Artículos en revistas científicas

TítuloAutoresLínea de InvestigaciónAñoDOIAbstractRevistaISSNAccesoPáginasVolumenIndexKeywordsAfiliaciones
Vertically distinct sources modulate stable isotope signatures and distribution of Mesozooplankton in central Patagonia: The Golfo de Penas - Baker Channel connection and analogies with the Beagle ChannelCastro L.R.; Soto-Mendoza S.; Riccialdelli L.; Presta M.L.; Barrientos P.; González H.E.; Daneri G.; Gutiérrez M.; Montero P.; Masotti I.; Díez B.Zonas Costeras202410.1016/j.jmarsys.2023.103892Using hydrographic and zooplankton sampling along with stable isotope analyses, we determined the influence of freshwater input and of oceanic water ingress at the Golfo de Penas to the Baker Channel (47°S), central Patagonia, on the zooplankton community during mid-spring. Our results show that different taxonomic and functional groups occurred within the mesozooplankton community along an offshore-inshore-oriented transect. Some groups occurred mostly offshore (i.e. euphausiids, fish larvae, stomatopods, amphipods), while others occurred in higher abundance inshore (i.e. medusae, chaetognaths, siphonophores, ostracods). Early life stages of ecologically key species, such as Euphausia vallentini and pelagic stages of Munida gregaria, occurred mostly at the Golfo de Penas. Higher trophic positions estimated from δ15N occurred in mesozooplankton groups inshore (Baker Channel) and lower at the Golfo de Penas, coinciding with the decrease in C:N ratio in zooplankton and with an increase in chlorophyll-a values in the seawater seawards. The δ13C distribution in the zooplankton groups along the offshore-inshore transect showed a positive gradient from the inshore most stations towards the Baker Channel mouth, suggesting a negative relationship with freshwater carrying terrestrial organic carbon and a positive relationship with seawater. However, from the channel mouth seawards, a decrease in δ13C in most zooplankton groups occurred. Within the Baker Channel, low δ13C values occurred in particulate organic matter (POM) at the surface layer, higher values at intermediate depths, and low values at the deepest zones. This uneven distribution of δ13C values in POM and zooplankton, along with the presence of different water masses at different depths suggest an along-basin transport of organic carbon of different sources at different layers: of terrestrial origin at surface, marine origin at mid depth, and from degraded organic matter from offshore entering at higher depths. Thus, a complex scenario of lateral transport of water of different characteristics modulates the presence of zooplankton in different locations and their food sources along the area. These findings resemble others observed in further south in the Beagle Channel (57°S) also in spring but the relative contribution of different carbon sources may differ between Patagonian systems. © 2023 Elsevier B.V.Journal of Marine Systems09247963https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2023.103892art103892241Thomson Reuters SCIEbaker channel; beagle channel; fjords; golfo de penas; munida; patagonia; stable isotopes; zooplankton, aisen; baker channel; beagle channel; chile; patagonia; biogeochemistry; isotopes; oceanography; offshore oil well production; plankton; seawater; baker channel; beagle channels; fjord; golfo de penas; mesozooplankton; munidum; offshores; patagonia; stable isotopes; zooplankton; chlorophyll a; freshwater input; organic carbon; particulate organic matter; population distribution; stable isotope; zooplankton; organic carbonDepartamento de Oceanografía, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, 4030000, Chile; Centro de Investigación Oceanográfica COPAS COASTAL, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Centro Austral de Investigaciones Científicas (CADIC-CONICET), Ushuaia, Argentina; Centro FONDAP de Investigación en Dinámica de Ecosistemas Marinos de Altas Latitudes (IDEAL), Valdivia-Punta Arenas, Chile; Instituto de Ciencias Marinas y Limnológicas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Centro de Investigación en Ecosistemas de la Patagonia (CIEP) and COPAS COASTAL Center, Concepción, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Biological Sciences Faculty, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Valparaíso, Viña del Mar, Chile; Millennium Institute Center for Genome Regulation (CGR), Chile
Protecting environmental flows to achieve long-term water securityAlvarez-Garreton C.; Boisier J.P.; Billi M.; Lefort I.; Marinao R.; Barría P.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Agua y Extremos202310.1016/j.jenvman.2022.116914In this work, we propose a new approach to diagnose if a water allocation scheme is compatible with long-term water security at the catchment scale, and suggest steps to achieve such compatibility. We argue that when the remaining flow of a river after upstream withdrawals is not sufficient to safeguarding ecological river functions, the basin is at extreme risk of water scarcity, which indicates that the water management is failing. To test this, we analysed the water scarcity risks and the safeguarded environmental flows (e-flows) in 277 basins across a wide range of hydro-climatic conditions in Chile (17–55°S). For each basin, water scarcity risks were assessed based on water stress indices (WSIs, computed as the ratio of withdrawals to water availability), considering two water-use scenarios: (i) WSImax, where total withdrawals