and warnings have been provided. Here we describe eutrophication risk assessments for water bodies hosting salmon farms and climate change risk maps for the salmon industry in Chilean Patagonia, including the increase of HABs as a main threat. Assessments and maps were delivered in 2020 both to producers and to government. We show that such risk information and mapping could have lessened recent salmon mortality due to HABs (March-April 2021) if government and farmers had followed explicit recommendations to reduce salmon farming production in water bodies with higher risk. This measure would reduce Exposure and Sensitivity under the climate change risk framework used. We provide policy recommendations, including reviewing maximum salmon production in relevant water bodies such as fjords according to eutrophication risks, while paying attention to additional stress from climate change variability and trends.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0308597X2100316X104705132.0Thomson Reuters ISIalgal bloom, aquaculture industry, aquaculture production, climate effect, coastal zone, eutrophication, governance approach, mariculture, mortality, risk assessment, salmonid culture, chile
Transversal2021Nicolas-Artero, ChloéEnsuring access to water in an emergency context: Towards an overexploitation and contamination of water resources?Social & Legal Studies10.1177/09646639211031626This article shows how geo-legal devices created to deal with environmental crisis situations make access to drinking water precarious and contribute to the overexploitation and contamination of water resources. It relies on qualitative methods (interviews, observations, archive work) to identify and analyse two geo-legal devices applied in the case study of the Elqui Valley in Chile. The first device, generated by the Declaration of Water Scarcity, allows private sanitation companies to concentrate water rights and extend their supply network, thus producing an overexploitation of water resources. In the context of mining pollution, the second device is structured around the implementation of the Rural Drinking Water Programme and the distribution of water by tankers, which has made access to drinking water more precarious for the population and does nothing to prevent pollution.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/09646639211031626096466392110316Thomson Reuters ISIchile, emergency, environmental crisis, geo-legal devices, legal geography, water
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2021León-Muñoz, Jorge; Aguayo, Rodrigo; Marcé, Rafael; Catalán, Núria; Woelfl, Stefan; Nimptsch, Jorge; Arismendi, Ivan; Contreras, Camila; Soto, Doris; Miranda, AlejandroClimate and Land Cover Trends Affecting Freshwater Inputs to a Fjord in Northwestern PatagoniaFrontiers in Marine Science10.3389/fmars.2021.628454Freshwater inputs strongly influence oceanographic conditions in coastal systems of northwestern Patagonia (41–45°S). Nevertheless, the influence of freshwater on these systems has weakened in recent decades due to a marked decrease in precipitation. Here we evaluate potential influences of climate and land cover trends on the Puelo River (640 m 3 s –1 ), the main source of freshwater input of the Reloncaví Fjord (41.5°S). Water quality was analyzed along the Puelo River basin (six sampling points) and at the discharge site in the Reloncaví Fjord (1, 8, and 25 m depth), through six field campaigns carried out under contrasting streamflow scenarios. We also used several indicators of hydrological alteration, and cross-wavelet transform and coherence analyses to evaluate the association between the Puelo River streamflow and precipitation (1950–2019). Lastly, using the WEAP hydrological model, land cover maps (2001–2016) and burned area reconstructions (1985–2019), we simulated future land cover impacts (2030) on the hydrological processes of the Puelo River. Total Nitrogen and total phosphorus, dissolved carbon, and dissolved iron concentrations measured in the river were 3–15 times lower than those in the fjord. Multivariate analyses showed that streamflow drives the carbon composition in the river. High streamflow conditions contribute with humic and colored materials, while low streamflow conditions corresponded to higher arrival of protein-like materials from the basin. The Puelo River streamflow showed significant trends in magnitude (lower streamflow in summer and autumn), duration (minimum annual streamflow), timing (more floods in spring), and frequency (fewer prolonged floods). The land cover change (LCC) analysis indicated that more than 90% of the basin area maintained its land cover, and that the main changes were attributed to recent large wildfires. Considering these land cover trends, the hydrological simulations project a slight increase in the Puelo River streamflow mainly due to a decrease in evapotranspiration. According to previous simulations, these projections present a direction opposite to the trends forced by climate change. The combined effect of reduction in freshwater input to fiords and potential decline in water quality highlights the need for more robust data and robust analysis of the influence of climate and LCC on this river-fjord complex of northwestern Patagonia.https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2021.628454/full6284548.0Thomson Reuters ISIclimate change, hydrological modeling, land cover change, land-ocean interface, patagonia, water quality
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2021Carrasco, Jaime; Acuna, Mauricio; Miranda, Alejandro; Alfaro, Gabriela; Pais, Cristobal; Weintraub, AndrésExploring the multidimensional effects of human activity and land cover on fire occurrence for territorial planningJournal of Environmental Management10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113428The strong link between climate change and increased wildfire risk suggests a paradigm change on how humans must co-exist with fire and the environment. Different studies have demonstrated that human-induced fire ignitions can account for more than 90 % of forest fires, so human co-existence with wildfires requires informed decision making via preventive policies in order to minimize risk and adapt to new conditions. In this paper, we address the multidimensional effects of three groups of drivers (human activity, geographic and topographic, and land cover) that can be managed to assist in territorial planning under fire risk. We found critical factors of strong interactions with the potential to increase the likelihood of starting a fire. Our solution approach included the application of a Machine Learning method called Random Undersampling and Boosting (RUSBoost) to assess risk (fire occurrence probability), which was subsequently accompanied by a sensitivity analysis that revealed interactions of various levels of risk. The prediction performance of the proposed model was assessed using several statistical measures such as the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC) and the Area Under the Curve (AUC). The results confirmed the high accuracy of our model, with an AUC of 0.967 and an overall accuracy over test data of 93.01 % after applying a Bayesian approach for hyper-parameter optimization. The study area to test our solution approach comprised the entire geographical territory of central Chile.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0301479721014900113428297.0Thomson Reuters ISIaccuracy assessment, climate change, decision making, environmental effect, environmental management, exploration, fire, human activity, land cover, optimization, risk assessment, territorial planning, wildfire, area under the curve, article, chile, human, land use, machine learning, prediction, probability, receiver operating characteristic, risk assessment, sensitivity analysis, bayes theorem, climate change, human activities, probability, wildfire, chile, bayes theorem, climate change, human activities, humans, probability, wildfires
Ciudades Resilientes2021Jiménez-Uribe, Dámaris A.; Daniels, Darwin; Fleming, Zoë L.; Vélez-Pereira, Andrés M.Road Traffic Noise on the Santa Marta City Tourist RouteApplied Sciences10.3390/app11167196The objective of this study was to determine the influence of vehicular traffic on the environmental noise levels of the Santa Marta City tourist route on the Colombian coast. An analysis of vehicle types and frequencies at various times of the day over nearly a year helped to track the main sources of environmental noise pollution. Five sampling points were selected, which were distributed over 12 km, with three classified as peripheral urban and two as suburban. The average traffic flow was 966 vehicles/h and was mainly composed of automobiles, with higher values in the peripheral urban area. The noise level was 103.3 dBA, with background and peak levels of 87.2 and 107.3 dBA, respectively. The noise level was higher during the day; however, there were no differences between weekdays and weekends. The results from the analysis of variance showed that the number of vehicles and the noise levels varied greatly according to the time of day and sampling point location. The peak and mean noise levels were correlated with the number of automobiles, buses and heavy vehicles. The mean noise levels were similar at all sample points despite the traffic flow varying, and the background noise was only correlated for automobiles (which varied much more than the heavy vehicles between day and night).https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/11/16/7196719611.0Thomson Reuters ISIacoustic pollution, analysis of variance, field measurements, freeway, traffic flow dynamics
Zonas Costeras; Agua y Extremos2021Scheiter, Matthias; Schaefer, Marius; Flández, Eduardo; Bozkurt, Deniz; Greve, RalfThe 21st-century fate of the Mocho-Choshuenco ice cap in southern ChileThe Cryosphere10.5194/tc-15-3637-2021Abstract. Glaciers and ice caps are thinning and retreating along the entire Andes ridge, and drivers of this mass loss vary between the different climate zones. The southern part of the Andes (Wet Andes) has the highest abundance of glaciers in number and size, and a proper understanding of ice dynamics is important to assess their evolution. In this contribution, we apply the ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS (SImulation COde for POLythermal Ice Sheets) to the Mocho-Choshuenco ice cap in the Chilean Lake District (40∘ S, 72∘ W; Wet Andes) to reproduce its current state and to project its evolution until the end of the 21st century under different global warming scenarios. First, we create a model spin-up using observed surface mass balance data on the south-eastern catchment, extrapolating them to the whole ice cap using an aspect-dependent parameterization. This spin-up is able to reproduce the most important present-day glacier features. Based on the spin-up, we then run the model 80 years into the future, forced by projected surface temperature anomalies from different global climate models under different radiative pathway scenarios to obtain estimates of the ice cap's state by the end of the 21st century. The mean projected ice volume losses are 56±16 % (RCP2.6), 81±6 % (RCP4.5), and 97±2 % (RCP8.5) with respect to the ice volume estimated by radio-echo sounding data from 2013. We estimate the uncertainty of our projections based on the spread of the results when forcing with different global climate models and on the uncertainty associated with the variation of the equilibrium line altitude with temperature change. Considering our results, we project a considerable deglaciation of the Chilean Lake District by the end of the 21st century.https://tc.copernicus.org/articles/15/3637/2021/3637-365415.0Thomson Reuters ISIclimate modeling, deglaciation, equilibrium line, glacier dynamics, ice cap, ice sheet, surface temperature, twenty first century, andes, los rios [chile], mocho-choshuenco, southern volcanic zone
Zonas Costeras2021Alarcón-Schumacher, Tomás; Guajardo-Leiva, Sergio; Martinez-Garcia, Manuel; Díez, BeatrizEcogenomics and Adaptation Strategies of Southern Ocean Viral CommunitiesmSystems10.1128/mSystems.00396-21Viruses are the most abundant biologic entities in marine systems and strongly influence the microbial community composition and diversity. However, little is known about viral communities’ adaptation and diversification in the ocean. , ABSTRACT The Southern Ocean (SO) represents up to one-fifth of the total carbon drawdown worldwide. Intense selective pressures (low temperature, high UV radiation, and strong seasonality) and physical isolation characterize the SO, serving as a “natural” laboratory for the study of ecogenomics and unique adaptations of endemic viral populations. Here, we report 2,416 novel viral genomes from the SO, obtained from newly sequenced viral metagenomes in combination with mining of publicly available data sets, which represents a 25% increase in the SO viral genomes reported to date. They comprised 567 viral clusters (defined as approximately genus-level groups), with 186 genera endemic to the SO, demonstrating that the SO viral community is predominantly constituted by a large pool of genetically divergent viral species from widespread viral families. The predicted proteome from SO viruses revealed that several protein clusters related to cold-shock-event responses and quorum-sensing mechanisms involved in the lysogenic-lytic cycle shift decision were under positive selection, which is ultimately important for fine adaptation of viral populations in response to the strong selective pressures of the SO. Finally, changes in the hydrophobicity patterns and amino acid frequencies suggested marked temperature-driven genetic selection of the SO viral proteome. Our data provide valuable insights into how viruses adapt and remain successful in this extreme polar marine environment. IMPORTANCE Viruses are the most abundant biologic entities in marine systems and strongly influence the microbial community composition and diversity. However, little is known about viral communities’ adaptation and diversification in the ocean. In this work, we take advantage of the geographical isolation and the intense selective pressures of the SO, to which viruses are exposed, to identify potential viral adaptations due to positive environmental selection and dispersal limitation. To that end, we recovered more than two thousand novel viral genomes, revealing a high degree of divergence in these SO endemic communities. Furthermore, we describe remarkable viral adaptations in amino acid frequencies and accessory proteins related to cold shock response and quorum sensing that allow them to thrive at lower temperatures. Consequently, our work greatly expands the understanding of the diversification of the viral communities of the SO and their particular adaptations to low temperatures.https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/mSystems.00396-21Thomson Reuters ISImolecular and physiological adaptations, southern ocean, stress adaptation, viral diversity
Agua y Extremos2021McNamara, Ian; Baez-Villanueva, Oscar M.; Zomorodian, Ali; Ayyad, Saher; Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio; Zaroug, Modathir; Mersha, Azeb; Nauditt, Alexandra; Mbuliro, Milly; Wamala, Sowed; Ribbe, LarsHow well do gridded precipitation and actual evapotranspiration products represent the key water balance components in the Nile Basin?Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies10.1016/j.ejrh.2021.100884Study region: Nile Basin, Africa. Study focus: The accurate representation of precipitation (P) and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) patterns is crucial for water resources management, yet there remains a high spatial and temporal variability among gridded products, particularly over data-scarce regions. We evaluated the performance of eleven state-of-the-art P products and seven ETa products over the Nile Basin using a four-step procedure: (i) P products were evaluated at the monthly scale through a point-to-pixel approach; (ii) streamflow was modelled using the Random Forest machine learning technique, and simulated for well-performing catchments for 2009–2018 (to correspond with ETa product availability); (iii) ETa products were evaluated at the multiannual scale using the water balance method; and (iv) the ability of the best-performing P and ETa products to represent monthly variations in terrestrial water storage (ΔTWS) was assessed through a comparison with GRACE Level-3 data. New hydrological insights for the region: CHIRPSv2 was the best-performing P product (median monthly KGE’ of 0.80) and PMLv2 and WaPORv2.1 the best-performing ETa products over the majority of the evaluated catchments. The application of the water balance using these best-performing products captures the seasonality of ΔTWS well over the White Nile Basin, but overestimates seasonality over the Blue Nile Basin. Our study demonstrates how gridded P and ETa products can be evaluated over extremely data-scarce conditions using an easily transferable methodology.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S221458182100113010088437.0Thomson Reuters ISIevapotranspiration, grace, precipitation, random forest, remote sensing, water balance
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2021Armenteras, Dolors; Dávalos, Liliana M.; Barreto, Joan S.; Miranda, Alejandro; Hernández-Moreno, Angela; Zamorano-Elgueta, Carlos; González-Delgado, Tania M.; Meza-Elizalde, María C.; Retana, JavierFire-induced loss of the world’s most biodiverse forests in Latin AmericaScience Advances10.1126/sciadv.abd3357Fire plays a dominant role in deforestation, particularly in the tropics, but the relative extent of transformations and influence of fire frequency on eventual forest loss remain unclear. Here, we analyze the frequency of fire and its influence on postfire forest trajectories between 2001 and 2018. We account for ~1.1% of Latin American forests burnt in 2002–2003 (8,465,850 ha). Although 40.1% of forests (3,393,250 ha) burned only once, by 2018, ~48% of the evergreen forests converted to other, primarily grass-dominated uses. While greater fire frequency yielded more transformation, our results reveal the staggering impact of even a single fire. Increasing fire frequency imposes greater risks of irreversible forest loss, transforming forests into ecosystems increasingly vulnerable to degradation. Reversing this trend is indispensable to both mitigate and adapt to climate change globally. As climate change transforms fire regimes across the region, key actions are needed to conserve Latin American forests.https://advances.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/sciadv.abd3357eabd33577.0Thomson Reuters ISIdeforestation, fires, evergreen forests, fire frequencies, fire regimes, forest loss, induced loss, key actions, latin america, latin americans, climate change, article, climate change, evergreen, forest, grass, nonhuman, south and central america
Zonas Costeras2021Tamayo-Leiva, Javier; Cifuentes-Anticevic, Jerónimo; Aparicio-Rizzo, Pilar; Arroyo, José Ignacio; Masotti, Italo; Díez, BeatrizInfluence of Estuarine Water on the Microbial Community Structure of Patagonian FjordsFrontiers in Marine Science10.3389/fmars.2021.611981Fjords are sensitive areas affected by climate change and can act as a natural laboratory to study microbial ecological processes. The Chilean Patagonian fjords (41–56°S), belonging to the Subantarctic ecosystem (46–60°S), make up one of the world’s largest fjord systems. In this region, Estuarine Water (EW) strongly influences oceanographic conditions, generating sharp gradients of oxygen, salinity and nutrients, the effects of which on the microbial community structure are poorly understood. During the spring of 2017 we studied the ecological patterns (dispersal and oceanographic factors) underlying the microbial community distribution in a linear span of 450 km along the estuarine-influenced Chilean Patagonian fjords. Our results show that widespread microbial dispersion existed along the fjords where bacterioplankton exhibited dependence on the eukaryotic phytoplankton community composition. This dependence was particularly observed under the low chlorophyll- a conditions of the Baker Channel area, in which a significant relationship was revealed between SAR11 Clade III and the eukaryotic families Pyrenomonadaceae (Cryptophyte) and Coccomyxaceae (Chlorophyta). Furthermore, dissolved oxygen and salinity were revealed as the main drivers influencing the surface marine microbial communities in these fjords. A strong salinity gradient resulted in the segregation of the Baker Channel prokaryotic communities from the rest of the Patagonian fjords. Likewise, Microbacteriaceae, Burkholderiaceae and SAR11 Clade III, commonly found in freshwater, were strongly associated with EW conditions in these fjords. The direct effect of EW on the microbial community structure and diversity of the fjords exemplifies the significance that climate change and, in particular, deglaciation have on this marine region and its productivity.https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2021.611981/full6119818.0Thomson Reuters ISIbacterioplankton, estuarine water, eukaryotic phytoplankton, microbial indicator, patagonian fjords, subantarctic
Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2021Blanco-Wells, GustavoEcologies of Repair: A Post-human Approach to Other-Than-Human NaturesFrontiers in Psychology10.3389/fpsyg.2021.633737This conceptual paper explores the theoretical possibilities of posthumanism and presents ecologies of repair as a heuristic device to explore the association modes of different entities, which, when confronted with the effects of human-induced destructive events, seek to repair the damage and transform the conditions of coexistence of various life forms. The central idea is that severe socio-environmental crisis caused by an intensification of industrial activity are conducive to observing new sociomaterial configurations and affective dispositions that, through the reorganization of practices of resistance, remediation, and mutual care, are oriented to generating reparative and/or transformative processes from damaged ecologies and communities. Crises constitute true ontological experimentation processes where the presence of other-than-human natures, and of artifacts or devices that participate in reparative actions, become visible. A post-human approach to nature allows us to use languages and methodologies that do not restrict the emergence of assemblages under the assumption of their a priori ontological separation, but rather examine their reparative potential based on the efficacy of situated relationships. Methodologically, transdisciplinarity is relevant, with ethnography and other engaged methods applied over units of observation and experience called socio-geo-ecologies. The relevant attributes of these socio-geo-ecologies, beyond the individual, community, or institutional aspects, are the specific geological characteristics that make possible an entanglement of interdependent relationships between human and non-human agents. The conceptual analysis is illustrated with empirical examples stemming from socio-geo-ecologies researched in Southern Chile.https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.633737/full63373712.0Thomson Reuters ISIenvironmental crises, non-human, posthumanism, relational ontology, transdiscipline
Ciudades Resilientes2021Da Venezia, Claudia; Hussein, Nayib; Hernández, Marcela; Contreras, Johanna; Morales, Alicia; Valdés, Macarena; Rojas, Francisca; Matamala, Loreto; Hernández-Ríos, PatriciaAssessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Women with Periodontal Diseases According to C-reactive Protein LevelsBiomolecules10.3390/biom11081238Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are highly prevalent non-communicable diseases worldwide. Periodontitis may act as a non-traditional cardiovascular risk (CVR) factor, linked by a low-grade systemic inflammation mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP). Patients with periodontitis reported higher serum CRP levels; however, a CRP systemic and periodontal correlation in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and its CVR impact have been barely studied. We aimed to assess the association between periodontal diseases and CVR in a group of adult women, based on serum high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) levels; and secondly, to determine the association between serum and GCF CRP levels. Gingival crevicular fluid and blood samples were obtained from women with periodontitis, gingivitis, and healthy controls. Serum and GCF CRP were determined by turbidimetric method and Luminex technology, respectively. Data were analyzed and adjusted by CVR factors. All women presented moderate CVR, without an evident association between serum hs-CRP levels and periodontal diseases. While serum hs-CRP concentrations did not significantly differ between groups, patients with gingivitis and periodontitis showed higher CRP levels in GCF, which positively correlated to CRP detection in serum.https://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/11/8/1238123811.0Thomson Reuters ISIc reactive protein, cholesterol, hemoglobin a1c, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipid, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol, adult, article, blood sampling, body mass, cardiovascular risk factor, cephalic vein, cholesterol blood level, confidence interval, controlled study, data analysis, diabetes mellitus, diagnostic test accuracy study, diastolic blood pressure, dyslipidemia, educational status, fasting, female, gingival index, gingivitis, high density lipoprotein cholesterol level, human, hypertension, immunoassay, low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, major clinical study, obesity, periodontal disease, periodontitis, physical examination, protein blood level, retrospective study, smoking, systolic blood pressure, triacylglycerol blood level
Zonas Costeras2021Bravo, Claudio; Bozkurt, Deniz; Ross, Andrew N.; Quincey, Duncan J.Projected increases in surface melt and ice loss for the Northern and Southern Patagonian IcefieldsScientific Reports10.1038/s41598-021-95725-wAbstract The Northern Patagonian Icefield (NPI) and the Southern Patagonian Icefield (SPI) have increased their ice mass loss in recent decades. In view of the impacts of glacier shrinkage in Patagonia, an assessment of the potential future surface mass balance (SMB) of the icefields is critical. We seek to provide this assessment by modelling the SMB between 1976 and 2050 for both icefields, using regional climate model data (RegCM4.6) and a range of emission scenarios. For the NPI, reductions between 1.5 m w.e. (RCP2.6) and 1.9 m w.e. (RCP8.5) were estimated in the mean SMB during the period 2005–2050 compared to the historical period (1976–2005). For the SPI, the estimated reductions were between 1.1 m w.e. (RCP2.6) and 1.5 m w.e. (RCP8.5). Recently frontal ablation estimates suggest that mean SMB in the SPI is positively biased by 1.5 m w.e., probably due to accumulation overestimation. If it is assumed that frontal ablation rates of the recent past will continue, ice loss and sea-level rise contribution will increase. The trend towards lower SMB is mostly explained by an increase in surface melt. Positive ice loss feedbacks linked to increasing in meltwater availability are expected for calving glaciers.https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95725-w1684711.0Thomson Reuters ISIarticle, body weight, climate, glacier, sea level rise
Ciudades Resilientes2021Nolte, David; Urbina, Jesús; Sotelo, Julio; Sok, Leo; Montalba, Cristian; Valverde, Israel; Osses, Axel; Uribe, Sergio; Bertoglio, CristóbalValidation of 4D Flow based relative pressure maps in aortic flowsMedical Image Analysis10.1016/j.media.2021.102195While the clinical gold standard for pressure difference measurements is invasive catheterization, 4D Flow MRI is a promising tool for enabling a non-invasive quantification, by linking highly spatially resolved velocity measurements with pressure differences via the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. In this work we provide a validation and comparison with phantom and clinical patient data of pressure difference maps estimators. We compare the classical Pressure Poisson Estimator (PPE) and the new Stokes Estimator (STE) against catheter pressure measurements under a variety of stenosis severities and flow intensities. Specifically, we use several 4D Flow data sets of realistic aortic phantoms with different anatomic and hemodynamic severities and two patients with aortic coarctation. The phantom data sets are enriched by subsampling to lower resolutions, modification of the segmentation and addition of synthetic noise, in order to study the sensitivity of the pressure difference estimators to these factors. Overall, the STE method yields more accurate results than the PPE method compared to catheterization data. The superiority of the STE becomes more evident at increasing Reynolds numbers with a better capacity of capturing pressure gradients in strongly convective flow regimes. The results indicate an improved robustness of the STE method with respect to variation in lumen segmentation. However, with heuristic removal of the wall-voxels, the PPE can reach a comparable accuracy for lower Reynolds’ numbers.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S136184152100240110219574.0Thomson Reuters ISIdiagnosis, hospital data processing, navier stokes equations, phantoms, reynolds number, aortic coarctation, convective flow, lower resolution, lumen segmentations, pressure differences, spatially resolved, stokes equations, synthetic noise, blood vessels, adult, aortic coarctation, aortic flow, article, case report, catheterization, clinical article, female, flow measurement, four-dimensional imaging, hemodynamic parameters, human, image analysis, male, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, patient coding, pressure gradient, pressure measurement
Ciudades Resilientes2021Cosentino, N. J.; Gaiero, D. M.; Lambert, F.Present‐Day Patagonian Dust Emissions: Combining Surface Visibility, Mass Flux, and Reanalysis DataJournal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres10.1029/2020JD034459The magnitude of the climatic forcing associated with mineral dust aerosols remains uncertain due in part to a lack of observations on dust sources. While modeling and satellite studies provide spatially extensive constraints, they must be supported by surface-validating dust monitoring. Southern South America is the main dust source to the southern oceans (>45°S), a region of low biological productivity potentially susceptible to increased micronutrient fertilization through dust deposition, as well as one of the main dust sources to Antarctica, implying long-range transport of dust from Patagonia and potentially affecting snow cover albedo. We present multiyear time series of dust-related visibility reduction (DRVR) and dust mass flux in Patagonia. We find that local DRVR is partly controlled by long-term (i.e., months) water deficit, while same-day conditions play a smaller role, reflective of water retention properties of fine-grained dust-emitting soils in low-moisture conditions. This is supported independently by reanalysis data showing that large-scale dust outbreaks are usually associated with anomalously high long-term water deficit. By combining visibility data, surface dust sampling, and particle dispersion modeling, we derive regional dust emission rates. Our results suggest that the inclusion of long-term soil hydrologic balance parameterizations under low-moisture conditions may improve the performance of dust emission schemes in Earth system models.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2020JD034459126.0Thomson Reuters ISIatmospheric pollution, long range transport, mass transfer, mineral dust, pollutant source, pollution monitoring, visibility, antarctica, patagonia, south america
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2021Lara, Antonio; Jones, Julia; Little, Christian; Vergara, NicolásStreamflow response to native forest restoration in former Eucalyptus plantations in south central ChileHydrological Processes10.1002/hyp.14270Global increases in intensive forestry have raised concerns about forest plantation effects on water, but few studies have tested the effects of plantation forest removal and native forest restoration on catchment hydrology. We describe results of a 14-year paired watershed experiment on ecological restoration in south central Chile which documents streamflow response to the early stages of native forest restoration, after clearcutting of plantations of exotic fast-growing Eucalyptus, planting of native trees, and fostering natural regeneration of native temperate rainforest species. Precipitation, streamflow, and vegetation were measured starting in 2006 in four small (3 to 5 ha) catchments with Eucalyptus globulus plantations and native riparian buffers in the Valdivian Coastal Reserve. Mean annual precipitation is 2500 mm, of which 11% occurs in summer. Streamflow increased, and increases persisted, throughout the first 9 years of vigorous native forest regeneration (2011 to 2019). Annual streamflow increased by 40% to >100% in most years and >150% in fall and summer of some years. Streamflow was 50% to 100% lower than before treatment in two dry summers. Base flow increased by 28% to 87% during the restoration period compared to pre-treatment, and remained elevated in later years despite low summer precipitation. Overall, these findings indicate that removal of Eucalyptus plantations immediately increased streamflow, and native forest restoration gradually restored deep soil moisture reservoirs that sustain base flow during dry periods, increasing water ecosystem services. To our knowledge this is the first study to assess catchment streamflow response to native forest restoration in former forest plantations. Therefore, the results of this study are relevant to global efforts to restore native forest ecosystems on land currently intensively managed with fast-growing forest plantations and may inform policy and decision-making in areas experiencing a drying trend associated with climate change.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hyp.1427035.0Thomson Reuters ISIaerodynamics, climate change, decision making, ecosystems, hydrogeology, reforestation, reservoirs (water), restoration, runoff, soil moisture, stream flow, ecological restoration, eucalyptus globulus, eucalyptus plantations, fast growing forests, mean annual precipitation, natural regeneration, summer precipitation, temperate rainforest, conservation
Ciudades Resilientes2021Sokhi, Ranjeet S.; Singh, Vikas; Querol, Xavier; Finardi, Sandro; Targino, Admir Créso; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Pavlovic, Radenko; Garland, Rebecca M.; Massagué, Jordi; Kong, Shaofei; Baklanov, Alexander; Ren, Lu; Tarasova, Oksana; Carmichael, Greg; Peuch, Vincent-Henri; Anand, Vrinda; Arbilla, Graciela; Badali, Kaitlin; Beig, Gufran; Belalcazar, Luis Carlos; Bolignano, Andrea; Brimblecombe, Peter; Camacho, Patricia; Casallas, Alejandro; Charland, Jean-Pierre; Choi, Jason; Chourdakis, Eleftherios; Coll, Isabelle; Collins, Marty; Cyrys, Josef; da Silva, Cleyton Martins; Di Giosa, Alessandro Domenico; Di Leo, Anna; Ferro, Camilo; Gavidia-Calderon, Mario; Gayen, Amiya; Ginzburg, Alexander; Godefroy, Fabrice; Gonzalez, Yuri Alexandra; Guevara-Luna, Marco; Haque, Sk. Mafizul; Havenga, Henno; Herod, Dennis; Hõrrak, Urmas; Hussein, Tareq; Ibarra, Sergio; Jaimes, Monica; Kaasik, Marko; Khaiwal, Ravindra; Kim, Jhoon; Kousa, Anu; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Kulmala, Markku; Kuula, Joel; La Violette, Nathalie; Lanzani, Guido; Liu, Xi; MacDougall, Stephanie; Manseau, Patrick M.; Marchegiani, Giada; McDonald, Brian; Mishra, Swasti Vardhan; Molina, Luisa T.; Mooibroek, Dennis; Mor, Suman; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Murena, Fabio; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Noe, Steffen; Nogueira, Thiago; Norman, Michael; Pérez-Camaño, Juan Luis; Petäjä, Tuukka; Piketh, Stuart; Rathod, Aditi; Reid, Ken; Retama, Armando; Rivera, Olivia; Rojas, Néstor Y.; Rojas-Quincho, Jhojan P.; San José, Roberto; Sánchez, Odón; Seguel, Rodrigo J.; Sillanpää, Salla; Su, Yushan; Tapper, Nigel; Terrazas, Antonio; Timonen, Hilkka; Toscano, Domenico; Tsegas, George; Velders, Guus J.M.; Vlachokostas, Christos; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Vpm, Rajasree; Yadav, Ravi; Zalakeviciute, Rasa; Zavala, MiguelA global observational analysis to understand changes in air quality during exceptionally low anthropogenic emission conditionsEnvironment International10.1016/j.envint.2021.106818This global study, which has been coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmospheric Watch (WMO/GAW) programme, aims to understand the behaviour of key air pollutant species during the COVID-19 pandemic period of exceptionally low emissions across the globe. We investigated the effects of the differences in both emissions and regional and local meteorology in 2020 compared with the period 2015–2019. By adopting a globally consistent approach, this comprehensive observational analysis focuses on changes in air quality in and around cities across the globe for the following air pollutants PM2.5, PM10, PMC (coarse fraction of PM), NO2, SO2, NOx, CO, O3 and the total gaseous oxidant (OX = NO2 + O3) during the pre-lockdown, partial lockdown, full lockdown and two relaxation periods spanning from January to September 2020. The analysis is based on in situ ground-based air quality observations at over 540 traffic, background and rural stations, from 63 cities and covering 25 countries over seven geographical regions of the world. Anomalies in the air pollutant concentrations (increases or decreases during 2020 periods compared to equivalent 2015–2019 periods) were calculated and the possible effects of meteorological conditions were analysed by computing anomalies from ERA5 reanalyses and local observations for these periods. We observed a positive correlation between the reductions in NO2 and NOx concentrations and peoples’ mobility for most cities. A correlation between PMC and mobility changes was also seen for some Asian and South American cities. A clear signal was not observed for other pollutants, suggesting that sources besides vehicular emissions also substantially contributed to the change in air quality. As a global and regional overview of the changes in ambient concentrations of key air quality species, we observed decreases of up to about 70% in mean NO2 and between 30% and 40% in mean PM2.5 concentrations over 2020 full lockdown compared to the same period in 2015–2019. However, PM2.5 exhibited complex signals, even within the same region, with increases in some Spanish cities, attributed mainly to the long-range transport of African dust and/or biomass burning (corroborated with the analysis of NO2/CO ratio). Some Chinese cities showed similar increases in PM2.5 during the lockdown periods, but in this case, it was likely due to secondary PM formation. Changes in O3 concentrations were highly heterogeneous, with no overall change or small increases (as in the case of Europe), and positive anomalies of 25% and 30% in East Asia and South America, respectively, with Colombia showing the largest positive anomaly of ~70%. The SO2 anomalies were negative for 2020 compared to 2015–2019 (between ~25 to 60%) for all regions. For CO, negative anomalies were observed for all regions with the largest decrease for South America of up to ~40%. The NO2/CO ratio indicated that specific sites (such as those in Spanish cities) were affected by biomass burning plumes, which outweighed the NO2 decrease due to the general reduction in mobility (ratio of ~60%). Analysis of the total oxidant (OX = NO2 + O3) showed that primary NO2 emissions at urban locations were greater than the O3 production, whereas at background sites, OX was mostly driven by the regional contributions rather than local NO2 and O3 concentrations. The present study clearly highlights the importance of meteorology and episodic contributions (e.g., from dust, domestic, agricultural biomass burning and crop fertilizing) when analysing air quality in and around cities even during large emissions reductions. There is still the need to better understand how the chemical responses of secondary pollutants to emission change under complex meteorological conditions, along with climate change and socio-economic drivers may affect future air quality. The implications for regional and global policies are also significant, as our study clearly indicates that PM2.5 concentrations would not likely meet the World Health Organization guidelines in many parts of the world, despite the drastic reductions in mobility. Consequently, revisions of air quality regulation (e.g., the Gothenburg Protocol) with more ambitious targets that are specific to the different regions of the world may well be required.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0160412021004438106818157.0Thomson Reuters ISIatmospheric movements, carbon monoxide, geographical regions, nitrogen oxides, ozone, particles (particulate matter), quality control, sulfur dioxide, % reductions, air pollutants, biomass-burning, covid-19, nitrogen dioxides, no $-2$, observational analysis, particulate matter, pm$-2.5$, sulphur dioxide, air quality, air quality, atmospheric pollution, carbon monoxide, concentration (composition), covid-19, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2021Ponce Oliva, Roberto D.; Montevechio, Esteban Arias; Jorquera, Francisco Fernández; Vásquez-Lavin, Felipe; Stehr, AlejandraWater Use and Climate Stressors in a Multiuser River Basin Setting: Who Benefits from Adaptation?Water Resources Management10.1007/s11269-020-02753-8Adapting to new climate conditions will require an intricate mix of knowledge, planning, coordination, and foresight. There is increasing sectoral evidence on the implementation of successful adaptation actions. However, the success of these actions when we consider the interdependencies among sectors remains debatable. This paper aims to assess who benefits from implementing adaptation options in a multiuser river basin to both climate-induced and demographic stress on water use. Our analysis relies on a hydro-economic model that considers two sets of water users: agriculture and urban households. We innovate in our modelling approach by analyzing and explicitly integrating the household-level economic behavior through its water demand. We assess the cross-user consequences of autonomous and planned adaptation actions. We provide insights into the different trade-offs at the basin level, demonstrating the compatibilities and divergences between agriculture and household-level water demand. We found different consequences of implementing either autonomous or planned adaptation measures. For instance, a decentralized scheme would drive negative implications for the entire basin, although the less water-intensive sector will be better off. On the other hand, different policy interventions would drive positive consequences for the entire basin, with the most water-intensive sector benefiting the most. These results highlight the distributional consequences across users of different adaptation measures.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11269-020-02753-8897-91535.0Thomson Reuters ISIagricultural robots, agriculture, economic and social effects, watersheds, climate condition, climate stressors, distributional consequences, economic modeling, household level, policy intervention, river basins, urban-household, water resources, adaptive management, climate change, policy implementation, river basin, river management, trade-off, water demand, water management, water planning, water use
Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Agua y Extremos; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2021Hoyos-Santillan, Jorge; Miranda, Alejandro; Lara, Antonio; Sepulveda-Jauregui, Armando; Zamorano-Elgueta, Carlos; Gómez-González, Susana; Vásquez-Lavín, Felipe; Garreaud, Rene D.; Rojas, MaisaDiversifying Chile’s climate action away from industrial plantationsEnvironmental Science & Policy10.1016/j.envsci.2021.06.013As president of the Climate Change Conference of the Parties, Chile has advocated for developing ambitious commitments to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions to achieve carbon-neutrality by 2050. However, Chile’s motivations and ambitious push to reach carbon-neutrality are complicated by a backdrop of severe drought, climate change impacts (i.e., wildfires, tree mortality), and the use of industrial plantations as a mitigation strategy. This has become more evident as widespread and severe wildfires have impacted large areas of industrial plantations, transforming the land-use, land-use change, and forestry sector from a carbon sink to a net carbon source. Consequently, Chile must diversify its climate actions to achieve carbon-neutrality. Nature-based solutions, including wetlands-peatlands and oceans, represent alternative climate actions that can be implemented to tackle greenhouse gas emissions at a national level. Diversification, however, must guarantee Chile’s long-term carbon sequestration capacity without compromising the ecological functionality of biodiverse treeless habitats and native forest ecosystems.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S146290112100173885-89124.0Thomson Reuters ISIcarbon, biodiversity, building, carbon footprint, carbon sequestration, carbon sink, carbon source, chile, climate, climate change, drought, electric power plant, energy yield, forest, forestry, housing, land use, note, peatland, plantation, sea, tree, wetland, wildfire
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2021Flores Arévalo, Yarela; Ponce Oliva, Roberto D.; Fernández, Francisco J.; Vásquez-Lavin, FelipeSensitivity of Water Price Elasticity Estimates to Different Data Aggregation LevelsWater Resources Management10.1007/s11269-021-02833-3The empirical literature on residential water demand employs various data aggregation methods, which depend on whether the aggregation is over consumption, sociodemographic variables, or both. In this study, we distinguish three dataset types—aggregated data, disaggregated data, and semi-aggregated data—to compare the consequences of using a large sample of semi-aggregated data vis-à-vis a small sample of fully disaggregated data on the water price elasticity estimates. We also analyze whether different aggregation levels in the sociodemographic variables affect the water price elasticity estimates when the number of observations is fixed. We employ a discrete-continuous choice model that considers that consumers face an increasing block price structure. Our results demonstrate that the water price elasticities depend upon the level of aggregation of the data used and the sample size. We also find that the water price elasticities are statistically different when comparing a large semi-aggregated sample with a small disaggregated sample.https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11269-021-02833-32039-205235.0Thomson Reuters ISIelasticity, large dataset, aggregated datum, aggregation level, data aggregation, empirical literature, price structure, residential water demand, small samples, socio-demographic variables, cost estimating, data processing, demand elasticity, discrete choice analysis, estimation method, sensitivity analysis, water demand, water economics
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2021Ponce Oliva, Roberto D.; Fernández, Francisco J.; Vasquez-Lavín, Felipe; Arias Montevechio, Esteban; Julio, Natalia; Stehr, AlejandraNexus Thinking at River Basin Scale: Food, Water and WelfareWater10.3390/w13071000Water resources face an unparalleled confluence of pressures, with agriculture and urban growth as the most relevant human-related stressors. In this context, methodologies using a Nexus framework seem to be suitable to address these challenges. However, the urban sector has been commonly ignored in the Nexus literature. We propose a Nexus framework approach, considering the economic dimensions of the interdependencies and interconnections among agriculture (food production) and the urban sector as water users within a common basin. Then, we assess the responses of both sectors to climatic and demographic stressors. In this setting, the urban sector is represented through an economic water demand at the household level, from which economic welfare is derived. Our results show that the Nexus components here considered (food, water, and welfare) will be negatively affected under the simulated scenarios. However, when these components are decomposed to their particular elements, we found that the less water-intensive sector—the urban sector—will be better off since food production will leave significant amounts of water available. Moreover, when addressing uncertainty related to climate-induced shocks, we could identify the basin resilience threshold. Our approach shows the compatibilities and divergences between food production and the urban sector under the Nexus framework.https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/13/7/1000100013.0Thomson Reuters ISIagricultural robots, agriculture, urban growth, economic welfare, food production, household level, river basins, water demand, water users, water resources