correspond to the maximum consumptive water allowed by the law, i.e., where only the e-flows protected by law remain in the river, and (ii) WSIalloc, where total withdrawals correspond to the actual allocated consumptive water uses within the basins. Further, we evaluated the adequacy of the water management system to protect ecological river functions by contrasting the e-flows protected in Chile with those safeguarded in six other countries. The water allocation system in Chile incorporated the protection of minimum e-flows in 2005 and established that these do not exceed 20% of the mean annual streamflow, except in some exceptional cases. This upper limit is consistently lower than the e-flows safeguarded in other countries, where 20%–80% of the mean annual streamflow are protected. This turns out in WSImax values between 80% and 100% in all basins, well above the threshold associated with over-committed basins under extreme risk of water scarcity (70% typically). When moving from the legally allowed to the actually allocated water use scenario, we found contrasting results: about 70% of the basins show low water scarcity risk (WSIalloc <40%), while an 18% have WSIalloc above 100%, indicating the allocation is going beyond current law limits and even beyond physical limits. Our results reveal that the link between e-flows, water allocation and water security has not been adequately incorporated in the current law. E-flows stipulated by law are insufficient to fulfil environmental requirements, while placing the basins under extreme risk of water scarcity if the total allowed withdrawals were exerted. To move towards a system that can effectively achieve long-term water security, we recommend: (i) To define tolerable water scarcity risks for basins, considering environmental requirements. (ii) To translate those risks into measurable basin indices to measure water security, such as the WSI. (iii) To set maximum water use limits (or minimum e-flows) within the basins that are compatible to the water security goals. If, under current and projected water availability conditions, the existing withdrawals exceed these limits, water managers should be able to adapt total consumption to the required limits. © 2022 The AuthorsJournal of Environmental Management03014797https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0301479722024872art116914328Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; forecasting; rivers; water supply; chile; river water; water; catchment; climate change; resource allocation; streamflow; water availability; water management; water stress; water use; article; catchment area (hydrology); chile; climate change; environmental protection; risk assessment; river ecosystem; water availability; water flow; water insecurity; water management; water quality; water stress; water supply; forecasting; river; water supply, climate change; environmental flows; water allocation; water management; water securityCenter for Climate and Resilience Research CR2, FONDAP 15110009, Santiago, Chile; Department of Geophysics, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Rural Management and Innovation, Faculty of Agronomical Sciences, University of Chile, Chile; Núcleo de Estudios Sistémicos Transdisciplinarios (NEST.R3), Santiago, Chile; Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile
Traditional crops and climate change adaptation: insights from the Andean agricultural sectorArias Montevechio E.; Crispin Cunya M.; Fernández Jorquera F.; Rendon E.; Vásquez-Lavin F.; Stehr A.; Ponce Oliva R.D.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202310.1080/17565529.2022.2151307The growth of traditional crops could be a primary resource for adapting to climate change and strengthening agrosystems’ resilience. However, these crops tend to be replaced by non-traditional crops with higher productivity, higher market values, and higher short-term income. In this context, smallholders face trade-offs between maximizing short-term income and ensuring resilience to face likely future climate adversities. The economic assessment of such trade-offs has been commonly neglected in the literature. Most studies are conducted using agronomic or anthropological frameworks to recognize the value of traditional agriculture to increase adaptive capacity and reduce vulnerability. This study fills this gap by assessing economic and agronomic trade-offs between traditional and non-traditional crops triggered by climate-induced changes in water availability. We also simulate the effectiveness of a water policy. Our results suggest that farmers growing traditional crops may get lower profits, but their portfolio is more resilient to climate change, whereas the water policy proves to be an effective adaptation strategy to climate change. However, the policy implementation could hinder the development of traditional crops. Based on our results, we suggest implementing smart agricultural policies to balance economic, cultural, and adaptation goals. © 2023 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.Climate and Development17565529https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17565529.2022.21513071-15Thomson Reuters SSCIclimate change adaptation; hydro-economic modeling; trade-offs; traditional agriculture; traditional crops, nanFacultad de Ciencias Económicas y Administrativas, Universidad Católica de la Ssma. Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Escuela de Postgrado, Programa Doctorado de Economía de los Recursos Naturales y Desarrollo Sustentable, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Peru; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru; School of Agronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, CR2, Santiago, Chile; Facultad de Economía y Planificación, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Peru; School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo, Concepcion, Chile; Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Water Research Center for Agriculture and Mining, Concepcion, Chile