Ciudades Resilientes2021Freeman, Jacob; Anderies, John M.; Beckman, Noelle G.; Robinson, Erick; Baggio, Jacopo A.; Bird, Darcy; Nicholson, Christopher; Finley, Judson Byrd; Capriles, José M.; Gil, Adolfo F.; Byers, David; Gayo, Eugenia; Latorre, ClaudioLandscape Engineering Impacts the Long-Term Stability of Agricultural PopulationsHuman Ecology10.1007/s10745-021-00242-zExplaining the stability of human populations provides knowledge for understanding the resilience of human societies to environmental change. Here, we use archaeological radiocarbon records to evaluate a hypothesis drawn from resilience thinking that may explain the stability of human populations: Faced with long-term increases in population density, greater variability in the production of food leads to less stable populations, while lower variability leads to more stable populations. However, increased population stability may come with the cost of larger collapses in response to rare, large-scale environmental perturbations. Our results partially support this hypothesis. Agricultural societies that relied on extensive landscape engineering to intensify production and tightly control variability in the production of food experienced the most stability. Contrary to the hypothesis, these societies also experienced the least severe population declines. We propose that the interrelationship between landscape engineering and increased political-economic complexity reduces the magnitude of population collapses in a region.https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10745-021-00242-zThomson Reuters ISIhuman population ecology, intensification, population stability, radiocarbon, resilience
Zonas Costeras; Agua y Extremos2021Aguirre, Catalina; Garreaud, René; Belmar, Lucy; Farías, Laura; Ramajo, Laura; Barrera, FacundoHigh-Frequency Variability of the Surface Ocean Properties Off Central Chile During the Upwelling SeasonFrontiers in Marine Science10.3389/fmars.2021.702051The ocean off south-central Chile is subject to seasonal upwelling whose intensity is mainly controlled by the latitudinal migration of the southeast Pacific subtropical anticyclone. During austral spring and summer, the mean flow is equatorward favoring coastal upwelling, but periods of strong southerly winds are intermixed with periods of relaxed southerlies or weak northerly winds (downwelling favorable). This sub-seasonal, high-frequency variability of the coastal winds results in pronounced changes in oceanographic conditions and air-sea heat and gas exchanges, whose quantitative description has been limited by the lack of in-situ monitoring. In this study, high frequency fluctuations of meteorological, oceanographic and biogeochemical near surface variables were analyzed during two consecutive upwelling seasons (2016–17 and 2017–18) using observations from a coastal buoy located in the continental shelf off south-central Chile (36.4°S, 73°W), ∼10 km off the coast. The radiative-driven diel cycle is noticeable in meteorological variables but less pronounced for oceanographic and biogeochemical variables [ocean temperature, nitrate (NO 3 −), partial pressure of carbon dioxide ( p CO 2 sea ), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO)]. Fluorescence, as a proxy of chlorophyll- a , showed diel variations more controlled by biological processes. In the synoptic scale, 23 active upwelling events (strong southerlies, lasting between 2 and 15 days, 6 days in average) were identified, alternated with periods of relaxed southerlies of shorter duration (4.5 days in average). Upwelling events were related to the development of an atmospheric low-level coastal jet in response to an intense along-shore pressure gradient. Physical and biogeochemical surface seawater properties responded to upwelling favorable wind stress with approximately a 12-h lag. During upwelling events, SST, DO and pH decrease, while NO 3 −, p CO 2 sea , and air-sea fluxes increases. During the relaxed southerly wind periods, opposite tendencies were observed. The fluorescence response to wind variations is complex and diverse, but in many cases there was a reduction in the phytoplankton biomass during the upwelling events followed by higher values during wind relaxations. The sub-seasonal variability of the coastal ocean characterized here is important for biogeochemical and productivity studies.https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2021.702051/full7020518.0Thomson Reuters ISIair-sea exchanges, biogeochemical properties, coastal buoy observations, coastal upwelling, coastal winds, eastern boundary conditions, sub-seasonal variability
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2021Rabanal, Felipe E.; Úbeda, Carmen; Tejo, Camila F.; Lavilla, Esteban O.Tree-Holes as Alternative Reproductive Sites of Batrachyla antartandica Barrio, 1967 (Anura: Batrachylidae)South American Journal of Herpetology10.2994/SAJH-D-18-00064.1Although the original description of Batrachyla antartandica categorically states that the species should not be considered as arboreal, our field observations show that it has excellent climbing abilities. Associated with this fact, B. antartandica shows an alternative mode of reproduction that involves the use of tree-trunk cavities filled with water as a site for calling, reproduction, development, and metamorphosis. As far as we know, B. antartandica is the only anuran species in the Valdivian temperate rainforests of Chile and Argentina with a completely arboreal life cycle.https://bioone.org/journals/south-american-journal-of-herpetology/volume-20/issue-1/SAJH-D-18-00064.1/Tree-Holes-as-Alternative-Reproductive-Sites-of-Batrachyla-antartandica-Barrio/10.2994/SAJH-D-18-00064.1.full20.0Thomson Reuters ISIamphibia, arboreality, microhabitats, phytotelmata, reproductive modes, temperate rainforests
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2022Olivera-Guerra, L.; Quintanilla, M.; Moletto-Lobos, I.; Pichuante, E.; Zamorano-Elgueta, C.; Mattar, C.Water dynamics over a Western Patagonian watershed: Land surface changes and human factorsScience of The Total Environment10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150221Warming trends in Patagonia and severe droughts in recent decades are still poorly understood in terms of their hydrological effects. The effects of climate change on water dynamics in addition to human water management could generate a future water scarcity scenario in one of the regions with the most abundant water resources of Chile. The aim of this work is to focus on assessing the impacts of warming trends on water dynamics in the Patagonian Simpson River watershed during the last two decades. We estimated anomalies in the main components of water balance such as precipitation (P), snow cover (SC), evapotranspiration (ET) and streamflows (Q) as well as surface variables and meteorological forcing (i.e. air temperature - Ta, solar radiation - RS, land surface temperature - LST). The processed data were obtained from remote sensing, reanalysis and in-situ data. We implemented a trend analysis for each variable in the period 2000-2019 at monthly, seasonal and annual scale. Results showed a warming trend in Ta and LST of about 1.2 °C and 2.1 °C, respectively, concentrated mainly in the autumn and winter seasons. Although P showed non-significant trends, Q diminished significantly at rates of more than 9.1 m3/s/decade, representing 36% of its historical mean. However, the decreases in Q are seen only in the maximum (spring) and minimum (summer) seasonal flows. These decreases are explained by significant increases in ET, led by a positive feedback of its drivers (LST, Ta and RS), which is directly linked to the impact of warming and an associated vegetation greenness in the watershed, as well as a decrease in SC during winter that feeds the Simpson River during spring and summer. The decrease in Q is reinforced by the intensification of water withdrawals in recent decades, as shown by an accelerated increase in water rights for agricultural and drinking uses. In a context of water scarcity and increasing and extreme droughts, this work contributes to further understanding water dynamics in western Patagonia, providing support for policy and decision-making when defining sustainable productive practices at watershed scale.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969721052980150221804.0Thomson Reuters ISIatmospheric temperature, climate change, drought, dynamics, potable water, remote sensing, snow, surface measurement, vegetation, water management, water supply, watersheds, patagonia, reanalysis, reanalysis data, remote-sensing, simpson, trend analysis, vegetation greenness, warming effect, water dynamics, water scarcity, decision making
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2021Soto, Daniel P.; Donoso, Pablo J.; Zamorano-Elgueta, Carlos; Ríos, Andrea I.; Promis, ÁlvaroPrecipitation declines influence the understory patterns in Nothofagus pumilio old-growth forests in northwestern PatagoniaForest Ecology and Management10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119169Forest understories are essential to plant diversity and ecosystem functioning. However, studies about changes in understory patterns as affected by varying precipitation are scarce. Pure Nothofagus pumilio (common name: lenga) forests dominate the eastern side of the Andes mountains in Patagonia across an ample range of precipitation (~1500–500 mm). By studying the same forest type, in the same developmental stage (old-growth), we aimed to isolate the effects of precipitation upon these N. pumilio ecosystems, particularly for the understory. Three sites were selected with annual average precipitations of ~1000 mm (humid), ~800 mm (mesic), and 600 mm (dry), with a distance of 30 km between the humid and the dry sites, and only 18 km between the mesic and the dry sites. In each site, we established three 40 × 40 m plots in 4 blocks, and 30 1 m2 regeneration subplots within each plot. In each subplot we measured vascular plant cover, richness and diversity (alpha and beta), litter cover and coarse woody debris, plus several abiotic variables. We analyzed the data with mixed analysis of variance, differences of understory plant communities through blocked distance-based multivariate analysis of variance, and visualized the groups (sites) with non-metric multidimensional scaling. Indicator species at each site were identified through blocked species indicator analysis. The dry site differed significantly compared to the humid and mesic sites, with the lowest understory cover (4 vs. 82–78%), plant richness (15 vs. 25–26 species), and Simpson diversity index (0.05 vs. 0.66–0.64). Beta turnover diversity was higher between the dry site with either the humid and the mesic sites (βt = 0.613 and 0.561, respectively), which in turn had more species in common (βt = 0.115). An increase in exposed mineral soil, soil water content, and leaf area index occurred from dry to humid sites, and vice versa for transmitted radiation and litter cover. All sites had different indicator species, but with indicator values increasing from dry to humid sites. The dramatic impoverishment of the plant community once precipitation drops within the range of 800 and 600 mm per year in Northern Patagonia sets a warning to the potential effects of climate change upon N. pumilio-dominated forest ecosystems and their plant diversity. Some forest management and potential adaptation strategies are proposed.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378112721002577119169491.0Thomson Reuters ISIecosystems, multivariant analysis, reforestation, soil moisture, 'dry' [, biotic/abiotic interactions, indicator species, litter cover, nothofagus, patagonia, plant communities, plant diversity, site quality, transitional forest, climate change, adaptation, climate change, developmental stage, diversity index, forest management, leaf area index, litter, multivariate analysis, coverings, ecosystems, nothofagus, patagonia, plants, reforestation, site index, sites, andes, patagonia, indicator indicator, nothofagus pumilio, tracheophyta
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2021Miranda, Alejandro; Catalán, Germán; Altamirano, Adison; Zamorano-Elgueta, Carlos; Cavieres, Manuel; Guerra, Javier; Mola-Yudego, BlasHow Much Can We See from a UAV-Mounted Regular Camera? Remote Sensing-Based Estimation of Forest Attributes in South American Native ForestsRemote Sensing10.3390/rs13112151Data collection from large areas of native forests poses a challenge. The present study aims at assessing the use of UAV for forest inventory on native forests in Southern Chile, and seeks to retrieve both stand and tree level attributes from forest canopy data. Data were collected from 14 plots (45 × 45 m) established at four locations representing unmanaged Chilean temperate forests: seven plots on secondary forests and seven plots on old-growth forests, including a total of 17 different native species. The imagery was captured using a fixed-wing airframe equipped with a regular RGB camera. We used the structure from motion and digital aerial photogrammetry techniques for data processing and combined machine learning methods based on boosted regression trees and mixed models. In total, 2136 trees were measured on the ground, from which 858 trees were visualized from the UAV imagery of the canopy, ranging from 26% to 88% of the measured trees in the field (mean = 45.7%, SD = 17.3), which represented between 70.6% and 96% of the total basal area of the plots (mean = 80.28%, SD = 7.7). Individual-tree diameter models based on remote sensing data were constructed with R2 = 0.85 and R2 = 0.66 based on BRT and mixed models, respectively. We found a strong relationship between canopy and ground data; however, we suggest that the best alternative was combining the use of both field-based and remotely sensed methods to achieve high accuracy estimations, particularly in complex structure forests (e.g., old-growth forests). Field inventories and UAV surveys provide accurate information at local scales and allow validation of large-scale applications of satellite imagery. Finally, in the future, increasing the accuracy of aerial surveys and monitoring is necessary to advance the development of local and regional allometric crown and DBH equations at the species level.https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/13/11/2151215113.0Thomson Reuters ISIantennas, cameras, data handling, fixed wings, learning systems, photogrammetry, remote sensing, satellite imagery, surveys, unmanned aerial vehicles (uav), aerial photogrammetry, boosted regression trees, field inventories, large-scale applications, machine learning methods, remote sensing data, secondary forests, structure from motion, forestry
Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Transversal2021Pais, Cristobal; Miranda, Alejandro; Carrasco, Jaime; Shen, Zuo-Jun MaxDeep fire topology: Understanding the role of landscape spatial patterns in wildfire occurrence using artificial intelligenceEnvironmental Modelling & Software10.1016/j.envsoft.2021.105122Increasing wildfire activity globally has become an urgent issue with enormous ecological and social impacts. In this work, we focus on analyzing and quantifying the influence of landscape topology, understood as the spatial structure and interaction of multiple land-covers in an area, on fire ignition. We propose a deep learning framework, Deep Fire Topology, to estimate and predict wildfire ignition risk. We focus on understanding the impact of these topological attributes and the rationale behind the results to provide interpretable knowledge for territorial planning considering wildfire ignition uncertainty. We demonstrate the high performance and interpretability of the framework in a case study, accurately detecting risky areas by exploiting spatial patterns. This work reveals the strong potential of landscape topology in wildfire occurrence prediction and its implications to develop robust landscape management plans. We discuss potential extensions and applications of the proposed method, available as an open-source software.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1364815221001651105122143.0Thomson Reuters ISIapplication programs, deep learning, open source software, open systems, risk perception, deep learning, ecological impacts, landscape topology, machine-learning, social impact, spatial patterns, territorial planning, wildfire ignition, wildfire ignition risk, wildfire management, topology, artificial intelligence, estimation method, land cover, performance assessment, risk assessment, territorial planning, topology, uncertainty analysis, wildfire
Agua y Extremos2021Anderson, Talia G.; Christie, Duncan A.; Chávez, Roberto O.; Olea, Matias; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.Spatiotemporal Peatland Productivity and Climate Relationships Across the Western South American AltiplanoJournal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences10.1029/2020JG005994The South American Altiplano is one of the largest semiarid high-altitude plateaus in the world. Within the Altiplano, peatlands known as “bofedales” are important components of regional hydrology and provide key water resources and ecosystem services to Andean communities. Warming temperatures, changes in hydroclimate, and shifting atmospheric circulation patterns all affect peatland dynamics and hydrology. It is therefore urgent to better understand the relationships between climate variability and the spatiotemporal variations in peatland productivity across the Altiplano. Here, we explore climate influences on peatland vegetation using 31 years of Landsat data. We focus specifically on the bofedal network in the western Altiplano, the driest sector of the plateau, and use the satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as an indicator of productivity. We develop temporally and spatially continuous NDVI products at multiple scales in order to evaluate relationships with climate variables over the past three decades. We demonstrate that cumulative precipitation and snow persistence over the prior 2 years are strongly associated with growing season productivity. A step change in peatland productivity between 2013–2015 drives an increasing trend in NDVI and is likely a response to consecutive years of anomalously high snow accumulation and rainfall. Early summer minimum temperatures emerge as a secondary influence on productivity. Understanding large-scale productivity dynamics and characterizing the response of bofedales to climate variability over the last three decades provides a baseline to monitor the responses of Andean peatlands to climate change.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2020JG005994126.0Thomson Reuters ISIatmospheric circulation, climate change, growing season, ndvi, peatland, precipitation (chemistry), precipitation (climatology), rainfall, snow accumulation, spatiotemporal analysis, altiplano, indicator indicator, varanidae
Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Agua y Extremos2021Bertin, Lizette J.; Christie, Duncan A.; Sheppard, Paul R.; Muñoz, Ariel A.; Lara, Antonio; Alvarez, ClaudioChemical Signals in Tree Rings from Northern Patagonia as Indicators of Calbuco Volcano Eruptions since the 16th CenturyForests10.3390/f12101305The Calbuco volcano ranks third in the specific risk classification of volcanoes in Chile and has a detailed eruption record since 1853. During 2015, Calbuco had a sub-Plinian eruption with negative impacts in Chile and Argentina, highlighting the need to determine the long-term history of its activity at a high-resolution time scale to obtain a better understanding of its eruptive frequency. We developed a continuous eruptive record of Calbuco for the 1514–2016 period by dendrochemical analysis of Fitzroya cupressoides tree rings at a biennium resolution using inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. After comparing the chemical record of 20 elements contained in tree rings with historical eruptions, one group exhibited positive anomalies during (Pb/Sn) and immediately after (Mo/P/Zn/Cu) eruptions, with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) ≥ 3, and so were classified as chemical tracers of past eruptions (TPE). The tree-ring width chronology also exhibited significant decreases in tree growth associated with eruptions of VEI ≥ 3. According to these records, we identified 11 new eruptive events of Calbuco, extending its eruptive chronology back to the 16th century and determining a mean eruptive frequency of ~23 years. Our results show the potential to use dendrochemical analysis to infer past volcanic eruptions in Northern Patagonia. This information provides a long-term perspective for assessing eruptive history in Northern Patagonia, with implications for territorial planning.https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/12/10/1305130512.0Thomson Reuters ISIforestry, indicators (chemical), inductively coupled plasma, mass spectrometry, chemical signals, fitzroya cupressoides, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, northern patagonia, risk classification, sub-plinian eruption, tree rings, volcanic eruptions, volcanic explosivity indices, volcano eruptions, volcanoes
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2021Sotes, Gastón J.; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.; Gómez-González, SusanaHigh competitive ability of Centaurea melitensis L. (Asteraceae) does not increase in the invaded rangeBiological Invasions10.1007/s10530-020-02396-1Understanding why alien species become dominant in recipient communities requires a biogeographical perspective comparing the ecology of native and introduced populations. The genus Centaurea (Asteraceae) is well-known in invasion ecology because several aggressive invaders, including Centaurea melitensis L., belong to this genus. We compared the competitive ability of C. melitensis individuals from Spain (native range) and Chile (invaded range) when competing against Helenium aromaticum (Hook.) L.H. Bailey, a native relative from Chile. We performed germination bioassays and common garden competition experiments to compare: (1) the germination capacities of C. melitensis (Spain and Chile) and H. aromaticum (2) the potential allelopathic effect of leaf lixiviates of C. melitensis (Spain and Chile) on the seed germination of H. aromaticum, (3) the ability of C. melitensis from both origins to reduce the growth of H. aromaticum. No significant differences in the capacity of seed germination were found among C. melitensis from Chile and Spain and the native H. aromaticum. However, the seed germination of H. aromaticum was inhibited by the presence of C. melitensis leaves from Chile and Spain. Also, the biomass of H. aromaticum was reduced in the presence of C. melitensis, regardless of their origin. Our results demonstrate the competitive superiority of the invasive C. melitensis over H. aromaticum, but we found no evidence of an evolutionary increase in the competitive ability of the invader populations. Therefore, at least part of the invasive potential of C. melitensis seems to be acquired by selective processes in their original range.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10530-020-02396-1693-70323.0Thomson Reuters ISIangiosperm, bioassay, biogeography, biological invasion, biomass, community dynamics, competitive ability, garden, germination, introduced species, native species, range expansion, chile, spain, asteraceae, centaurea, centaurea melitensis, helenium aromaticum
Zonas Costeras; Agua y Extremos2021Sparaventi, Erica; Rodríguez-Romero, Araceli; Barbosa, Andrés; Ramajo, Laura; Tovar-Sánchez, AntonioTrace elements in Antarctic penguins and the potential role of guano as source of recycled metals in the Southern OceanChemosphere10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131423Penguins dominate the Antarctic avifauna. As key animals in the Antarctic ecosystem, they are monitored to evaluate the ecological status of this pristine and remote region and specifically, they have been used as effective bioindicators suitable for long-term monitoring of metals in the Antarctic environment. However, studies about the role of this emblematic organism could play in the recycling of trace metals (TMs) in the Antarctic ecosystem are very limited. In this study we evaluate, using the peer review research articles already published and our own findings, the distribution of metals (i.e., Ca, Fe, Al, Na, Zn, Mg, Cu, K, Cd, Mn, Sr, Cr, Ni, Pb, Hg, V, Ba, Co, La, Ag, Rb, Hf, Sc, Au and Cs) and metalloids (As and Sb), measured in different biotic matrices, with emphasis on guano, of the Chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarcticus), Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae) and Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) penguins. Regarding bioactive metals, the high concentrations (μg g−1 dry weight) of Cu (2.0 ± 1.4) x 102, Fe (4.1 ± 2.9) x 102, Mn (30 ± 34) and Zn (210 ± 90) reported in the guano from all the penguin species studied including our data, are of the same order of magnitude as those reported for whale feces (μg g−1 dry weight): Cu (2.9 ± 2.4) x 102, Fe (1.5 ± 1.4) x 102, Mn (28 ± 17) and Zn (6.2 ± 4.3) x 102, and one order of magnitude higher than the metal contents in krill (μg g−1 dry weight) of Cu (10.2 ± 5.5), Fe (24 ± 29) and Zn (13.5 ± 1.7). This suggest that penguin's excretion products could be an important source of these essential elements in the surface water, with an estimated annual release on a breeding season for Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn respectively of 28, 56, 4 and 29 tons, for the Chinstrap, Adélie and Gentoo penguins. The results provide evidence on the potential influence of penguins recycling TMs in the surface layer of the water column.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0045653521018956131423285.0Thomson Reuters ISIecosystems, recycling, surface waters, trace elements, antarctica, dropping, dry weight, ecological status, metal concentrations, orders of magnitude, remote regions, southern ocean, trace metal, traces elements, metals, avifauna, bioindicator, breeding season, concentration (composition), excretion, feces, guano, metalloid, recycling, seabird, trace element, whale, southern ocean, pygoscelis antarcticus, spheniscidae
Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2021Bórquez, Roxana; Fuster, RodrigoEnergy and Water Policies in Chile, Two Different Endings with Implications in the Water-Energy NexusEnergies10.3390/en14113286Energy and water have faced important levels of conflicts in the last 20–25 years in Chile. However, the way that they have been politically addressed in the last decade differs. These differences emerge from how these fields have been historically configurated, impacting on how the policy problems and policy options have been framed. Using thematic analysis of 93 interviews and documentary analysis, this article analyzes by contrasting two participatory processes which nourish the formulation of the energy and water policies in Chile in 2014–2015. It seeks to understand the factors that may influence why the development, impact and inclusion of new voices in public policies related to water and energy have been different, and how that can impact the water–energy nexus. Five factors emerge as determinants in this difference: structure of use, number of actors, governance and institutional framework, elite conformation, and legal framework. These factors impacted the policy processes and the scope of the policy outcomes, generating two different results: a long-term energy policy, and a water policy that did not survive the presidential period. Thus, the water–energy nexus is under pressure as a result of the tension between power structures, social responses to environmental issues and decision-making, environmental limitations, and climate change stressors, creating greater vulnerability and conflicts.https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/14/11/3286328614.0Thomson Reuters ISIclimate change, decision making, energy and water policy, environmental issues, environmental limitations, institutional framework, legal frameworks, participatory process, thematic analysis, water and energies, water management
Transversal2021Artero, Chloé NicolasLa construcción social de los mercados de agua en Chile: Un enfoque desde la geografía legalRevista de geografía Norte Grande10.4067/S0718-34022021000200163El artículo propone un enfoque desde la geografía legal para entender la construcción social de los mercados de agua en la cuenca semiárida del río Elqui, desde la segundad mitad del siglo XX. A partir de metodologías cualitativas (etnografía, entrevistas, archivos) revela la dimensión conjuntamente espacial y jurídica de la formación de los mercados de agua. Los objetos técnicos hídricos instalados desde la segunda mitad del siglo XX atraen nuevos inversionistas y transforman la economía política del valle. Desde entonces, los usuarios usan los objetos técnicos hídricos e instrumentalizan o producen derecho a escala local para comprar, vender o alquilar derechos de agua, formando cinco mercados de agua.http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34022021000200163&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en163-182Thomson Reuters ISIchile, legal geography, semiarid, technical objects, water markets
Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza2021Urquiza, A.; Amigo, C.; Billi, M.; Calvo, R.; Gallardo, L.; Neira, C. I.; Rojas, M.An Integrated Framework to Streamline Resilience in the Context of Urban Climate Risk AssessmentEarth's Future10.1029/2020EF001508Cities are increasingly acknowledged as crucial when facing climate change—and the environmental crisis more in general—, offering challenges and opportunities in terms of both mitigation and adaptation. Climate change-sensitive urban governance requires proactive, integrated, and contextualized approaches, making room for the complex, multilayered, multiscalar, and dynamic processes constituting a city. The notion of “resilience” has been acquiring growing recognition as a flexible and powerful concept to respond to these challenges. Resilience itself, however, is also a polysemic notion, often treated as little more than a catchword or a wishful aim or superimposed with other climate-related terms, such as risk, vulnerability, or adaptation. To promote a stronger integration among different problem-settings and epistemic communities, this paper advances six analytical distinctions aiming to provide structure and articulation to existing definitions of the concept of “resilience.” Likewise, it offers an integrated analytical framework and methodological pipeline to streamline resilience analysis in the context of urban climate risk assessment. The framework is specially defined to link up with the definition of climate risk provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) latest Assessment Reports and is illustrated through examples derived from the recent experience of the Chilean Climate Risk Atlas.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2020EF0015089.0Thomson Reuters ISIclimate risk, ecosystem services, polycentric governance, socio-ecological systems, systems-of-systems, urban resilience
Gobernanza2021González-Pinilla, Francisco J.; Latorre, Claudio; Rojas, Maisa; Houston, John; Rocuant, M. Ignacia; Maldonado, Antonio; Santoro, Calogero M.; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, Julio L.High- and low-latitude forcings drive Atacama Desert rainfall variations over the past 16,000 yearsScience Advances10.1126/sciadv.abg1333Late Quaternary precipitation dynamics in the central Andes have been linked to both high- and low-latitude atmospheric teleconnections. We use present-day relationships between fecal pellet diameters from ashy chinchilla rats (Abrocoma cinerea) and mean annual rainfall to reconstruct the timing and magnitude of pluvials (wet episodes) spanning the past 16,000 years in the Atacama Desert based on 81 14C-dated A. cinerea paleomiddens. A transient climate simulation shows that pluvials identified at 15.9 to 14.8, 13.0 to 8.6, and 8.1 to 7.6 ka B.P. can be linked to North Atlantic (high-latitude) forcing (e.g., Heinrich Stadial 1, Younger Dryas, and Bond cold events). Holocene pluvials at 5.0 to 4.6, 3.2 to 2.1, and 1.4 to 0.7 ka B.P. are not simulated, implying low-latitude internal variability forcing (i.e., ENSO regime shifts). These results help constrain future central Andean hydroclimatic variability and hold promise for reconstructing past climates from rodent middens in desert ecosystems worldwide.https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.abg13337.0Thomson Reuters ISIclimatology, rain, atacama desert, atmospheric teleconnections, central andes, forcings, high latitudes, high-low, late quaternary, low latitudes, pluvials, rainfall variation, landforms
Agua y Extremos2021Henríquez, Carla A.; Moreno, Patricio I.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Mucciarone, David A.The last glacial termination in northwestern Patagonia viewed from the Lago Fonk (∼40°S) recordQuaternary Science Reviews10.1016/j.quascirev.2021.107197The anatomy of the Last Glacial Termination (T1) in the southern mid-latitudes, and its relationship with changes in the Southern Westerly Winds (SWW), offers empirical constraints for understanding the mechanisms involved in the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum into the current interglacial. Northwestern Patagonia (40°-44°S) is a sensitive region for monitoring past changes in the SWW, the Patagonian Ice Sheet, terrestrial ecosystems, and fire regimes through T1. Here we present results from Lago Fonk (∼40°S) to examine the structure of T1 based on the palynological, macroscopic charcoal, elemental, and isotopic composition of organic lake sediments. We observe an instantaneous establishment of Nothofagus-dominated forests at the onset of T1, followed by a diversification and densification trend that culminated with the establishment of thermophilous, Myrtaceae-dominated North Patagonian rainforests between ∼15.6–14.7 cal ka BP. The expansion of the conifer Podocarpus nubigena marks a shift to cool-temperate and hyperhumid conditions, coeval with high lake levels and enhanced algal productivity between ∼14.7–11.9 cal ka BP. Stand-replacing fires, driven by enhanced seasonality or high-frequency rainfall variability, started at ∼12.4 cal ka BP and catalyzed the rapid spread of Weinmannia trichosperma. Subsequent warming and a decline in precipitation at ∼11.4 cal ka BP led to intense fire activity, lake-level lowering, and establishment of the Valdivian rainforest trees Eucryphia/Caldcluvia. Our results suggest a coherent linkage between changes documented in the amphi south Pacific region and Antarctic ice cores during T1. This implies a zonal and hemispheric response to changes in the position/intensity of the SWW that emphasizes their central role as a key driver of the hemispheric and global climate evolution through T1.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0277379121004042107197271.0Thomson Reuters ISIfires, forestry, glacial geology, lakes, 'current, lake levels, lake sediment cores, last glacial maximum, last glacial terminations, midlatitudes, multi proxies, multi-proxy index, patagonia, southern westerly winds, charcoal, coniferophyta, eucryphia, myrtaceae, nothofagus, podocarpus nubigenus, weinmannia trichosperma
Zonas Costeras2021Jacques‐Coper, Martín; Veloso‐Aguila, Daniel; Segura, Christian; Valencia, AmandaIntraseasonal teleconnections leading to heat waves in central ChileInternational Journal of Climatology10.1002/joc.7096The ability to anticipate meteorological extreme events beyond the synoptic range of ~1 week offers direct applications, for example, to limit their ecological and socioeconomical impacts. This study focuses on precursors of summer (December–February, DJF) warm events, particularly heat waves, in central Chile (CCh), which are typically induced by low-level anticyclonic anomalies located to the south of this region. Considering that such atmospheric configuration can be part of a large-scale wave-train circulation pattern located upstream of CCh, we investigate signals that might provide guidance concerning the genesis of warm events in CCh. For a historical period (DJF 1872–2010) based on the 20th century reanalysis version 2 (20CR), our results present teleconnections that indicate higher probabilities of occurrence of such warm events with respect to expected climatological values. These signals can be monitored at least ~2 weeks in advance. Specifically, we explore the relationship between warm events in CCh and (a) the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) as a tropical source of variability, and (b) an extra-tropical index (ETI), representative of the internal dynamics of the Southern Hemipshere mid-latitudes, presented as an original contribution from this study following a novel approach. Both signals, and apparently their constructive superposition, seem to contribute to the organization of the large-scale circulation anomalies leading ultimately to heat waves in CCh. We confirm these results for recent decades (DJF 1981–2020) using temperature observations and further data sets, namely the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis (NNR) and the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis versions 1 and 2 (CFSR and CFSv2, respectively). Finally, we describe three recent heat wave events in CCh (DJF 2019–2020) to illustrate the suitability of this conceptualization.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.70964712-473141.0Thomson Reuters ISItropics, anticyclonic anomalies, circulation patterns, historical periods, large-scale circulation, madden-julian oscillation, meteorological extremes, provide guidances, temperature observations, climatology, atmospheric circulation, extreme event, heat wave, seasonal variation, teleconnection, temperature effect, weather forecasting, chile

2. Books and monographs

Línea de InvestigaciónAñoAutoresLibroTítulo CapítuloFicha de PublicaciónISBNDOIAbstractAccesoPáginasEditoresEditorialCiudad/PaísIdioma
Servicios Ecosistémicos2014Donoso, P. J., Gonzalez, M. E., & Lara, A.Ecología Forestal: Bases para un manejo sustentable de los Bosques NativosFull book978-956-9412-06-6Este libro constituye una revisión y actualización de la primera edición del libro Ecología Forestal escrito hace ya más de 30 años, así como de los antecedentes sobre estructura y dinámica de bosques entregados hace 20 años en el texto Bosques Templados de Chile y Argentina. Como acertadamente se señala en el prólogo, en el marco del modelo esencialmente economicista en que vivimos, esta sociedad no reconoce, en parte porque lo ignora, que el manejo de los bosques con una base ecológica es necesario. Debemos asegurar que eso sea así y no perder de vista la importancia de los ecosistemas forestales y la necesidad de su conservación. Creemos que el contenido de este libro puede colaborar con ese propósito. La diversidad de temas incorporados se expresa en 19 capítulos que se refieren, entre otros, a la historia del nacimiento y desarrollo de la Ecología Forestal en Chile; las aves, y mamíferos del bosque; cambio climático; hidrobiología; sucesión y dinámica de bosques y la influencia de disturbios en los bosques templados de Chile y Argentina; la silvicultura y manejo de ecosistemas forestales; el manejo integrado de cuencas; los servicios ecosistémicos de los bosques nativos; la ecología de paisajes, restauración e invasiones de plantas en ecosistemas forestales; y la gobernanza del sector forestal chileno, enfatizando las tensiones y conflictos entre las fuerzas de mercado y las demandas ciudadanas.http://www.edicionesuach.cl/index.php/coleccion-patrimonio-institucional/22-ecologia-forestal-donoso-gonzalez-lara730P. J. Donoso, M. E. Gonzalez & A. LaraMarisa Cuneo EditoresValdivia, ChileEspañol
Servicios Ecosistémicos2013Lara, A., Laterra, P., Manson, R., & Barrantes, G.Servicios Ecosistémicos hídricos: estudios de caso en América Latina y el CaribeFull book978-956-9412-05-9-4El libro consta de 16 capítulos que son el resultado del trabajo colaborativo de la red ProAgua financiada por CYTED entre los años 2009 y 2012 y presenta estudios de caso de México, Costa Rica, Cuba, Paraguay, Argentina y Chile, involucrando a 52 autores y co-autores. Cada uno de estos capítulos refleja el esfuerzo de sus autores por conectar distintos aspectos de los ecosistemas y paisajes con sus servicios y sus beneficiarios. Todos estos trabajos comparten el objetivo último de contribuir a recuperar la conciencia del valor de los sistemas naturales para el desarrollo sustentable de los pueblos de Latinoamérica y el Caribe, e incidir sobre la realidad para el logro de una relación más virtuosa entre naturaleza y sociedad. Ecosistemas naturales y transformados son fuente de agua, alimentos, materiales de construcción, medicinas. Los ecosistemas también contribuyen con nuestro bienestar regulando las condiciones ambientales en las que vivimos y llevamos a cabo nuestras actividades productivas. Los bosques y mares regulan la cantidad de gases de invernadero, los cuales a su vez afectan la temperatura promedio del planeta así como la frecuencia de sequías o de huracanes. Los ecosistemas regulan la cantidad de agua que escurre por los ríos, la recarga de los acuíferos, así como la calidad del agua. Los ecosistemas nos brindan además beneficios no tangibles, experiencias o capacidades, que surgen de la interacción entre seres humanos y ecosistemas. Nuestro bienestar físico y emocional, nuestra identidad, sentido de pertenencia e incluso capacidad cognitiva están influenciadas por nuestras interacciones con los ecosistemas. La capacidad de los ecosistemas para ofrecer distintos tipos de servicios se modifica a través de su manejo. Factores económicos, políticos, sociales, culturales, legales y de gobernanza subyacen a las decisiones que llevan a manejar los ecosistemas. La entrega de servicios a la sociedad redunda en cambios en su disponibilidad de bienes materiales, salud, seguridad, buenas relaciones sociales y capacidad de autodeterminación. El libro Servicios ecosistémicos hídricos: estudios de caso en América Latina y el Caribe es un reflejo de la situación de la región y el planeta en tomo a los servicios ecosistémicos. Es fundamental asegurar el mantenimiento de estos servicios para poder ir alcanzando un desarrollo más sustentable. El conjunto de trabajos compilados aquí ofrece una excelente panorámica de los principales desarrollos a la fecha y los retos por venirhttp://bibliotecasibe.ecosur.mx/sibe/book/000026135312A. Lara, P. Laterra, R. Manson, & G. BarrantesRed ProAgua CYTED Imprenta AméricaValdivia, ChileEspañol
Dimensión Humana2013Moraga Sariego, P.Energía, cambio climático y sustentabilidad: una mirada desde el derechoFull book978-956-346-361-3Uno de los grandes problemas que afecta a la humanidad en la actualidad es el fenómeno del cambio climático, provocado según el informe del Panel Intergubernamental sobre Cambio Climático, IPCC, en sus siglas en inglés (intergovernmental panel on Climate Change) de 2007 por la actividad humana. Los impactos que genera este fenómeno son a la vez económicos, sociales y ambientales. Desde un punto de vista económico, el Informe STERN (2006) concluye que “los beneficios de acciones enérgicas y tempranas superan con creces los costes económicos de la inacción” y cuantifica los daños generados como consecuencia de este fenómeno en 20% o más del PIB global anual. En este sentido se realza el rol que jugarán las inversiones en la evolución de esta problemática global en la segunda mitad del siglo. En materia ambiental y social, el mismo informe advierte sobre las dificultades de acceso a ciertos recursos naturales esenciales, dada la escasez provocada por el cambio climático en materia de recursos hídricos, producción de alimentos y el estado del medio ambiente mundial. En este contexto, el sector energía aparece como uno de los principales responsables de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero a la atmósfera, a semejanza de lo que ocurre a nivel nacional en el caso chileno. Respondiendo a esta realidad global y nacional, la presente obra constituye un trabajo mancomunado de destacados académicos extranjeros y nacionales e investigadores en formación, que aportan a través de su propia experiencia nacional una mirada sobre las problemáticas jurídicas planteadas en el marco del desarrollo energético, la problemática del cambio climático y su relación con la protección del medio ambiente, desde la perspectiva propuesta por el desarrollo sustentable.http://thomsonreuters.cl/PortalLN/carro_new/nw_Ficha_Producto.asp?id_producto=3258266P. Moraga SariegoLegalPublishing : Thomson ReutersSantiago, ChileEspañol
Dimensión Humana2014Cadenas, H., Arnoldo, M., & Urquiza, A.La Organización de las Organizaciones Sociales: aplicaciones desde perspectivas sistemicas.Full book978-956-01-0098-6Las organizaciones como un sistema social. Esa es la premisa bajo la cual el libro nos presenta una acabada revisión de 19 ensayos de destacados académicos y especialistas, que tratan sobre las organizaciones sociales, cómo se originan y por qué, cómo funcionan internamente, las atribuciones que han tomando y se les han otorgado, la proyección de ellas en la sociedad, sus nexos con grupos específicos y los problemas que deben enfrentar, entre otros tópicos. Los autores nos invitan a desmenuzar las organizaciones sociales y la influencia que tienen en nuestras vidas, determinando el actuar social y valórico. Una necesaria revisión que nos acerca a entender la importancia de contar con ellas, de conocerlas, y de comprender el lugar que se les atribuye para conducir nuestros propios intereses y necesidades.http://www.digitaliapublishing.com/a/29852/496H. Cadenas, M. Arnoldo & A. UrquizaRIL EDITORESSantiago, ChileEspañol
Dimensión Humana2015Moraga Sariego, P., Boutonnet, M., Saint-Pau, J. C., Cafferatta, N., Tapia, M., Ríos, S., … Aristegui, J. P.El principio precautorio en el derecho comparadoFull book978-956-362-087-0El interés por el principio precautorio y su aparición en el debate político y legal motiva el trabajo colectivo dirigido por la Misión de Investigación Derecho y Justicia, con el objeto de investigar la influencia de este principio en el derecho comparado. Es por esto que en diciembre de 2013 se realiza una jornada de estudios en la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de Chile, a través del Centro de Derecho Ambiental y del Centro Fondap de la Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia, con la colaboración de la Universidad Aix Marseille en Provence, Ceric, y el apoyo del Ministerio de Justicia francés, con el fin de intercambiar ideas sobre el contenido y la aplicación de este principio en el régimen de responsabilidad, desde la perspectiva ambiental, civil y penal y su difusa consagración en la legislación comparada, en particular en el derecho francés, chileno, argentino y brasileño. Los resultados de este encuentro se plasman en la presente obra.http://www.uchile.cl/publicaciones/121875/el-principio-precautorio-en-el-derecho-comparado210P. Moraga Sariego, M.Boutonnet, J. C. Saint-PauEditorial Gráfica LOMChileEspañol
Dimensión Humana2013Aldunce, P., Levin, V., & León, A.Disaster risk reduction informing climate change adaptation: Social Capital in Aguita de la Perdiz, n. 29.A changing environment for human security: transformative approaches to research, policy and action978-1-84971-301-6This book explores the relationship between environmental change and human security. A total of 38 chapters presents fresh perspectives on global environmental change from an interdisciplinary group of international experts. Building on cutting edge research the chapters in this book call for new, transformative approaches to research, policy and actions. Critical analyses, case studies and reflections on contemporary environmental and social challenges provide a reality check, but the Authors then describe the breakthrough conditions that underlie transformative approaches to human security, which include perspectives, paradigms, empowerment and integration.https://www.routledge.com/A-Changing-Environment-for-Human-Security-Transformative-Approaches-to/Sygna-OBrien-Wolf/p/book/9781849713016336-346L. Sygna, K. L. O’Brien, & J. WolfRoutledgeLondon, UKInglés
Servicios Ecosistémicos2013Cárcamo, M., Lara, A., Palma, L., Lavado, M., Roco, D., & Bravo, R.Proyecto Innova Cuencas APR; Una oportunidad para generar condiciones habilitantes para el desarrollo de comunidades rurales: Hacia la construcción de un modelo de gestión de cuencas en la región de Los Ríos, ChileServicios Ecosistémicos hídricos: estudios de caso en América Latina y el Caribe978-956-9412-05-9-4El libro consta de 16 capítulos que son el resultado del trabajo colaborativo de la red ProAgua financiada por CYTED entre los años 2009 y 2012 y presenta estudios de caso de México, Costa Rica, Cuba, Paraguay, Argentina y Chile, involucrando a 52 autores y co-autores. Cada uno de estos capítulos refleja el esfuerzo de sus autores por conectar distintos aspectos de los ecosistemas y paisajes con sus servicios y sus beneficiarios. Todos estos trabajos comparten el objetivo último de contribuir a recuperar la conciencia del valor de los sistemas naturales para el desarrollo sustentable de los pueblos de Latinoamérica y el Caribe, e incidir sobre la realidad para el logro de una relación más virtuosa entre naturaleza y sociedad. Ecosistemas naturales y transformados son fuente de agua, alimentos, materiales de construcción, medicinas. Los ecosistemas también contribuyen con nuestro bienestar regulando las condiciones ambientales en las que vivimos y llevamos a cabo nuestras actividades productivas. Los bosques y mares regulan la cantidad de gases de invernadero, los cuales a su vez afectan la temperatura promedio del planeta así como la frecuencia de sequías o de huracanes. Los ecosistemas regulan la cantidad de agua que escurre por los ríos, la recarga de los acuíferos, así como la calidad del agua. Los ecosistemas nos brindan además beneficios no tangibles, experiencias o capacidades, que surgen de la interacción entre seres humanos y ecosistemas. Nuestro bienestar físico y emocional, nuestra identidad, sentido de pertenencia e incluso capacidad cognitiva están influenciadas por nuestras interacciones con los ecosistemas. La capacidad de los ecosistemas para ofrecer distintos tipos de servicios se modifica a través de su manejo. Factores económicos, políticos, sociales, culturales, legales y de gobernanza subyacen a las decisiones que llevan a manejar los ecosistemas. La entrega de servicios a la sociedad redunda en cambios en su disponibilidad de bienes materiales, salud, seguridad, buenas relaciones sociales y capacidad de autodeterminación. El libro Servicios ecosistémicos hídricos: estudios de caso en América Latina y el Caribe es un reflejo de la situación de la región y el planeta en tomo a los servicios ecosistémicos. Es fundamental asegurar el mantenimiento de estos servicios para poder ir alcanzando un desarrollo más sustentable. El conjunto de trabajos compilados aquí ofrece una excelente panorámica de los principales desarrollos a la fecha y los retos por venirhttp://bibliotecasibe.ecosur.mx/sibe/book/000026135169-185A. Lara, P. Laterra, R. Manson, & G. BarrantesRed ProAgua CYTED Imprenta AméricaValdivia, ChileEspañol
Servicios Ecosistémicos2014Gonzalez, M. E., Amoroso, M., Lara, A., Veblen, T. T., Donoso, C., Kitzberger, T., … Promis, A.Ecología de disturbios y su influencia en los ecosistemas forestales templados de Chile y ArgentinaEcología Forestal: Bases para un manejo sustentable de los Bosques Nativos978-956-9412-06-6Este libro constituye una revisión y actualización de la primera edición del libro Ecología Forestal escrito hace ya más de 30 años, así como de los antecedentes sobre estructura y dinámica de bosques entregados hace 20 años en el texto Bosques Templados de Chile y Argentina. Como acertadamente se señala en el prólogo, en el marco del modelo esencialmente economicista en que vivimos, esta sociedad no reconoce, en parte porque lo ignora, que el manejo de los bosques con una base ecológica es necesario. Debemos asegurar que eso sea así y no perder de vista la importancia de los ecosistemas forestales y la necesidad de su conservación. Creemos que el contenido de este libro puede colaborar con ese propósito. La diversidad de temas incorporados se expresa en 19 capítulos que se refieren, entre otros, a la historia del nacimiento y desarrollo de la Ecología Forestal en Chile; las aves, y mamíferos del bosque; cambio climático; hidrobiología; sucesión y dinámica de bosques y la influencia de disturbios en los bosques templados de Chile y Argentina; la silvicultura y manejo de ecosistemas forestales; el manejo integrado de cuencas; los servicios ecosistémicos de los bosques nativos; la ecología de paisajes, restauración e invasiones de plantas en ecosistemas forestales; y la gobernanza del sector forestal chileno, enfatizando las tensiones y conflictos entre las fuerzas de mercado y las demandas ciudadanas.http://www.edicionesuach.cl/index.php/coleccion-patrimonio-institucional/22-ecologia-forestal-donoso-gonzalez-lara411-504P. J. Donoso, M. E. Gonzalez, & A. LaraMarisa Cuneo EditoresValdivia, ChileEspañol
Servicios Ecosistémicos2014Lara, A., Amoroso, M., Donoso, C., Gonzalez, M. E., Vargas, G. R., Smith-Ramírez, C., … Gutierrez, A. G.Sucesión y Dinámica de Bosques Templados en ChileEcología Forestal: Bases para un manejo sustentable de los Bosques Nativos978-956-9412-06-6Este libro constituye una revisión y actualización de la primera edición del libro Ecología Forestal escrito hace ya más de 30 años, así como de los antecedentes sobre estructura y dinámica de bosques entregados hace 20 años en el texto Bosques Templados de Chile y Argentina. Como acertadamente se señala en el prólogo, en el marco del modelo esencialmente economicista en que vivimos, esta sociedad no reconoce, en parte porque lo ignora, que el manejo de los bosques con una base ecológica es necesario. Debemos asegurar que eso sea así y no perder de vista la importancia de los ecosistemas forestales y la necesidad de su conservación. Creemos que el contenido de este libro puede colaborar con ese propósito. La diversidad de temas incorporados se expresa en 19 capítulos que se refieren, entre otros, a la historia del nacimiento y desarrollo de la Ecología Forestal en Chile; las aves, y mamíferos del bosque; cambio climático; hidrobiología; sucesión y dinámica de bosques y la influencia de disturbios en los bosques templados de Chile y Argentina; la silvicultura y manejo de ecosistemas forestales; el manejo integrado de cuencas; los servicios ecosistémicos de los bosques nativos; la ecología de paisajes, restauración e invasiones de plantas en ecosistemas forestales; y la gobernanza del sector forestal chileno, enfatizando las tensiones y conflictos entre las fuerzas de mercado y las demandas ciudadanas.http://www.edicionesuach.cl/index.php/coleccion-patrimonio-institucional/22-ecologia-forestal-donoso-gonzalez-lara323-410P. J. Donoso, M. E. Gonzalez, & A. LaraMarisa Cuneo EditoresValdivia, ChileEspañol
Servicios Ecosistémicos2013Lara, A., Little, C. A., Gonzalez, M. E., & Lobos, D.Restauración de bosques nativos para aumentar la provisión de agua como un servicio ecosistémico en el centro-sur de Chile: desde las pequeñas cuencas a la escala de paisajeServicios Ecosistémicos hídricos: estudios de caso en América Latina y el Caribe978-956-9412-05-9-4El libro consta de 16 capítulos que son el resultado del trabajo colaborativo de la red ProAgua financiada por CYTED entre los años 2009 y 2012 y presenta estudios de caso de México, Costa Rica, Cuba, Paraguay, Argentina y Chile, involucrando a 52 autores y co-autores. Cada uno de estos capítulos refleja el esfuerzo de sus autores por conectar distintos aspectos de los ecosistemas y paisajes con sus servicios y sus beneficiarios. Todos estos trabajos comparten el objetivo último de contribuir a recuperar la conciencia del valor de los sistemas naturales para el desarrollo sustentable de los pueblos de Latinoamérica y el Caribe, e incidir sobre la realidad para el logro de una relación más virtuosa entre naturaleza y sociedad. Ecosistemas naturales y transformados son fuente de agua, alimentos, materiales de construcción, medicinas. Los ecosistemas también contribuyen con nuestro bienestar regulando las condiciones ambientales en las que vivimos y llevamos a cabo nuestras actividades productivas. Los bosques y mares regulan la cantidad de gases de invernadero, los cuales a su vez afectan la temperatura promedio del planeta así como la frecuencia de sequías o de huracanes. Los ecosistemas regulan la cantidad de agua que escurre por los ríos, la recarga de los acuíferos, así como la calidad del agua. Los ecosistemas nos brindan además beneficios no tangibles, experiencias o capacidades, que surgen de la interacción entre seres humanos y ecosistemas. Nuestro bienestar físico y emocional, nuestra identidad, sentido de pertenencia e incluso capacidad cognitiva están influenciadas por nuestras interacciones con los ecosistemas. La capacidad de los ecosistemas para ofrecer distintos tipos de servicios se modifica a través de su manejo. Factores económicos, políticos, sociales, culturales, legales y de gobernanza subyacen a las decisiones que llevan a manejar los ecosistemas. La entrega de servicios a la sociedad redunda en cambios en su disponibilidad de bienes materiales, salud, seguridad, buenas relaciones sociales y capacidad de autodeterminación. El libro Servicios ecosistémicos hídricos: estudios de caso en América Latina y el Caribe es un reflejo de la situación de la región y el planeta en tomo a los servicios ecosistémicos. Es fundamental asegurar el mantenimiento de estos servicios para poder ir alcanzando un desarrollo más sustentable. El conjunto de trabajos compilados aquí ofrece una excelente panorámica de los principales desarrollos a la fecha y los retos por venirhttp://bibliotecasibe.ecosur.mx/sibe/book/00002613557-78A. Lara, P. Laterra, R. Manson, & G. BarrantesRed ProAgua CYTED Imprenta AméricaValdivia, ChileEspañol
Servicios Ecosistémicos2014Lara, A., Little, C., Cortés, M., Cruz, E., Gonzalez, M. E., Echeverria, C., … Coopman, R. E.Restauración de ecosistemas forestalesEcología Forestal: Bases para un manejo sustentable de los Bosques Nativos978-956-9412-06-6Este libro constituye una revisión y actualización de la primera edición del libro Ecología Forestal escrito hace ya más de 30 años, así como de los antecedentes sobre estructura y dinámica de bosques entregados hace 20 años en el texto Bosques Templados de Chile y Argentina. Como acertadamente se señala en el prólogo, en el marco del modelo esencialmente economicista en que vivimos, esta sociedad no reconoce, en parte porque lo ignora, que el manejo de los bosques con una base ecológica es necesario. Debemos asegurar que eso sea así y no perder de vista la importancia de los ecosistemas forestales y la necesidad de su conservación. Creemos que el contenido de este libro puede colaborar con ese propósito. La diversidad de temas incorporados se expresa en 19 capítulos que se refieren, entre otros, a la historia del nacimiento y desarrollo de la Ecología Forestal en Chile; las aves, y mamíferos del bosque; cambio climático; hidrobiología; sucesión y dinámica de bosques y la influencia de disturbios en los bosques templados de Chile y Argentina; la silvicultura y manejo de ecosistemas forestales; el manejo integrado de cuencas; los servicios ecosistémicos de los bosques nativos; la ecología de paisajes, restauración e invasiones de plantas en ecosistemas forestales; y la gobernanza del sector forestal chileno, enfatizando las tensiones y conflictos entre las fuerzas de mercado y las demandas ciudadanas.http://www.edicionesuach.cl/index.php/coleccion-patrimonio-institucional/22-ecologia-forestal-donoso-gonzalez-lara605-672P. J. Donoso, M. E. Gonzalez, & A. LaraMarisa Cuneo EditoresValdivia, ChileEspañol
Servicios Ecosistémicos2013Little, C. A., Lara, A., & Gonzalez, M. E.Temperate Rainforest Restoration in Chile (Virtual Field Trip)Ecological restoration: principles, values, and structure of an emerging profession978-1-61091-167-2Ecological restoration is a rapidly growing discipline that encompasses a wide range of activities and brings together practitioners and theoreticians from a variety of backgrounds and perspectives, ranging from volunteer backyard restorationists to highly trained academic scientists and professional consultants. This book offers a comprehensive and coherent account of the field for everyone who initiates, finances, designs, administers, issues government permits for, manages, and implements ecological restoration projects, and all those who serve in supportive roles. Originally published in 2007, this revised and reorganized edition brings the book up to date with new developments and current trends in the field. The book also includes case studies and Virtual Field Trips around the world that illustrate points made in the book with on-the-ground information from those who were intimately involved with the projects described. Throughout, ecological restoration is conceived as a holistic endeavor, one that addresses issues of ecological degradation, biodiversity loss, personal engagement, and sustainability science simultaneously, and draws upon cultural resources and local skills and knowledge in restoration work.https://islandpress.org/book/ecological-restoration-second-edition190-196A. F. Clewell & J. AronsonIsland PressWashington, DC, USAInglés
Modelación y Sistemas de Observación2014Masson-Delmotte, V., Schulz, M., Abe-Ouchi, A., Beer, J., Ganopolski, A., Rojas, M., …, Timmermann, A.Information from Paleoclimate ArchivesClimate Change 2013 - The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change978-1-107-41532-410.1017/CBO9781107415324.013This Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will again form the standard scientific reference for all those concerned with climate change and its consequences, including students and researchers in environmental science, meteorology, climatology, biology, ecology and atmospheric chemistry. It provides invaluable material for decision makers and stakeholders at international, national and local level, in government, businesses, and NGOs. This volume provides:• An authoritative and unbiased overview of the physical science basis of climate change• A more extensive assessment of changes observed throughout the climate system than ever before• New dedicated chapters on sea-level change, biogeochemical cycles, clouds and aerosols, and regional climate phenomena• Extensive coverage of model projections, both near-term and long-term climate projections• A detailed assessment of climate change observations, modelling, and attribution for every continent• A new comprehensive atlas of global and regional climate projections for 35 regions of the worldhttp://ebooks.cambridge.org/ref/id/CBO9781107415324A021383-464T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, … P. M. MidgleyCambridge University PressCambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USAInglés
Modelación y Sistemas de Observación2014McPhee, J., Cortés, G., Rojas, M., Garcia, L., Descalzi, A., & Vargas, L.Downscaling Climate Changes for Santiago: What Effects can be Expected?Climate Adaptation Santiago978-3-642-39102-610.1007/978-3-642-39103-3_2This chapter describes the methodology used to analyse climate scenarios and their impact on hydro-meteorological variables in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago de Chile (MRS) and the results thereof. Using a downscaling methodology for future IPCC A2 and B1 scenarios (and B2 for stream flow), temperature, precipitation and secondary variable trends are estimated for the 2045–2065 time frame. The findings suggest that Santiago will be a drier and hotter city in the near future and have a high number of days with extreme temperatures. Lower precipitation rates are expected to lead to decreasing magnitudes in the stream flow of the two main rivers, Maipo and Mapocho, particularly in the summer months. Based on the data presented below, expected climate change impacts are analysed and adaptation needs identified for the MRS.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-642-39103-3_219-41K. Krellenberg & B. HansjürgensSpringer Berlin HeidelbergBerlin, HeidelbergInglés
Dimensión Humana2013Moraga Sariego, P.Energía, desarrollo sustentable y derecho internacionalEnergía, cambio climático y sustentabilidad: una mirada desde el derecho978-956-346-361-3Uno de los grandes problemas que afecta a la humanidad en la actualidad es el fenómeno del cambio climático, provocado según el informe del Panel Intergubernamental sobre Cambio Climático, IPCC, en sus siglas en inglés (intergovernmental panel on Climate Change) de 2007 por la actividad humana. Los impactos que genera este fenómeno son a la vez económicos, sociales y ambientales. Desde un punto de vista económico, el Informe STERN (2006) concluye que “los beneficios de acciones enérgicas y tempranas superan con creces los costes económicos de la inacción” y cuantifica los daños generados como consecuencia de este fenómeno en 20% o más del PIB global anual. En este sentido se realza el rol que jugarán las inversiones en la evolución de esta problemática global en la segunda mitad del siglo. En materia ambiental y social, el mismo informe advierte sobre las dificultades de acceso a ciertos recursos naturales esenciales, dada la escasez provocada por el cambio climático en materia de recursos hídricos, producción de alimentos y el estado del medio ambiente mundial. En este contexto, el sector energía aparece como uno de los principales responsables de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero a la atmósfera, a semejanza de lo que ocurre a nivel nacional en el caso chileno. Respondiendo a esta realidad global y nacional, la presente obra constituye un trabajo mancomunado de destacados académicos extranjeros y nacionales e investigadores en formación, que aportan a través de su propia experiencia nacional una mirada sobre las problemáticas jurídicas planteadas en el marco del desarrollo energético, la problemática del cambio climático y su relación con la protección del medio ambiente, desde la perspectiva propuesta por el desarrollo sustentable.http://thomsonreuters.cl/PortalLN/carro_new/nw_Ficha_Producto.asp?id_producto=3258255-266P. Moraga SariegoLegalPublishing : Thomson ReutersSantiago, ChileEspañol
Dimensión Humana2013Nahuelhual, L., Laterra, P., Carmona, A., Burgos, N., Jaramillo, A., Barral, O., … Villarino, S.Valuación y mapeo de servicios ecosistémicos: Una revisión y análisis de enfoques metodológicosServicios Ecosistémicos hídricos: estudios de caso en América Latina y el Caribe978-956-9412-05-9-4El libro consta de 16 capítulos que son el resultado del trabajo colaborativo de la red ProAgua financiada por CYTED entre los años 2009 y 2012 y presenta estudios de caso de México, Costa Rica, Cuba, Paraguay, Argentina y Chile, involucrando a 52 autores y co-autores. Cada uno de estos capítulos refleja el esfuerzo de sus autores por conectar distintos aspectos de los ecosistemas y paisajes con sus servicios y sus beneficiarios. Todos estos trabajos comparten el objetivo último de contribuir a recuperar la conciencia del valor de los sistemas naturales para el desarrollo sustentable de los pueblos de Latinoamérica y el Caribe, e incidir sobre la realidad para el logro de una relación más virtuosa entre naturaleza y sociedad. Ecosistemas naturales y transformados son fuente de agua, alimentos, materiales de construcción, medicinas. Los ecosistemas también contribuyen con nuestro bienestar regulando las condiciones ambientales en las que vivimos y llevamos a cabo nuestras actividades productivas. Los bosques y mares regulan la cantidad de gases de invernadero, los cuales a su vez afectan la temperatura promedio del planeta así como la frecuencia de sequías o de huracanes. Los ecosistemas regulan la cantidad de agua que escurre por los ríos, la recarga de los acuíferos, así como la calidad del agua. Los ecosistemas nos brindan además beneficios no tangibles, experiencias o capacidades, que surgen de la interacción entre seres humanos y ecosistemas. Nuestro bienestar físico y emocional, nuestra identidad, sentido de pertenencia e incluso capacidad cognitiva están influenciadas por nuestras interacciones con los ecosistemas. La capacidad de los ecosistemas para ofrecer distintos tipos de servicios se modifica a través de su manejo. Factores económicos, políticos, sociales, culturales, legales y de gobernanza subyacen a las decisiones que llevan a manejar los ecosistemas. La entrega de servicios a la sociedad redunda en cambios en su disponibilidad de bienes materiales, salud, seguridad, buenas relaciones sociales y capacidad de autodeterminación. El libro Servicios ecosistémicos hídricos: estudios de caso en América Latina y el Caribe es un reflejo de la situación de la región y el planeta en tomo a los servicios ecosistémicos. Es fundamental asegurar el mantenimiento de estos servicios para poder ir alcanzando un desarrollo más sustentable. El conjunto de trabajos compilados aquí ofrece una excelente panorámica de los principales desarrollos a la fecha y los retos por venirhttp://bibliotecasibe.ecosur.mx/sibe/book/00002613511-28A. Lara, P. Laterra, R. Manson, & G. BarrantesRed ProAgua CYTED Imprenta AméricaValdivia, ChileEspañol
Modelación y Sistemas de Observación2014Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Alexander, L. V., Allen, S. K., Rojas,M., … Xie, S.-P.Summary for PolicymakersClimate Change 2013 - The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change978-1-107-41532-410.1017/CBO9781107415324.005This Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will again form the standard scientific reference for all those concerned with climate change and its consequences, including students and researchers in environmental science, meteorology, climatology, biology, ecology and atmospheric chemistry. It provides invaluable material for decision makers and stakeholders at international, national and local level, in government, businesses, and NGOs. This volume provides:• An authoritative and unbiased overview of the physical science basis of climate change• A more extensive assessment of changes observed throughout the climate system than ever before• New dedicated chapters on sea-level change, biogeochemical cycles, clouds and aerosols, and regional climate phenomena• Extensive coverage of model projections, both near-term and long-term climate projections• A detailed assessment of climate change observations, modelling, and attribution for every continent• A new comprehensive atlas of global and regional climate projections for 35 regions of the worldhttp://ebooks.cambridge.org/ref/id/CBO9781107415324A0211-30T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, … P. M. MidgleyCambridge University PressCambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USAInglés
Modelación y Sistemas de Observación2014Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Alexander, L. V., Allen, S. K., Rojas,M., … Xie, S.-P.Technical SummaryClimate Change 2013 - The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change978-1-107-41532-410.1017/CBO9781107415324.005This Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will again form the standard scientific reference for all those concerned with climate change and its consequences, including students and researchers in environmental science, meteorology, climatology, biology, ecology and atmospheric chemistry. It provides invaluable material for decision makers and stakeholders at international, national and local level, in government, businesses, and NGOs. This volume provides:• An authoritative and unbiased overview of the physical science basis of climate change• A more extensive assessment of changes observed throughout the climate system than ever before• New dedicated chapters on sea-level change, biogeochemical cycles, clouds and aerosols, and regional climate phenomena• Extensive coverage of model projections, both near-term and long-term climate projections• A detailed assessment of climate change observations, modelling, and attribution for every continent• A new comprehensive atlas of global and regional climate projections for 35 regions of the worldhttp://ebooks.cambridge.org/ref/id/CBO9781107415324A02133-115T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, … P. M. MidgleyCambridge University PressCambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USAInglés
Dimensión Humana2013Villarroel, S.Gestión estratégica de stakeholders en un proyecto de energías renovables no convencionales: Lecciones del caso del proyecto eólico ChiloéEnergía, cambio climático y sustentabilidad: una mirada desde el derecho978-956-346-361-3Uno de los grandes problemas que afecta a la humanidad en la actualidad es el fenómeno del cambio climático, provocado según el informe del Panel Intergubernamental sobre Cambio Climático, IPCC, en sus siglas en inglés (intergovernmental panel on Climate Change) de 2007 por la actividad humana. Los impactos que genera este fenómeno son a la vez económicos, sociales y ambientales. Desde un punto de vista económico, el Informe STERN (2006) concluye que “los beneficios de acciones enérgicas y tempranas superan con creces los costes económicos de la inacción” y cuantifica los daños generados como consecuencia de este fenómeno en 20% o más del PIB global anual. En este sentido se realza el rol que jugarán las inversiones en la evolución de esta problemática global en la segunda mitad del siglo. En materia ambiental y social, el mismo informe advierte sobre las dificultades de acceso a ciertos recursos naturales esenciales, dada la escasez provocada por el cambio climático en materia de recursos hídricos, producción de alimentos y el estado del medio ambiente mundial. En este contexto, el sector energía aparece como uno de los principales responsables de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero a la atmósfera, a semejanza de lo que ocurre a nivel nacional en el caso chileno. Respondiendo a esta realidad global y nacional, la presente obra constituye un trabajo mancomunado de destacados académicos extranjeros y nacionales e investigadores en formación, que aportan a través de su propia experiencia nacional una mirada sobre las problemáticas jurídicas planteadas en el marco del desarrollo energético, la problemática del cambio climático y su relación con la protección del medio ambiente, desde la perspectiva propuesta por el desarrollo sustentable.http://thomsonreuters.cl/PortalLN/carro_new/nw_Ficha_Producto.asp?id_producto=3258125-150P. Moraga SariegoLegalPublishing : Thomson ReutersSantiago, ChileEspañol
Dimensión Humana2015Adler, C., Aldunce, P., Indvik, K., Alegría, D., Borquez, R., & Galaz, V.Chapter 43: Climate resilience: taking stock, moving forwardResearch handbook on climate governance978-1-78347-059-4The 2009 United Nations climate conference in Copenhagen is often represented as a watershed in global climate politics, when the diplomatic efforts to negotiate a successor agreement to the Kyoto Protocol failed and was replaced by a fragmented and decentralized climate governance order. In the post-Copenhagen landscape the top-down universal approach to climate governance has gradually given way to a more complex, hybrid and dispersed political landscape involving multiple actors, arenas and sites. The Handbook contains contributions from more than 50 internationally leading scholars and explores the latest trends and theoretical developments of the climate governance scholarship.http://www.e-elgar.com/shop/research-handbook-on-climate-governance491-502K. Bäckstrand & E. LövbrandEdward Elgar PublishingCheltenham, UK Northampton, MA, USAInglés