Forest hydrology in Chile: Past, present, and futureBalocchi F.; Galleguillos M.; Rivera D.; Stehr A.; Arumi J.L.; Pizarro R.; Garcia-Chevesich P.; Iroumé A.; Armesto J.J.; Hervé-Fernández P.; Oyarzún C.; Barría P.; Little C.; Mancilla G.; Yépez S.; Rodriguez R.; White D.A.; Silberstein R.P.; Neary D.G.; Ramírez de Arellano P.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202310.1016/j.jhydrol.2022.128681This paper reviews the current knowledge of hydrological processes in Chilean temperate forests which extend along western South America from latitude 29° S to 56° S. This geographic region includes a diverse range of natural and planted forests and a broad sweep of vegetation, edaphic, topographic, geologic, and climatic settings which create a unique natural laboratory. Many local communities, endangered freshwater ecosystems, and downstream economic activities in Chile rely on water flows from forested catchments. This review aims to (i) provide a comprehensive overview of Chilean forest hydrology, to (ii) review prior research in forest hydrology in Chile, and to (iii) identify knowledge gaps and provide a vision for future research on forest hydrology in Chile. We reviewed the relation between native forests, commercial plantations, and other land uses on water yield and water quality from the plot to the catchment scale. Much of the global understanding of forests and their relationship with the water cycle is in line with the findings of the studies reviewed here. Streamflow from forested catchments increases after timber harvesting, native forests appear to use less water than plantations, and streams draining native forest yield less sediment than streams draining plantations or grassland/shrublands. We identified 20 key knowledge gaps such as forest groundwater systems, soil–plant-atmosphere interactions, native forest hydrology, and the effect of forest management and restoration on hydrology. Also, we found a paucity of research in the northern geographic areas and forest types (35-36°S); most forest hydrology studies in Chile (56%) have been conducted in the southern area (Los Rios Region around 39-40° S). There is limited knowledge of the geology and soils in many forested areas and how surface and groundwater are affected by changes in land cover. There is an opportunity to advance our understanding using process-based investigations linking field studies and modeling. Through the establishment of a forest hydrology science “society” to coordinate efforts, regional and national-scale land use planning might be supported. Our review ends with a vision to advance a cross-scale collaborative effort to use new nation-wide catchment-scale networks Long-term Ecosystem Research (LTER) sites, to promote common and complementary techniques in these studies, and to conduct transdisciplinary research to advance sound and integrated planning of forest lands in Chile. © 2022 The Author(s)Journal of Hydrology00221694https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022169422012513art128681616Thomson Reuters SCIEchilean native forests; exotic plantations; land use planning; sediment yield; water yield, chile; los rios [ecuador]; south america; catchments; conservation; economics; ecosystems; groundwater; logging (forestry); rivers; runoff; stream flow; water quality; catchment scale; chilean native forest; exotic plantation; forest hydrologies; forested catchments; knowledge gaps; land use planning; native forests; sediment yields; water yield; catchment; forest management; groundwater; land use planning; sediment yield; water quality; water yield; land useBioforest SA, camino a Coronel s/n, km 15, Coronel, Chile; Water resources and energy for agriculture PhD program, Water Resources Department, Universidad de Concepción, Chillán, Chile; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibañez, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Sustentabilidad y Gestión Estratégica de Recursos (CiSGER), Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad del Desarrollo, Las Condes, Chile; Water Research Center for Agriculture and Mining, (ANID/FONDAP/15130015). Victoria 1295, Concepción, 4070411, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Departamento de Recursos Hídricos, Facultad de Ingeniería Agrícola, Universidad de Concepción Chillan, Chillan, Chile; Cátedra Unesco en Hidrología de Superficie, U. de Talca, Chile. Avda. Lircay s/n, Talca, Chile; Centro Nacional de Excelencia para la Industria de la Madera (CENAMAD), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago de Chile, Chile; Colorado School of Mines, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, 80401, CO, United States; Universidad Austral de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia, Chile; Departamento de Ecología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Alameda, 340, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), Santiago, Chile...