Modelación y Sistemas de Observación2014Benedetti, A., Baldasano, J. M., Basart, S., Benincasa, F., Boucher, O., Huneeus, N., … Zhou, C.-H.Operational Dust PredictionMineral Dust978-94-017-8977-610.1007/978-94-017-8978-3_10Over the last few years, numerical prediction of dust aerosol concentration has become prominent at several research and operational weather centres due to growing interest from diverse stakeholders, such as solar energy plant managers, health professionals, aviation and military authorities and policymakers. Dust prediction in numerical weather prediction-type models faces a number of challenges owing to the complexity of the system. At the centre of the problem is the vast range of scales required to fully account for all of the physical processes related to dust. Another limiting factor is the paucity of suitable dust observations available for model, evaluation and assimilation. This chapter discusses in detail numerical prediction of dust with examples from systems that are currently providing dust forecasts in near real-time or are part of international efforts to establish daily provision of dust forecasts based on multi-model ensembles. The various models are introduced and described along with an overview on the importance of dust prediction activities and a historical perspective. Assimilation and evaluation aspects in dust prediction are also discussed.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-94-017-8978-3_10223-265P. Knippertz & J. W. StuutSpringer NetherlandsDordrechtInglés
Biogeoquímica2013Díez, B., & Ininbergs, K.Ecological importance of cyanobacteriaCyanobacteria: An Economic Perspective978-1-118-40223-810.1002/9781118402238.ch3Cyanobacteria inhabit all possible habitats, performing crucial ecological services. Cyanobacterial photopigments generate a great diversity in color. They exhibit several types of chromatic adaptation, regulated at transcriptional and postranscriptional levels. Though all cyanobacteria are fundamentally oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, some species can switch their metabolic mode to, for example, anoxygenic photosynthesis, using sulfide. Many cyanobacteria produce extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) sheaths, which act as a buffer zone between the cell and the environment, and contribute to desiccation tolerance. In nitrogen-limited photic environments (especially those lacking nitrate and ammonium), cyanobacteria are the main diazotrophic (nitrogen-fixing) organisms. The process of nitrogen fixation is catalyzed by the enzyme nitrogenase. Diazotrophic cyanobacteria have evolved several strategies with different degrees of complexity to protect their nitrogenase from oxygen, which is present in the surrounding medium and also produced intracellularly.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/9781118402238.ch341-63N. K. Sharma, A. K. Rai, & L. J. StalJohn Wiley & Sons, LtdChichester, UKInglés
Servicios Ecosistémicos2014Little, C., & Lara, A.Servicios ecosistémicos de los bosques nativos del centro sur de ChileEcología Forestal: Bases para un manejo sustentable de los Bosques Nativos978-956-9412-06-6Este libro constituye una revisión y actualización de la primera edición del libro Ecología Forestal escrito hace ya más de 30 años, así como de los antecedentes sobre estructura y dinámica de bosques entregados hace 20 años en el texto Bosques Templados de Chile y Argentina. Como acertadamente se señala en el prólogo, en el marco del modelo esencialmente economicista en que vivimos, esta sociedad no reconoce, en parte porque lo ignora, que el manejo de los bosques con una base ecológica es necesario. Debemos asegurar que eso sea así y no perder de vista la importancia de los ecosistemas forestales y la necesidad de su conservación. Creemos que el contenido de este libro puede colaborar con ese propósito. La diversidad de temas incorporados se expresa en 19 capítulos que se refieren, entre otros, a la historia del nacimiento y desarrollo de la Ecología Forestal en Chile; las aves, y mamíferos del bosque; cambio climático; hidrobiología; sucesión y dinámica de bosques y la influencia de disturbios en los bosques templados de Chile y Argentina; la silvicultura y manejo de ecosistemas forestales; el manejo integrado de cuencas; los servicios ecosistémicos de los bosques nativos; la ecología de paisajes, restauración e invasiones de plantas en ecosistemas forestales; y la gobernanza del sector forestal chileno, enfatizando las tensiones y conflictos entre las fuerzas de mercado y las demandas ciudadanas.http://www.edicionesuach.cl/index.php/coleccion-patrimonio-institucional/22-ecologia-forestal-donoso-gonzalez-lara323-408P. J. Donoso, M. E. Gonzalez, & A. LaraMarisa Cuneo EditoresValdivia, ChileEspañol
Servicios Ecosistémicos2014Gonzalez, M. E.Chapter 14: Post-fire passive restoration of Andean Araucaria-Nothofagus forestsEcosystem Restoration using native tree species.978-92-5-108469-4There is renewed interest in the use of native tree species in ecosystem restoration for their biodiversity benefits. Growing native tree species in production systems (e.g. plantation forests and subsistence agriculture) can also ensure landscape functionality and support for human livelihoods. Achieving these full benefits requires consideration of genetic aspects that are often neglected, such as suitability of germplasm to the site, quality and quantity of the genetic pool used and regeneration potential. Understanding the extent and nature of gene flow across fragmented agro-ecosystems is also crucial to successful ecosystem restoration. We review the role of genetic considerations in a wide range of ecosystem restoration activities involving trees and evaluate how different approaches take, or could take, genetic aspects into account, leading towards the identification and selection of the most appropriate methods.http://www.bioversityinternational.org/e-library/publications/detail/genetic-considerations-in-ecosystem-restoration-using-native-tree-species/151-156M. Bozzano, R. Jalonen, E. Thomas, D. Boshier, L. Gallo, S. Cavers, … J. LooFood and Agriculture Organizations of the United Nations and Bioversity InternationalRome, ItalyInglés
Dimensión Humana2014Moraga Sariego, P.Regards sur certaines conventions environnementales en droit chilien : une contribution au développement d’une économie «bas-carbone»Contrat et environnement978-2-7314-0945-1La dégradation de l’environnement constitue un enjeu incontournable pour le droit. Pour y faire face, tous les instruments juridiques sont mobilisés. Parmi eux, jouant un rôle essentiel comme outil de gestion des risques environnementaux et de protection de l’environnement, le contrat occupe une place essentielle en droit français et dans un grand nombre de droits étrangers. Permettant de lutter contre des pollutions spécifiques ou globales, de préserver certaines ressources naturelles et la qualité de vie des habitants, de gérer les conséquences néfastes de la dégradation de l’environnement pour l’homme et la nature, conclus entre des personnes publiques et/ou privées (État, entreprises, propriétaires, ONG, etc.), résultant de certains dispositifs juridiques de droit interne, international ou européen, ou créés par les destinataires eux mêmes, les contrats environnementaux recouvrent aujourd’hui une grande diversité. Portant un regard local et global sur les relations contrats/environnement, le but de cet ouvrage est de mettre au jour l’importance prise par le contrat environnemental dans tout un ensemble de droits étrangers pour, in fine, parvenir à un enrichissement des techniques françaises de protection de l’environnement. Les contributions réunies dans cet ouvrage sont le fruit d’une recherche concernant « le contrat et l’environnement » soutenue par la Mission de recherche Droit et Justice et dirigée par Mathilde Hautereau-Boutonnet.http://fr.bruylant.larciergroup.com/titres/132712/145-156M. BoutonnetBruylantParis, FranceFrancés
Dimensión Humana2014Urquiza, A.Resiliencia y adaptación en sistemas organizacionalesLa Organización de las Organizaciones Sociales: aplicaciones desde perspectivas sistemicas.978-956-01-0098-6Las organizaciones como un sistema social. Esa es la premisa bajo la cual el libro nos presenta una acabada revisión de 19 ensayos de destacados académicos y especialistas, que tratan sobre las organizaciones sociales, cómo se originan y por qué, cómo funcionan internamente, las atribuciones que han tomando y se les han otorgado, la proyección de ellas en la sociedad, sus nexos con grupos específicos y los problemas que deben enfrentar, entre otros tópicos. Los autores nos invitan a desmenuzar las organizaciones sociales y la influencia que tienen en nuestras vidas, determinando el actuar social y valórico. Una necesaria revisión que nos acerca a entender la importancia de contar con ellas, de conocerlas, y de comprender el lugar que se les atribuye para conducir nuestros propios intereses y necesidades.http://www.digitaliapublishing.com/a/29852/171-187H. Cadenas, M. Arnoldo, & A. UrquizaRIL EDITORESSantiago, ChileEspañol
Dimensión Humana2016Blanco, G.Abriendo la caja negra del Cambio Climático: Claves para comprender su trayectoria política en América LatinCambio Ambiental Global, Estado y Valor Público: La Cuestión Socio-Ecológica en América Latina, entre Justicia Ambiental y “Legítima” Depredación.978-958-775-740-8Este capítulo se plantea dos objetivos alrededor de los cuales se organizará la información: 1. delinear las trayectorias del cambio climático como fenómeno político identificando el surgimiento de nuevas formas de intervención sociotécnica; 2. identificar algunos aspectos de interés del proceso de traducción de las políticas globales de cambio climático en las agendas nacionales de algunos países latinoamericanos. Finalmente, a modo de conclusión, se presentan claves para una comprensión crítica del proceso de la institucionalización del cambio climático en el espacio público latinoamericano.http://www.clacso.org.ar/libreria-latinoamericana/buscar_libro_detalle.php?id_libro=117845-66A. LampisCentro de Estudios Sociales (CES), Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales (CLACSO), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Perú (PUCP)Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogotá.Español
Modelación y Sistemas de Observación2016Gallardo, L., Mayol-Bracero, O. L., & Belalcazar, L. C.Key Message 1Integrated Assessment of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants for Latin America and the Caribbean: Improving air quality while mitigating climate change. Summary for decision makers978-92-807-3549-9Summary for Decision Makers from the first regional assessment of short-lived climate pollutants in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region. Through this assessment, policy makers and implementers will be able to better quantify and understand the relevant emissions in the region; identify which measures are most important for delivering near-term climate and air pollution benefits; and estimate the reductions in regional air pollutants that could be achieved by implementing these measures, with associated health and crop-yield benefits for the LAC region.http://www.ccacoalition.org/en/resources/integrated-assessment-short-lived-climate-pollutants-latin-america-and-caribbean-summary08/09/18G. Raga & P. ArtaxoUnited Nations Environment ProgrammeNairobi, KenyaInglés
Transversal2016Lazzarino, S., Otero, S., Pohl, N., & Tondreau, N.Comunica tu CienciaSimposio de Comunicación Científica. Comunicación científica como profesión, formación, responsabilidades y roles978-9968-9695-5-0Dentro de los indicadores de desempeño de la investigación científica en Chile, la divulgación ocupa una lugar cada vez más importante. Ante esta necesidad de comunicación, se ofreció en 2015 el taller «Comunica tu ciencia» dirigido a estudiantes de postgrado de diversos centros de investigación y que consistió en una jornada teórico-práctica donde se revisaron conceptos de comunicación científica, el funcionamiento de los medios de comunicación y el estado de la divulgación realizada por científicos en Chile. Al finalizar el taller, los estudiantes presentaron proyectos diseñados a través de la metodología design thinking y participaron de un entrenamiento de vocería.http://investiga.uned.ac.cr/simposiopcstcr/wp-content/uploads/sites/22/2015/11/Dossier-Simposio-PCST-Costa-Rica.pdf258-261A. Umaña & A. LeónVicerrectoría de Investigación, Universidad Estatal a DistanciaSan José, Costa RicaEspañol
Dimensión Humana2017ORyan, R., & Ibarra, C.Environmental Policy in Latin AmericaGlobal Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and GovernanceVer ficha978-3-319-31816-510.1007/978-3-319-31816-5_2670-1This work serves as a comprehensive collection of global scholarship regarding the vast fields of public administration and public policy. Written and edited by leading international scholars and practitioners, this exhaustive resource covers all areas of the twin fields of study. In keeping with the multidisciplinary spirit of these fields, the entries make use of various theoretical, empirical, analytical, practical, and methodological bases of knowledge. The encyclopedia provides a snapshot of the most current research in public administration and public policy, covering such important areas as: 1. organization theory, behavior, change and development 2. administrative theory and practice 3. bureaucracy 4. public budgeting and financial management 5. public finance and public management 6. public personnel and labor-management relations 7. crisis and emergency management 8. institutional theory and public administration 9. law and regulations 10. ethics and accountability Relevant to professionals, experts, scholars, general readers, and students worldwide, this work will serve as the most viable global reference source for those looking for an introduction to the field.​http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31816-5_2670-101/09/18A. FarazmandSpringer International PublishingCham, SwitzerlandInglés
Biogeoquímica2016Santoro, C., Osorio, D., Ugalde, P. C., Sepulveda, M., Cartajena, I., Gayo, E. M., … Nuñez, L.Capítulo 3: Cazadores, Recolectores y pescadores Arcaicos del Desierto de Atacama. Entre el Pacífico y los Andes, Norte de ChilePrehistoria en Chile: desde sus primeros habitantes hasta los Incas978-956-11-2513-1Este libro contiene una puesta al día de lo que se sabe acerca de los pueblos que habitaron lo que actualmente es el territorio de Chile, antes de la llegada de los conquistadores españoles. En trece capítulos preparados por destacados especialistas en cada uno de los temas tratados, el lector asistirá a la llegada de los primeros pobladores hace unos 13.000 años; a la epopeya del descubrimiento de los muy diversos territorios de este largo y angosto país, marcado por desiertos, bosques, nieves y hielos, con sólo dos elementos comunes: la majestad de la cordillera de los Andes y el océano Pacífico, fuente inagotable de recursos. Después de conocer a los diversos cazadores y recolectores del mar y de la tierra, se describen los primeros pasos de los pueblos hacia la domesticación de plantas y animales, al nacimiento de tecnologías necesarias para la sobrevivencia y a la formación de formas complejas de vida social. Termina esta obra cuando parte importante de lo que hoy es Chile queda bajo el extenso imperio Inca del Tawantinsuyo.http://www.uchile.cl/publicaciones/128715/prehistoria-en-chile-desde-sus-primeros-habitantes-hasta-los-incas117-180F. Falabella, M. Uribe, L. Sanhueza, C. Aldunate, & J. HidalgoEditorial UniversitariaSantiago,ChileEspañol
Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2017Foxley, A., Blanco, G.La política del ambiente en América Latina: una aproximación desde el cambio ambiental globalEducación ambiental en Chile: (des)territorialización de una política pública978-607-28-0932-1A partir de la década de 1970, la educación ambiental ha sido una herramienta fundamental para enfrentar la crisis socioambiental global generada por los actuales modos de desarrollo capitalistas, incorporándose en las agendas públicas de organismos internacionales y de gobiernos de diversos países. En Chile se reconoce que la educación ambiental emerge en la década de 1990, a partir de iniciativas formales e informales, permanentes y transitorias, autogestionadas y dependientes de instituciones públicas o privadas. Este capítulo está centrado en el ámbito de la educación formal y surge de una investigación que tuvo por objetivo describir y analizar –desde una perspectiva no lineal y situada en el sur del país– los procesos de territorialización de la política pública de educación ambiental en Chile, a partir de uno de sus instrumentos principales: el Sistema Nacional de Certificación Ambiental de Establecimientos Educacionales (SNCAE). A partir de metodologías de investigación social cualitativa, revisión documental y trabajo etnográfico multisituado, nos aproximamos a actores involucrados en la operación de las políticas y el SNCAE en el plano global, nacional, regional y local. Esta metodología permitió reconocer y analizar procesos de institucionalización e internalización, entendidos como modos específicos de territorialización de la política pública, reconociendo en las escuelas rurales de la comuna de Panguipulli, en la región de Los Ríos (sur de Chile), un espacio de contacto entre las iniciativas de educación ambiental emanadas desde las instituciones globales y nacionales, y aquellas que son resignificadas desde las comunidades educativas según sus propios modos de relacionarse con el territorio. A la luz de la investigación, nos parece interesante describir y reconocer los modos en que la educación ambiental se incorpora a la educación formal desde los espacios regionales, para comprender en forma situada las representaciones y condiciones de posibilidad que surgen para el cambio ambiental local en territorios distantes del norte global y del centro nacional.https://www.clacso.org.ar/libreria-latinoamericana/libro_detalle.php?id_libro=1240&pageNum_rs_libros=0&totalRows_rs_libros=1180207-238Günther, M. G., Gutiérrez, R. A.UAM Xochimilco / CLACSOMéxico, MéxicoEspañol
Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2018Moraga Sariego, P., Meckievi, S.América latina y el orden mundial contemporáneo:El aporte de la legislación especial de cambio climático frente a los compromisos internacionales. Análisis a la luz de la experiencia comparada.978-958-772-837-8https://books.google.cl/books?id=NDRNDwAAQBAJ15 – 48Alvaro, P. A. A., Lira, C. D.Universidad Externado de ColombiaColombiaEspañol
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Zamorano-Elqueta,c.Silvicultura en Bosques Nativos. Experiencias en silvicultura y restauración en Chile, Argentina y el oeste de Estados UnidosCapitulo 8: ¿Silvopastoreo en los bosques templados del sur de Chile?. Perspectivas para un manejo forestal y ganadero sustentable978-0-692-09238-5Los procesos de degradación de bosques, tanto por alteraciones intensivas (explotación de bosques a tala rasa, sustitución por otras clases de uso del suelo, incendios, etc.) como por alteraciones que pueden ser de baja intensidad (ganadería, tala selectiva, etc.) han sido ampliamente estudiados en diversos ecosistemas forestales. Estos factores de alteración, en especial la ganadería y la tala selectiva o floreo, se ha demostrado que cambian la diversidad y composición de especies de plantas, lo que puede a su vez influenciar la funcionalidad de la comunidad y del ecosistema. Sin embargo, menos atención se ha dado a comprender cómo la regeneración de especies forestales responde a tales alteraciones. En Chile la mayor parte de los bosques nativos se encuentran expuestos a una actividad ganadera irregular, siendo utilizados como fuente de forraje y refugio en especial en la temporada invernal. Esta actividad se realiza incluso en poblaciones de especies amenazadas o en ecosistemas de alto valor de conservación, sin evaluar el potencial impacto que el ganado pueda tener en la persistencia de las especies de flora. En este capítulo se presentan diversos antecedentes que demuestran la extrema urgencia de regular la actividad ganadera en bosques nativos, más aún cuando éstos son expuestos simultáneamente a otras actividades productivas como la tala selectiva. A partir del análisis de la influencia del ganado en la regeneración forestal se proponen aproximaciones de investigación y métodos silvícolas para evaluar, regular y monitorear la ganadería forestal. Esto es especialmente relevante al considerar que el ganado constituye la principal fuente de ingreso de miles de familias campesinas. Un mayor control en pequeñas y medianas propiedades podría generar una mayor presión de ganadería ilegal en las grandes propiedades de difícil control perimetral, incluyendo áreas protegidas del Estado. Para orientar una adecuada planificación y regulación de la actividad ganadera en bosques nativos resultados como los expuestos en este capítulo debiesen ser considerados en la legislación ambiental. Por ejemplo, considerar que los impactos de la ganadería en los ecosistemas dependen también del estado sucesional de los bosques, lo que debiese ser incluido en los esquemas de manejo evaluados por la Corporación Nacional Forestal (CONAF). Ello permitiría regular una actividad que, como se presenta en este capítulo, tiene notables influencias en los ecosistemas forestales. Es también necesario reconocer la variable vocación productiva de los territorios, con diferentes potencialidades y limitaciones que hacen necesaria una política regional acorde con los intereses y características localeshttps://www.researchgate.net/profile/Alvaro_Promis/publication/324262315_Silvicultura_en_bosques_nativos_Experiencias_en_silvicultura_y_restauracion_en_Chile_Argentina_y_el_oeste_de_Estados_Unidos/links/5ac7abbeaca272abdc5cf65f/Silvicultura-en-bosques-nativos-Experiencias-en-silvicultura-y-restauracion-en-Chile-Argentina-y-el-oeste-de-Estados-Unidos.pdf157-167Pablo J. Donoso, Álvaro Promis y Daniel P. SotoOSU College of ForestryCorvallis, Oregon, USAEspañol
Ciudades Resilientes2018Gallardo, L., Mayol-Bracero, O., Belalcazar, L., Picolotti, Marín, P.Integrated Assessment of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants for Latin America and the Caribbean: improving air quality while mitigating climate change.Introduction978-92-807-3549-9http://ccacoalition.org/en/resources/integrated-assessment-short-lived-climate-pollutants-latin-america-and-caribbean8-17G. Raga & P. ArtaxoUnited Nations Environment ProgrammeNairobi, KenyaInglés
Agua y Extremos2018Morales, M.S., Christie, D.A., Neukom, R., Rojas, F. & Villalba, R.La Puna argentina: Naturaleza y culturaVariabilidad hidroclimática en el sur del Altiplano: pasado, presente y futuro978-950-668-032-9Las sequías en el Altiplano tienen un alto impacto sobre la dinámica de los ecosistemas regionales y las actividades socioeconómicas de las poblaciones locales. Es por esto que identificar los patrones espaciales de distribución de las lluvias, su evolución temporal%%%y sus proyecciones futuras resultan de gran prioridad. Los objetivos del presente estudio son (1) analizar los principales patrones temporales de las variaciones hidroclimáticas en el sur del Altiplano (19º-23ºS) durante los últimos 600-700 años y (2) proveer sustento a las proyecciones hidroclimáticas para el siglo XXI. Para ello, utilizamos econstrucciones hidroclimáticas basadas en anillos de crecimiento de árboles, mediciones instrumentales de la precipitación y los resultados de un ensamble de ocho modelos predictivos de circulación general. El análisis conjunto de estos datos nos permite desarrollar una perspectiva de los cambios hidroclimáticos del siglo XXI en un contexto multicentenal. Los resultados de las reconstrucciones paleoclimáticas desarrolladas para el Altiplano han permitido caracterizar el rango de la variabilidad hidroclimática natural a diferentes escalas temporales durante los últimos 700 años. Estos%%%registros documentan una disminución sostenida de las lluvias durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX, sin precedentes en los últimos 700 años. Los resultados de los modelos de circulación general de la atmósfera señalan una marcada disminución de las lluvias en el Altiplano bajo diferentes escenarios de emisión de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI), consistente con las tendencias observadas en las reconstrucciones y los datos instrumentales durante el siglo XX.%%%Basados en estas proyecciones, el Altiplano experimentará una reducción en la precipitación fuera del rango de variabilidad natural del sistema climático registrado para el último milenio. Estos resultados alertan sobre la necesidad de planificar y aplicar estrategias adaptativas, para reducir los efectos negativos frente a la futura escasez de agua en la región.http://lillo.org.ar/publicaciones/serie-conservacion-de-la-naturaleza75-91Grau, H.R., Babot, M.J., Izquierdo, A.E., Grau, A.Fundación Miguel Lillo, Ministerio de Educación de la Nación ArgentinaBuenos Aires/ArgentinaEspañol
Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Moraga Sariego, P.El Acuerdo de París sobre el Cambio Climático: ¿un acuerdo histórico o una oportunidad perdida? Análisis jurídico y perspectivas futurasMecanismos de cumplimiento del Acuerdo de París978-84-9197-632-5https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/libro?codigo=722266245-258Borràs Pentinant, S., Villavicencio Calzadilla, P.M.Thomson Reuters (Legal) LimitedCizur Menor (Navarra) / EspañaEspañol
Agua y Extremos
2018Crespo, S., Fernandoy, F. Muñoz, A.Achievements and Challenges of Integrated River Basin ManagementHydro-Geochemical Water Inputs Identification in Glacierized Basin Hydrology978-1-78923-482-4 978-1-78923-483-110.5772/intechopen.75390Mining activities are usually placed in the upper basin regions, especially in developing countries, with economies that strongly rely on natural commodities. Although glaciers do not occupy a large area of these mountain ranges, they deliver vital water for downstream populations. This is especially relevant during drought periods, when winter precipitation is strongly diminished and ice melt becomes relevant. They are also a key resource for highland wetland ecosystems and paradoxically at the same time for the development of megamining projects. Regularly, for environmental impact assessments and relevant public consultations, it will be stated that water from glaciers does not constitute an important source within the basin system, even though this has not been accurately quantified. Different water sources, given by spatial, geological, and hydrological features, can be identified using a combination of ionic and isotopic information from water, thus allowing to establish their proportions downstream, where water from different origins is mixed, and also to track their evolution over seasons. This approach should be useful especially for basins with strong pressures for the exploitation and consumption of water in mountainous basins and also with special relevance for basins with little or no knowledge of their water system and reservoirshttp://www.intechopen.com/books/achievements-and-challenges-of-integrated-river-basin-management/hydro-geochemical-water-inputs-identification-in-glacierized-basin-hydrology33-48Komatina, D.IntechOpen Limited
London/UKInglés
Ciudades Resilientes2019Smith, P., Lamarca, C. , Henríquez, C.Urban climates in Latin AmericaA Comparative Study of Thermal Comfort in Public Spaces in the Cities of Concepción and Chillán, Chile978-3-319-97012-710.1007/978-3-319-97013-4_6One way of evaluating the impact of urban climate on human health and the quality of life is through the sensation of thermal comfort, which depends on a series of parameters, such as the physiological, psychological, meteorological, and morphological factors of the city. In this context, this chapter focuses on evaluating and integrating the measurement of instrumental comfort, perceptual comfort, and urban morphology in public spaces for two Chilean cities. For this purpose, pedestrian urban canyons representative of the city centers are selected: the pedestrian walkway Arauco in the city of Chillán and the pedestrian walkway Barros Arana in the city of Concepción. The survey was carried out during the months of January 2016 and February 2014 and included meteorological parameter measurements of atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, in 2-h intervals. The comfort indicators of Olgyay, the Temperature–Humidity Index, and the Actual Sensation Vote were calculated. In addition, a survey of comfort perception was conducted according to an adaptation of Cheng’s proposal. For the purposes of urban morphology, three-dimensional constructions and vegetation were modeled. A significant correlation is observed between instrumental indicators and perceived comfort; this is clearly demonstrated by the greater discomfort declared by permanent residents of Chillán. The importance of planning the structure and urban morphology of the canyons stands out as it regulates heights; materiality and green spaces that help to reduce the causes of discomfort in the summer. More studies are needed to determine winter comfort.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-97013-4_6111-134Henríquez, C., Romero, H.Springer International PublishingCham, SwitzerlandInglés
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Gómez-González, S.Ecología de la regeneración de zonas incendiadasVulnerabilidad del matorral mediterráneo de Chile a los incendios forestales: apuntes para su recuperación y conservación978-84-09-05946-1El fuego no parece haber sido un factor evolutivo relevante en la formación de los caracteres de las plantas en el matorral mediteráneo de Chile central. Aunque mu-chas de sus especies leñosas pueden rebrotar, la germinación estimulada por fuego es menos frecuente que en otros ecosistemas mediterráneos. Las señales del fuego (humo y/o calor) inhiben la germinación en casi el 40% de las especies nativas evaluadas hasta ahora, muchas de ellas endémicas y de gran valor para la conservación. Por otro lado, los espacios abiertos del matorral están dominados por especies herbáceas exóticas, que son muy favorecidas por el fuego. Los incendios frecuentes causan gran mortalidad en el banco de semillas nativo y van generando nuevos espacios abiertos que, a su vez, son colonizados por exóticas. Los herbívoros podrían determinar el patrón de reclutamiento tras los incendios, dado que afectan de forma diferencial a especies nativas y exóticas. Por otro lado, el cultivo de plantaciones forestales extensivas ha cambiado la inflama-bilidad del paisaje de Chile central, suponiendo un mayor riesgo de incendios para los bosques nativos aledaños. Las evidencias sugieren que el matorral requiere medidas de restauración activas para poder recuperarse del fuego. Chile central requiere diversificar el uso del suelo y recuperar parte de sus bosques nativos para diseñar nuevos paisajes más resilientes a los incendios en el contexto de cambio climático que se está haciendo presente.https://www.uv.es/jgpausas/papers/Garcia-Novo-2018_Ecolog%C3%ADa-de-la-regeneraci%C3%B3n-de-zonas-incendiadas.pdf163-174García-Novo, F., Casal, M., Pausas, J.G.Academia de Ciencias Sociales y del Medio Ambiente de AndalucíaSevilla/EspañaEspañol
Zonas Costeras2018Rondanelli, R., Rutllant, J., Molina, A., Arriagada, A., Fuentes, R.Aluviones y resiliencia en Atacama. Construyendo saberes sobre riesgos y desastresGatillantes oceánicos y atmosféricos de la tormenta de Atacama de marzo de 2015978-956-19-1115-4¿Qué necesita saber una comunidad que ha vivido un desastre socionatural para poder transformarlo en una oportunidad para vivir mejor? El 25 de marzo del 2015 (25M) la fuerza de las comunidades de Atacama fue puesta a prueba una vez más cuando severos aluviones, provocados por un evento de intensas lluvias, bajaron por las quebradas afectando principalmente las localidades ubicadas a orillas del río Salado y Copiapó. Dejando más de treinta y cinco mil damnificados, causando la muerte y desaparición de cuarenta y siete personas y enormes daños materiales, este episodio generó un contexto de incertidumbre en todos los ámbitos de la vida y vino a mostrar, una vez más, la situación de vulnerabilidad estructural de su población ante amenazas naturales propias de un desierto imperecedero pero dinámico, como el de Atacama. Para comprender lo sucedido en la región de Atacama con los aluviones del 2015, se requiere ir más allá del mes de marzo y del contexto regional. Los estudios que se presentan en este libro articulan la situación actual con la precedente, para configurar la complejidad del fenómeno y sus impactos a partir de las señales entregadas por la historia. Tanto la sociedad como la naturaleza han manifestado sus desacoples y sus ajustes, por lo que el conocimiento científico que hemos generado busca también en ellos las explicaciones de lo ocurrido en la actualidad. Así, el análisis de las antiguas y nuevas amenazas se propone en este libro como la llave del conocimiento del riesgo al que se enfrenta la región, con la intención de retratar en el presente también el registro del pasado que lo conforma. Es esta profundidad la que nos permite pensar la experiencia del desastre como una oportunidad de reconocernos colectivamente en sus características, evitando repetir los mismos errores y reinventar las mismas soluciones.http://www.libros.uchile.cl/83895-115Vargas, G., Pérez, S., Aldunce, P.Social-EdicionesSantiago, ChileEspañol
Agua y Extremos2018Aldunce, P., Mena, D., Lillo, G.Aluviones y resiliencia en Atacama. Construyendo saberes sobre riesgos y desastresConocimiento e información como pilares para la construcción de resiliencia978-956-19-1115-4¿Qué necesita saber una comunidad que ha vivido un desastre socionatural para poder transformarlo en una oportunidad para vivir mejor? El 25 de marzo del 2015 (25M) la fuerza de las comunidades de Atacama fue puesta a prueba una vez más cuando severos aluviones, provocados por un evento de intensas lluvias, bajaron por las quebradas afectando principalmente las localidades ubicadas a orillas del río Salado y Copiapó. Dejando más de treinta y cinco mil damnificados, causando la muerte y desaparición de cuarenta y siete personas y enormes daños materiales, este episodio generó un contexto de incertidumbre en todos los ámbitos de la vida y vino a mostrar, una vez más, la situación de vulnerabilidad estructural de su población ante amenazas naturales propias de un desierto imperecedero pero dinámico, como el de Atacama. Para comprender lo sucedido en la región de Atacama con los aluviones del 2015, se requiere ir más allá del mes de marzo y del contexto regional. Los estudios que se presentan en este libro articulan la situación actual con la precedente, para configurar la complejidad del fenómeno y sus impactos a partir de las señales entregadas por la historia. Tanto la sociedad como la naturaleza han manifestado sus desacoples y sus ajustes, por lo que el conocimiento científico que hemos generado busca también en ellos las explicaciones de lo ocurrido en la actualidad. Así, el análisis de las antiguas y nuevas amenazas se propone en este libro como la llave del conocimiento del riesgo al que se enfrenta la región, con la intención de retratar en el presente también el registro del pasado que lo conforma. Es esta profundidad la que nos permite pensar la experiencia del desastre como una oportunidad de reconocernos colectivamente en sus características, evitando repetir los mismos errores y reinventar las mismas soluciones.http://www.libros.uchile.cl/838293-317Vargas, G., Pérez, S., Aldunce, P.Social-EdicionesSantiago, ChileEspañol
Agua y Extremos2018Vargas, G., Pérez, S., Aldunce, P.Aluviones y resiliencia en Atacama. Construyendo saberes sobre riesgos y desastresPrólogo978-956-19-1115-4¿Qué necesita saber una comunidad que ha vivido un desastre socionatural para poder transformarlo en una oportunidad para vivir mejor? El 25 de marzo del 2015 (25M) la fuerza de las comunidades de Atacama fue puesta a prueba una vez más cuando severos aluviones, provocados por un evento de intensas lluvias, bajaron por las quebradas afectando principalmente las localidades ubicadas a orillas del río Salado y Copiapó. Dejando más de treinta y cinco mil damnificados, causando la muerte y desaparición de cuarenta y siete personas y enormes daños materiales, este episodio generó un contexto de incertidumbre en todos los ámbitos de la vida y vino a mostrar, una vez más, la situación de vulnerabilidad estructural de su población ante amenazas naturales propias de un desierto imperecedero pero dinámico, como el de Atacama. Para comprender lo sucedido en la región de Atacama con los aluviones del 2015, se requiere ir más allá del mes de marzo y del contexto regional. Los estudios que se presentan en este libro articulan la situación actual con la precedente, para configurar la complejidad del fenómeno y sus impactos a partir de las señales entregadas por la historia. Tanto la sociedad como la naturaleza han manifestado sus desacoples y sus ajustes, por lo que el conocimiento científico que hemos generado busca también en ellos las explicaciones de lo ocurrido en la actualidad. Así, el análisis de las antiguas y nuevas amenazas se propone en este libro como la llave del conocimiento del riesgo al que se enfrenta la región, con la intención de retratar en el presente también el registro del pasado que lo conforma. Es esta profundidad la que nos permite pensar la experiencia del desastre como una oportunidad de reconocernos colectivamente en sus características, evitando repetir los mismos errores y reinventar las mismas soluciones.http://www.libros.uchile.cl/83813-19Vargas, G., Pérez, S., Aldunce, P.Social-EdicionesSantiago, ChileEspañol
Agua y Extremos2018Vargas, G., Pérez, S., Aldunce, P.Aluviones y resiliencia en Atacama. Construyendo saberes sobre riesgos y desastresFull book978-956-19-1115-4¿Qué necesita saber una comunidad que ha vivido un desastre socionatural para poder transformarlo en una oportunidad para vivir mejor? El 25 de marzo del 2015 (25M) la fuerza de las comunidades de Atacama fue puesta a prueba una vez más cuando severos aluviones, provocados por un evento de intensas lluvias, bajaron por las quebradas afectando principalmente las localidades ubicadas a orillas del río Salado y Copiapó. Dejando más de treinta y cinco mil damnificados, causando la muerte y desaparición de cuarenta y siete personas y enormes daños materiales, este episodio generó un contexto de incertidumbre en todos los ámbitos de la vida y vino a mostrar, una vez más, la situación de vulnerabilidad estructural de su población ante amenazas naturales propias de un desierto imperecedero pero dinámico, como el de Atacama. Para comprender lo sucedido en la región de Atacama con los aluviones del 2015, se requiere ir más allá del mes de marzo y del contexto regional. Los estudios que se presentan en este libro articulan la situación actual con la precedente, para configurar la complejidad del fenómeno y sus impactos a partir de las señales entregadas por la historia. Tanto la sociedad como la naturaleza han manifestado sus desacoples y sus ajustes, por lo que el conocimiento científico que hemos generado busca también en ellos las explicaciones de lo ocurrido en la actualidad. Así, el análisis de las antiguas y nuevas amenazas se propone en este libro como la llave del conocimiento del riesgo al que se enfrenta la región, con la intención de retratar en el presente también el registro del pasado que lo conforma. Es esta profundidad la que nos permite pensar la experiencia del desastre como una oportunidad de reconocernos colectivamente en sus características, evitando repetir los mismos errores y reinventar las mismas soluciones.http://www.libros.uchile.cl/83811-357Vargas, G., Pérez, S., Aldunce, P.Social-EdicionesSantiago, ChileEspañol
Ciudades Resilientes2019Gallardo, L.La protección del medio ambiente: reflexiones para una reforma constitucionalIntroducción: Antropoceno en Chile y oportunidades para un desarrollo sostenible y resiliente.www.uchile.cl/publicaciones/155741/la-proteccion-del-medio-amb-reflexiones-para-una-ref-constitucional103-110Moraga, P.Editorial Jurídica de ChileSantiago, ChileEspañol
Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2019Hervé, D.La protección del medio ambiente: reflexiones para una reforma constitucionalTratamiento constitucional de los recursos naturales en el contexto de la justicia ambiental.www.uchile.cl/publicaciones/155741/la-proteccion-del-medio-amb-reflexiones-para-una-ref-constitucional125-148Moraga, P.Editorial Jurídica de ChileSantiago, ChileEspañol
Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2019Moraga Sariego, P.La protección del medio ambiente: reflexiones para una reforma constitucionalIntroducción general. Proceso de reforma constitucional y protección del medio ambiente.www.uchile.cl/publicaciones/155741/la-proteccion-del-medio-amb-reflexiones-para-una-ref-constitucional15-24Moraga, P.Editorial Jurídica de ChileSantiago, ChileEspañol
Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2019Moraga Sariego, P.La protección del medio ambiente: reflexiones para una reforma constitucionalLa protección del medio ambiente: reflexiones para una reforma constitucionalwww.uchile.cl/publicaciones/155741/la-proteccion-del-medio-amb-reflexiones-para-una-ref-constitucional7-168Moraga, P.Editorial Jurídica de ChileSantiago, ChileEspañol
Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2019Osses, M., Ibarra, C., Silva, B.El sol al servicio de la humanidad: Historia de la energía solar en ChileIntroducción. Historias solares de Chile en el tiempo y en la sociedadLa energía solar en Chile parece ser una novedad del siglo XXI. Sin embargo, tenemos variadas experiencias previas que conectan esa relevancia actual con un pasado solar, interesante y muchas veces sorprendente. Iniciativas como la desalación de agua en el siglo XIX, la obtención de registros solares desde 1920, la creación de un archivo solarimétrico a mediados del siglo XX, así como el diseño e implementación de tecnologías solares, desde los sesenta en adelante nos confirman que existe una historia solar en Chile, que vale la pena recuperar. En ocasiones, da la impresión que el desarrollo de la energía solar fuera intermitente, pero a pesar de esa apariencia de discontinuidad, hay una continuidad que ha estado presente desde sus inicios: la estructura de un trabajo en equipo, de distintas generaciones de ingenieros y técnicos que se han conectado, de un modo u otro, a través de la energía solar. Este libro se construyó bajo esa misma premisa, de conectar y vincular a distintos actores de la energía solar en Chile, y crear a través de estas páginas un espacio de articulación de iniciativas, temporalidades, especialidades y protagonismos. Al concentrarnos en el pasado, buscamos también llegar a aquellos que en algún futuro integrarán estas historias solares.11-24Osses, M., Ibarra, C., Silva, B.RiL editoresSantiago, ChileEspañol
Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2019Osses, M., Ibarra, C., Silva, B.El sol al servicio de la humanidad: Historia de la energía solar en ChileConclusión. Energía solar, su historia y su futuroLa energía solar en Chile parece ser una novedad del siglo XXI. Sin embargo, tenemos variadas experiencias previas que conectan esa relevancia actual con un pasado solar, interesante y muchas veces sorprendente. Iniciativas como la desalación de agua en el siglo XIX, la obtención de registros solares desde 1920, la creación de un archivo solarimétrico a mediados del siglo XX, así como el diseño e implementación de tecnologías solares, desde los sesenta en adelante nos confirman que existe una historia solar en Chile, que vale la pena recuperar. En ocasiones, da la impresión que el desarrollo de la energía solar fuera intermitente, pero a pesar de esa apariencia de discontinuidad, hay una continuidad que ha estado presente desde sus inicios: la estructura de un trabajo en equipo, de distintas generaciones de ingenieros y técnicos que se han conectado, de un modo u otro, a través de la energía solar. Este libro se construyó bajo esa misma premisa, de conectar y vincular a distintos actores de la energía solar en Chile, y crear a través de estas páginas un espacio de articulación de iniciativas, temporalidades, especialidades y protagonismos. Al concentrarnos en el pasado, buscamos también llegar a aquellos que en algún futuro integrarán estas historias solares.207-215Osses, M., Ibarra, C., Silva, B.RiL editoresSantiago, ChileEspañol
Ciudades Resilientes; Zonas Costeras2019Osses, M., Roth, M., Rondanelli, R.El sol al servicio de la humanidad: Historia de la energía solar en ChileDatos solarimétricos: mediciones y registrosLa energía solar en Chile parece ser una novedad del siglo XXI. Sin embargo, tenemos variadas experiencias previas que conectan esa relevancia actual con un pasado solar, interesante y muchas veces sorprendente. Iniciativas como la desalación de agua en el siglo XIX, la obtención de registros solares desde 1920, la creación de un archivo solarimétrico a mediados del siglo XX, así como el diseño e implementación de tecnologías solares, desde los sesenta en adelante nos confirman que existe una historia solar en Chile, que vale la pena recuperar. En ocasiones, da la impresión que el desarrollo de la energía solar fuera intermitente, pero a pesar de esa apariencia de discontinuidad, hay una continuidad que ha estado presente desde sus inicios: la estructura de un trabajo en equipo, de distintas generaciones de ingenieros y técnicos que se han conectado, de un modo u otro, a través de la energía solar. Este libro se construyó bajo esa misma premisa, de conectar y vincular a distintos actores de la energía solar en Chile, y crear a través de estas páginas un espacio de articulación de iniciativas, temporalidades, especialidades y protagonismos. Al concentrarnos en el pasado, buscamos también llegar a aquellos que en algún futuro integrarán estas historias solares.45-78Osses, M., Ibarra, C., Silva, B.RiL editoresSantiago, ChileEspañol
Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2019Rojas, M.La protección del medio ambiente: reflexiones para una reforma constitucionalIntroducción: Contexto biofísico y humano del cambio climático en Chile: escenarios climáticos y vulnerabilidad de Chile.www.uchile.cl/publicaciones/155741/la-proteccion-del-medio-amb-reflexiones-para-una-ref-constitucional57-66Moraga, P.Editorial Jurídica de ChileSantiago, ChileEspañol
Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2019Román, R., Ibarra, C.El sol al servicio de la humanidad: Historia de la energía solar en ChileEl desarrollo de la energía solar en Chile, una visión integradoraLa energía solar en Chile parece ser una novedad del siglo XXI. Sin embargo, tenemos variadas experiencias previas que conectan esa relevancia actual con un pasado solar, interesante y muchas veces sorprendente. Iniciativas como la desalación de agua en el siglo XIX, la obtención de registros solares desde 1920, la creación de un archivo solarimétrico a mediados del siglo XX, así como el diseño e implementación de tecnologías solares, desde los sesenta en adelante nos confirman que existe una historia solar en Chile, que vale la pena recuperar. En ocasiones, da la impresión que el desarrollo de la energía solar fuera intermitente, pero a pesar de esa apariencia de discontinuidad, hay una continuidad que ha estado presente desde sus inicios: la estructura de un trabajo en equipo, de distintas generaciones de ingenieros y técnicos que se han conectado, de un modo u otro, a través de la energía solar. Este libro se construyó bajo esa misma premisa, de conectar y vincular a distintos actores de la energía solar en Chile, y crear a través de estas páginas un espacio de articulación de iniciativas, temporalidades, especialidades y protagonismos. Al concentrarnos en el pasado, buscamos también llegar a aquellos que en algún futuro integrarán estas historias solares.145-180Osses, M., Ibarra, C., Silva, B.RiL editoresSantiago, ChileEspañol
Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2019Roth, M., Sarmiento, P., Ibarra, C.El sol al servicio de la humanidad: Historia de la energía solar en ChileTecnologías de transformación de energía solar y algunas aplicacionesLa energía solar en Chile parece ser una novedad del siglo XXI. Sin embargo, tenemos variadas experiencias previas que conectan esa relevancia actual con un pasado solar, interesante y muchas veces sorprendente. Iniciativas como la desalación de agua en el siglo XIX, la obtención de registros solares desde 1920, la creación de un archivo solarimétrico a mediados del siglo XX, así como el diseño e implementación de tecnologías solares, desde los sesenta en adelante nos confirman que existe una historia solar en Chile, que vale la pena recuperar. En ocasiones, da la impresión que el desarrollo de la energía solar fuera intermitente, pero a pesar de esa apariencia de discontinuidad, hay una continuidad que ha estado presente desde sus inicios: la estructura de un trabajo en equipo, de distintas generaciones de ingenieros y técnicos que se han conectado, de un modo u otro, a través de la energía solar. Este libro se construyó bajo esa misma premisa, de conectar y vincular a distintos actores de la energía solar en Chile, y crear a través de estas páginas un espacio de articulación de iniciativas, temporalidades, especialidades y protagonismos. Al concentrarnos en el pasado, buscamos también llegar a aquellos que en algún futuro integrarán estas historias solares.79-126Osses, M., Ibarra, C., Silva, B.RiL editoresSantiago, ChileEspañol
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Meserve, P. L., Gómez-González, S., Kelt, D.A.Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental SciencesThe Chilean matorral: characteristics, biogeography, and disturbanceThe matorral or Mediterranean scrub biome occurs within a narrow band of central Chile between approximately 30 and 38 S latitude. Bounded on the east by the Andean Cordillera and on the west by the Pacific Ocean, the area is characterized by a winter-wet, summer-dry climate, generally frost-free winters, and prolonged summer drought. A diverse flora includes many sclerophyllous shrubs, some drought-deciduous ones, and an herbaceous understory during winter and spring months. However, within the latter, exotic species which have become naturalized now make up a substantial proportion of the ephemeral flora. Matorral perennial shrub vegetation displays considerable endemicity, and is structurally convergent with Mediterranean scrub in California, Spain, and the Mediterranean Basin. Among higher vertebrates, herptiles, birds and small mammals exhibit broad geographic ranges in the matorral and lower species turnover between habitats (b-diversity) than in other Mediterranean scrub areas. Despite low taxonomic affinity, similar to perennial shrubs, there is convergence in major body types, feeding guilds and foraging techniques. Due to anthropogenic disturbance including clearing, fire, and extensive overgrazing/browsing, there are relatively few intact examples of undisturbed matorral left, and greater effort needs to be expended to preserve this highly unique biome. Long-term studies at a thorn scrub site on the northern edge of the matorral suggests that altered rainfall patterns have led to changes in the small mammal assemblage composition. Over time, such effects may also become manifest in the central Chilean matorral.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/B9780124095489119852B9780124095489119852Scott, Elias (Editor in Chief)ElsevierAmsterdam, Paises BajosInglés
Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2019Sapiains, R.La protección del medio ambiente: reflexiones para una reforma constitucionalPercepciones del cambio climático en la población chilena: Implicancias para la política pública y una nueva constitución978-956-10-2521-9www.uchile.cl/publicaciones/155741/la-proteccion-del-medio-amb-reflexiones-para-una-ref-constitucional67-76Moraga, P.Editorial Jurídica de ChileSantiago, ChileEspañol
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2019Gligo, N.; Merino, M.; Acevedo, G.; Morales, C.; Ruiz, R.; Lara, A.; Urrutia, R.; Reyes, R; Gonzalez, M. E.; Miranda, A.; Altamirano, A.; Zamorano-Elgueta, C.; Jaksic, F.; Mella, D.; Pfeiffer, M.; Canales, M.; Bravo, R.; Diaz, H.; Herrera, M.; Lopez, E.; Lagos, G.; Peters, J.; Jara, J.; Saa, R.; Araya, P.; Lanyon, C.; Alvarez, S.; Brzovic, F.Resumen y versión inglés del “Informe País: Estado del Medio Ambiente en Chile 2018”CHAPTER 3: NATIVE FORESTLa presente publicación es un Resumen del “Informe País: Estado del Medio Ambiente en Chile 2018” cuya autoría pertenece a la Universidad de Chile, a través del Centro de Análisis de Políticas Públicas del Instituto de Asuntos Públicas. Los autores de partes y de capítulos de este Informe pertenecen principalmente a académicos de esta Universidad, además de autorías de académicos de otras universidades. Dirección: Nicolo Gligo. Autores: Nicolo Gligo, Manuel Merino y Gerardo Acevedo, César Morales, Reinaldo Ruiz, Antonio Lara, Rocío Urrutia, René Reyes, Mauro González, Alejandro Miranda, Adison Altamirano, Carlos Zamorano, Fabián M. Jaksic, Daniella Mella, Marco Pfeiffer, Mauricio González, Mauricio Canales , Ricardo Bravo, Humberto Díaz, Manuel Herrera, Erika López, Gustavo Lagos, David Peters, José J. Jara, René Saa, Paz Araya, Carla Lanyon, Sebastián Álvarez, Francisco Brzovic. Resúmenes: José Leal, Andrea MatteBaker, (traducción). Revisión Especializada: Daslav Ursić. Diseño y Diagramación: Pedro A. Klarián. “Informe País: Estado del Medio Ambiente en Chile 2018” En: www.iap.uchile.cl centro de análisis de políticas públicashttps://www.cr2.cl/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Informe-pais-estado-del-medio-ambiente-en-chile-2018.pdf16-17Pérez, M. I.Centro de Análisis de Políticas Públicas del Instituto de Asuntos Públicos de la Universidad de ChileSantiago, ChileEspañol, Inglés
Agua y Extremos;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2020Aldunce Ide, P.; González, María P.; Lampis, A.; Pardo-Buendía, M.; Poats, Susan V.; Postigo, Julio C.; Rosas, A.; Sapiains A.;R.; Ugarte Caviedes, Ana M.; Yañez, NAdaptation to climate change in Ibero-American countries RIOCCADAPT reportSociety, Governance, Inequality, and AdaptationISBN (print): 9788448621674 ISBN (digital): 9788448621667due to pre-existing situations of inequality. The impacts of climate change can be felt across the civil population, different production sectors, and the government, however, there are certain groups that are more vulnerable than others due to social inequality, among other reasons. Some of these more vulnerable groups include indigenous peoples, populations living in poverty, and women, all of who are affected differently. This chapter addresses aspects relating to vulnerability, climate change impacts and adaptation in Ibero-America, paying particular attention to these three aforementioned vulnerable groups. Knowledge of the impacts of climate change on social aspects is deficient. A pervasive aspect present in all RIOCC countries is that in academic terms and in practice, studies on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation are imbalanced, favoring biophysical, infrastructure-related or ecosystemic aspects over social aspects, representing a reductionism of reality that must be addressed. One of the main gaps identified in this report is the lack of information. It is therefore necessary to make progress in generating data, evaluations, studies and their respective documentation and systematization, ensuring that these are of good quality, readily available and generated periodically. The availability of this information facilitates both learning and understanding based on both successful and unsuccessful cases, which serve as inputs for public policies and communities. In the case of indicators and indices used to measure the effectiveness of adaptation actions, for the most part the identified options were limited in Latin America and in the Iberian Peninsula, thus adversely affecting any opportunities for improving and prioritizing the adaptation actions to be implemented. The main hazards to society are related to changes in precipitation patterns, rise in temperature and extreme climate and weather events, materialized in the growing adverse impacts on natural resources and livelihoods. Specifically, hazards within Ibero-America range from rises in temperature, changes in precipitation patterns, glacier melting and the shrinking cryosphere, and the increased frequency and severity of extreme climate and weather events such as, for example, heat waves, floods, droughts, and tropical storms. These hazards translate into impacts such as decreased agricultural productivity and reduced access to water resources, food insecurity, precarious livelihoods, soil degradation, migration, and increased mortality and malnutrition in populations, among others. Risks and impacts are generally more pronounced in socio-politically marginalized groups such as women, indigenous peoples, and those living in poverty. These groups share certain aspects that determine their vulnerability, such as unmet basic needs, energy poverty, power inequality, low capacity to influence decision making and political capital, physical and social isolation, discrimination and forced displacement, as well as limited access to education, natural resources and financial capital. Additionally, women perform unpaid domestic work and are exposed to gender-based violence. The vulnerability of indigenous peoples has increased due to a denial of their rights and of their material and spiritual relationship with the environment. This differentiation must necessarily be included in vulnerability assessments of RIOCC countries as it has been shown that this is an aspect that has not yet been considered nor has occupied a secondary place in any such assessments. The design and implementation of adaptation actions require a differentiated treatment in terms of poverty, indigenous people and gender. In recent years significant progress has been made in policies implementing planned adaptation in Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula, especially at the national and sectoral levels. Nevertheless, the inclusion of these previously described vulnerable groups, while gradually becoming a more frequent practice in climate change-related public policies, is still weak and there is a varying degree of inclusion in different countries. Some examples are climate change policies and strategies that place an emphasis on education, capacity building, the independent development of women, and agricultural advancement. Autonomous adaptation practices emerge, for the most part, locally and are often the result of a need to respond to adversities arising from weak or non-existent state institutional frameworks. In contexts where inequality prevails, populations find themselves forced to act to reduce climate change impacts; this is often triggered by weak government support. Therefore external support is generally required to implement adaptation practices. Certain practices that are carried out include the diversification of livelihoods; efficiency in water use; changes to agricultural systems such as crop substitution and the use of drought-resistant seeds; and providing support for mother-headed households, among others. Seeking to increase resilience by enhancing reciprocity and cooperation within communities is key. However, it is necessary to consider that changes in practices can trigger or enhance social conflict, which makes the role of governance systems fundamental. One of the main challenges in terms of governance in RIOCC countries is the inclusive participation of all climate change-related stakeholders, especially local governments, civil society organizations and local communities. Among other things, participation contributes to reinforcing climate change-related stakeholders’ own empowerment, allowing for higher probabilities of success in the implementation of adaptation actions. Engagement of local communities is crucial because both vulnerability and adaptation depend on the context, and local communities are on the front line of receiving and responding to impacts. Stronger support for local communities is needed using governance systems where people have a greater say in decision making. Enabling, or better yet, not impairing the conditions necessary to strengthen support networks and social capital in these communities is required. As for the different types of knowledge, integrating scientific knowledge with local and ancestral knowledge is imperative. This will allow for a better understanding of local realities and the different contexts—the complexity and high levels of uncertainty associated with climate change make it difficult for any actor to cope with the impacts of this phenomenon on their own. Climate change-related public policies need to be more robust and cross-cutting. In spite of the growing concern and progress made in the area of public policies on climate change, climate change still needs to be given greater priority as an urgent issue that needs to be addressed. This prioritization could be made, for example, through a sustained allocation of human and economic resources. When adaptation limits appear, a transformational approach is required. When the impacts of climate change and their related uncertainty and complexity are less severe, adaptation (or incremental adaptation) is very useful; conversely, when impacts are more severe—a rapidly increasing occurrence due to climate change—transformation (or transformational adaptation) based on profound changes to social structures emerges as the only possible alternative for responding to climate change impacts. Adaptation and transformation do not compete with each other, rather they complement one another. Each is necessary according to the severity of the impacts and in many cases must be implemented together.http://rioccadapt.com/en/lee-nuestro-libro/47-86Moreno, J. M.;Laguna-Defior, C.;Barros, V.;Calvo Buendía, E.;Marengo, J. .A;Oswald Spring, U.McGraw Hill Madrid, EspañaMadrid, EspañaInglés
Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política;Agua y Extremos2020Aldunce, P.;González, M.P.;Lampis, A.;Pardo-Buendía, M.;Poats, S.V.;Postigo, J.C.;Rosas, A.;Sapiains Arrue, R.;Ugarte Caviedes, A.M.;Yañez Fuenzalida, N.Adaptación frente a los riesgos del cambio climático en los países RIOCC – Informe RIOCCADAPTSociedad, gobernanza, inequidad y adaptación978-8-448-62164-3-http://rioccadapt.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/02_Cap_2_CambioClimatico.pdf49-89Moreno, J.M;Laguna-Defior, C;Barros, V;Calvo Buendía, E;Marengo, J.A;Oswald Spring, U.McGraw Hill Madrid, EspañaMadrid, EspañaEspañol
Ciudades Resilientes2020Carles, M.;Huidobro, C.;Gallardo, L.;Urquiza, A.;Billi, M.;Smith, P.;Seguel, R. J.: CITY-TO-CITY PARTNERSHIPS AND SOUTH-SOUTH AND TRIANGULAR COOPERATION ON SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT: Urban planning and management and its impacts in addressing climate change and fostering sustainable developmentChile, Santiago:Climate change challenges and governance-11.1111/j.abc.2020-06.23Dense urban areas like Santiago are affected by climate change and at the same time give rise to emissions that contribute to the problem. The Metropolitan Region of Santiago, like the rest of central and southern Chile, is suffering from a megadrought. Moreover, despite substantial improvement over the last three decades, air quality remains a pressing problem, albeit with a more elusive oxidative character that cannot be solved solely based on technological measures. The urgency of the issues at hand and the much-needed search for resilience building in Santiago trigger winwin opportunities for sustainable development, which will require much improved and articulated urban governance.This case study offers a research perspective on the resilience-building policy measures that the city of Santiago is putting in place.It asserts that evidence-based decision making will become paramount, requiring a much tighter connection with science, the generation of highquality information for assessing climate vulnerability, as well as much stronger citizen participation.https://www.unsouthsouth.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/City-to-City-Report.pdf111-118UNSSCOO-IAICarles, M., Huidobro, C., Gallardo, L., Urquiza, A., Billi, M., Smith, P. and Seguel, R. J.: Chile, Santiago:Climate change challenges and governance, in CITY-TO-CITY PARTNERSHIPS AND SOUTH-SOUTH AND TRIANGULAR COOPERATION ON SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT: Urban planning and management and its impacts in addressing climate change and fostering sUnited Nations Office for South-South Cooperation & InterAmerican Institute for Global Change NY, USA & Montevideo, UruguayNY, USA & Montevideo, UruguayInglés
Ciudades Resilientes2020Cortés, A; Amigo, C; Araya, P; Urquiza, AExtensión con sentido país Innovando en las prácticas de extensión, vinculación con el medio y comunicaciones en la Universidad de Chile 2016-2018.RED DE POBREZA ENERGÉTICA: COLABORACIÓN TRANSDISCIPLINARIA Y VINCULACIÓN CON EL MEDIO PARA ABORDAR PROBLEMAS COMPLEJOS978-956-19-1181-9En Chile, la política “Energía 2050” identifica el concepto de pobreza energética como un asunto a desarrollar por la Agenda Energética. Si bien se ha reconocido la importan- cia de mejorar las condiciones de acceso a fuentes de energías limpias y de calidad para la población, incorporándolo en uno de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS7) de las Naciones Unidas; todavía es un desafío pendiente desarrollar políticas públicas focalizadas en pobreza energética, con el alcance y coherencia requeridos, especialmen- te en la región latinoamericana. En esta dirección, la Comisión de Energía conformada por Universidad de Chile en el año 2016 convocó al Ministerio de Energía de este país para institucionalizar meca- nismos de colaboración. En esta instancia, se identificó la pobreza energética como un desafío a abordar de forma interdisciplinaria, creándose la Red de Pobreza Energética (RedPE) en el segundo semestre del mismo año. En el periodo 2017-2019, la RedPE ha avanzado en fortalecer la discusión pública sobre el tema a nivel académico, público, privado y sociedad civil. Además, la red ha continuado estrechando lazos a nivel nacio- nal y ha iniciado un proceso de internacionalización en el sur global, en diálogo con universidades y centros pioneros en esta problemática a nivel mundial.https://libros.uchile.cl/110683-94Póo Figueroa, X.;Dougnac Quintana, P.;Flores González, M.;Osorio Arredondo, F.;Ravanal Ponce, M.;Sánchez Riadi, A.Vicerrectoría de Extensión y Comunicaciones 2020 Santiago, ChileSantiago, ChileEspañol
Agua y Extremos2020Rutz, Jonathan J.;Guan, B.;Bozkurt, D.;Gorodetskaya, Irina V.;Gershunov, A.;Lavers, David A.;Mahoney, Kelly M.;Moore, Benjamin J.;Ne, W.; Neiman, Paul J.;Ralph, F. M.;Ramos, Alexandre M.;Steen-Larsen, Hans C.;Tsukernik, M.;Valenzuela, R.;Viale, M.;Wernli, H.Atmospheric RiversGlobal and Regional Perspectives978-3-030-28905-810.1007/978-3-030-28906-5_4This chapter explores the global and regional footprints of ARs, which are just beginning to be recognized. This chapter begins by highlighting the global climatology of ARs using metrics such as frequency, duration, seasonality, and the fraction of precipitation that can be attributed to ARs. It then highlights regional climatologies of ARs, the unique ways in which ARs are manifested across each of these regions, and some of the high-impact events associated with them.https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-030-28906-589-140Martin Ralph, F;Dettinger, Michael D;Rutz, Jonathan J;Waliser, Duane E.Springer Nature Cham, SwitzerlandCham, SwitzerlandInglés
Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2020Moraga, P.ANUARIO DE DERECHO PÚBLICO 2019 UNIVERSIDAD DIEGO PORTALESLitigación del cambio climático a propósito de la deforestación del amazonía colombiana978-956-314-477-2247-259Figueroa García-Huidobro, REdiciones Universidad Diego Portales: Facultad de Derecho Santiago, ChileSantiago, ChileEspañol
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2017Mundo, I.;Holz, A.;González, M.E.;Paritsis, J.DendroecologyFire History and Fire Regimes Shifts in Patagonian Temperate Forests978-3-319-61669-810.1007/978-3-319-61669-8_9https://www.springer.com/la/book/9783319616681211-229Amoroso, M.M;Daniels, L;Baker, P.J;Camarero, J.J.Springer International Publishing Cham, SwitzerlandCham, SwitzerlandInglés
Agua y Extremos2020Pérez Tello, S; Flores-Haverbeck, F; Fuentes Pereira, C; Conte, E; Aldunce Ide, PExtensión con sentido país Innovando en las prácticas de extensión, vinculación con el medio y comunicaciones en la Universidad de Chile 2016-2018.LA GLORIA DE TU VIDA VOLVERÁ. EXPERIENCIA TRANSDISCIPLINARIA Y COMUNITARIA EN REDUCCIÓN DE RIESGO DE INCENDIOS FORESTALES978-956-19-1181-9Abordar la reducción de riesgo de desastres socionaturales es un desafío prioritario y complejo, que requiere compromiso y diálogo de todos los sectores sociales. A partir de los incendios forestales ocurridos en enero de 2017, un equipo transdisciplinario del Programa de Reducción de Riesgos y Desastres de la Universidad de Chile (CITRID) y del Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR2), en cooperación con profesio- nales del Fondo Idea FOSIS, se propuso aportar hacia una adaptación transformativa de la comunidad de La Gloria, afectada psicológica, social y ambientalmente por el incendio. Este equipo diseñó el programa de talleres “ComunicAcción” con la finalidad de promover capacidades resilientes de la comunidad mediante la resignificación de su experiencia, el fortalecimiento de la identidad social y territorial, y la comprensión e identificación del riesgo. Esta intervención contó con una metodología innovadora que integró prácticas artísticas, dialógicas y participativas, materializadas en cinco sesiones. Entre sus resultados destaca la identificación de capacidades de resiliencia asociadas a las emociones, al sentido e identidad comunitaria, y la percepción simbólica del territorio y sus riesgos. Además, esta experiencia de vinculación constituye un ejemplo de intercam- bio transdisciplinar que contribuye a la formación e investigación en tema de riesgos socionaturales. La sistematización y divulgación de esta experiencia y el conocimiento producido representa un aporte al quehacer universitario y a la política pública.https://libros.uchile.cl/1106105-118Póo Figueroa, X.;Dougnac Quintana, P.;Flores González, M.;Osorio Arredondo, F.;Ravanal Ponce, M.;Sánchez Riadi, A.Vicerrectoría de Extensión y Comunicaciones 2020 Santiago, ChileSantiago, ChileEspañol
Cambio de Uso de Suelo2020Steil, L; Urbieta, I R; Anderson, L; Pinto, C; González, M E; Millán, A; Morici, E; Ibarnegaray, V; Pérez-Salicrup, D R; Pereira, J M; Moreno, J M; Report, RIOCCADAPT; Marengo, J A; Spring, U OswaldAdaptation to climate change in Ibero-American countries RIOCCADAPT reportWildfiresISBN (print): 9788448621674 ISBN (digital): 9788448621667Fire is inherent to many terrestrial ecosystems and its impacts can be beneficial or adverse, depending on human action. Fire is associated with the use of the landscape and its productive systems. Certain ecosystems require fire for their stability (e.g. savannas, oak or pine forests in certain areas of RIOCC countries). Many indigenous and rural communities depend on fire for their survival. However, shifts in the occurrence of fire—in terms of location, fire extent, frequency, intensity and severity, generated directly or indirectly by human action—can lead to fires that differ from those usually expected in a natural regime, causing severe impacts on ecosystems and the goods and services they provide, biodiversity, greenhouse gases sink capacity or production means and national economies. Although some studies show a reduction in the number and areas affected by fire in the last decades at different scales, including global scale, several regions of natural, rural and rural-urban interface areas in RIOCC countries have recorded a greater number of fires, of longer duration, extent and severity, associated in part with climate change and patterns of human-induced fire use. While varying across the region, the fire season is becoming longer and drier and more severe. This, coupled with the rise in human settlements in the urban-rural interface and poor fire governance, is contributing to wildfire events that exceed current management and control capabilities. Few RIOCC countries have robust fire monitoring systems (with the exception of Spain, Portugal, Brazil, Mexico and Chile), much less systems that monitor fire-related impacts. It is vital to invest in environmental, social and economic monitoring, especially in little-studied regions. Monitoring makes it possible to prevent catastrophic effects and the effectiveness of measures implemented in terms of their ability to reduce risks and maximize the sink effect of our forests and wild or managed ecosystems, given that many of the region’s countries include these in their climate change mitigation policies.http://rioccadapt.com/en/lee-nuestro-libro/435-496Moreno, J. M.;Laguna-Defior, C.;Barros, V.;Calvo Buendía, E.;Marengo, J. .A;Oswald Spring, U.McGraw Hill Madrid, EspañaMadrid, EspañaInglés

4. Monthly bulletin 2014

Boletín preparado por el Área Jurídica de Dimensión Humana del (CR)2, mensualmente y con miras a la Conferencia de las Partes de la Convención Marco de Naciones Unidas sobre Cambio Climático, COP20, que se desarrolló en Perú durante el año 2014.

5. Monthly bulletin 2015

Boletín preparado por el Área Jurídica de Dimensión Humana del Centro, mensualmente y con miras a la Conferencia de las Partes de la Convención Marco de Naciones Unidas sobre Cambio Climático, COP 21, que se desarrollará en Francia durante el presente año.

Número 9, abril de 2015 | «Herramientas del derecho internacional hacia la COP 21»

6. Theses

  • “Intercambio de gases invernadero hacia la atmósfera versus acumulación de carbono y nitrógeno en los sedimentos del estuario/humedal Tubul-Raqui”, alumno Inger Daniel, dirigida por Laura Farías (Universidad de Concepción)
  • “Cambios multicenteniales en el crecimiento de bosques de Nothofagus dombeyi en los Andes valdivianos” alumna Paulina Montory, dirigida por Duncan Christie (Universidad Austral)
  • “Estudio de la interacción entre agua superficial y subterránea en la cuenca del río San José» alumno Carlos Ardissoni, dirigida Paulo Herrera (Universidad de Chile)
  • “Influencias de la discusión sobre Equidad en el Acceso al Desarrollo Sostenible en conceptos y principios del derecho ambiental internacional: Nuestro presente común” alumno Miguel Pelayo, dirigida por Pilar Moraga (Universidad de Chile)
  • “Modelación de Flujos en geometría compleja (Rajos Mineros)” alumno Federico Flores, dirigida por René Garreaud (Universidad de Chile)
  • “Patrones multicenteniales de crecimiento de Nothofagus pumilio a traves de un gradiente altitudinal en los Andes valdivianos” alumno Gonzalo Duarte, dirigida por Duncan Christie (Universidad Austral)