Temporal and Spatial Trends of Adverse Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes in a Sample of Births from a Public Hospital in ChileBlanco E.; Ruiz-Rudolph P.; Yohannessen K.; Ayala S.; Quinteros M.E.; Delgado-Saborit J.M.; Blazquez C.A.; Iglesias V.; Zapata D.A.; Bartington S.E.; Harrison R.M.; Ossa X.Ciudades Resilientes202310.1007/s11524-023-00733-yUnderstanding temporal and spatial trends in pregnancy and birth outcomes within an urban area is important for the monitoring of health indicators of a population. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all births in the public hospital of Temuco, a medium-sized city in Southern Chile between 2009 and 2016 (n = 17,237). Information on adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, as well as spatial and maternal characteristics (insurance type, employment, smoking, age, and overweight/obesity), was collected from medical charts. Home addresses were geocoded and assigned to neighborhood. We tested whether births and prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes changed over time, whether birth events were spatially clustered (Moran’s I statistic), and whether neighborhood deprivation was correlated to outcomes (Spearman’s rho). We observed decreases in eclampsia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and small for gestational age, while gestational diabetes, preterm birth, and low birth weight increased over the study period (all p < 0.01 for trend), with little changes after adjusting for maternal characteristics. We observed neighborhood clusters for birth rate, preterm birth, and low birth weight. Neighborhood deprivation was negatively correlated with low birth weight and preterm birth, but not correlated with eclampsia, preeclampsia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, small for gestational age, gestational diabetes, nor stillbirth. Several encouraging downward trends and some increases in adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, which, overall, were not explained by changes in maternal characteristics were observed. Identified clusters of higher adverse birth outcomes may be used to evaluate preventive health coverage in this setting. © 2023, The New York Academy of Medicine.Journal of Urban Health10993460https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-023-00733-y513-524100Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; diabetes, gestational; eclampsia; female; hospitals, birth outcomes; chile; pregnancy complication; spatial analysis; temporal trends, newborn; pregnancy; pregnancy outcome; premature birth; retrospective studies; chile; eclampsia; female; gestational diabetes; human; maternal hypertension; newborn; pregnancy; pregnancy outcome; prematurity; public hospital; retrospective study, public; humans; hypertension, pregnancy-induced; infantCentro de Investigación en Sociedad y Salud y Núcleo Milenio de Sociomedicina, Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile; Programa de Epidemiología, Instituto de Salud Poblacional, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Independencia 939, Independencia, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Ciencias de La Salud, Universidad de Talca, Avenida Lircay S/N, Talca, Chile; PhD Program in Public Health, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Independencia 939, Independencia, Santiago, Chile; Perinatal Epidemiology, Environmental Health and Clinical Research, School of Medicine, Universitat Jaume I, Avinguda de Vicent Sos Baynat, S/N, Castellón, Castellón de La Plana, 12071, Spain; Environmental Research Group, MRC Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Michael Uren Biomedical Engineering Hub, White City Campus, Wood Lane, London, W12 0BZ, United Kingdom; School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom; Department of Engineering Sciences, Universidad Andres Bello, Quillota 980, Viña del Mar, Chile; Programa de Epidemiología, Escuela de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Independencia 939, Independencia, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Applied Health Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom; Departmen...
A comparison of mixed logit and latent class models to estimate market segments for seafood faced with ocean acidificationCampos-Requena N.; Vásquez-Lavin F.; Fernández F.; Barrientos M.; Gelcich S.; Oliva R.D.P.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202310.1080/13657305.2022.2100005This study uses a choice experiment to characterize market segments (consumer preferences heterogeneity) based on three attributes of seafood (mussels) that are affected by ocean acidification: shell appearance, meat color, and nutritional composition. Using a sample of 1,257 individuals from two main cities in Chile, we estimate both the Mixed Logit model and the Latent Class model. We use the individual-specific posterior (ISP) parameters’ distribution to categorize consumers’ heterogeneity based on the signs and intensity (i.e., like or dislike dimension) of these ISPs. We compare the pattern of preferences and whether people are classified within the same preference pattern in both models. In general, we observed that the models identify a different number of segments with various patterns of preferences. Moreover, the models classify the same people into different groups. Since the segmentation is sensitive to the chosen model, we discuss strengths, inconsistencies, biases, and best practices regarding methodological approaches to establishing market segments in choice experiments and future ocean acidification conditions. © 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.Aquaculture Economics and Management13657305https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13657305.2022.2100005282-31427Thomson Reuters SCIEchoice experiment; individual-specific posterior distribution; market segmentation; ocean acidification; seafood products, chile; aquaculture production; best management practice; bivalve; comparative study; consumption behavior; environmental disturbance; estimation method; food quality; future prospect; heterogeneity; mussel culture; ocean acidification; pollution effect; pollution exposure; seafoodFacultad de Ciencias Económicas y Administrativas, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile; School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo, Concepcion, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Santiago, Chile; Instituto Milenio en Socio-ecología Costera (SECOS), Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, CR2, Santiago, Chile; School of Agronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile; Durham University Business School, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom
Main drivers of marine heat waves in the eastern South PacificCarrasco D.; Pizarro O.; Jacques-Coper M.; Narváez D.A.Zonas Costeras202310.3389/fmars.2023.1129276During the last decades, marine heat waves (MHWs) have increased in frequency and duration, with important impacts on marine ecosystems. This trend has been related to rising global sea surface temperatures, which are expected to continue in the future. Here, we analyze the main characteristics and possible drivers of MHWs in the eastern South Pacific off Chile. Our results show that MHWs usually exhibit spatial extensions on the order of 103-104 km2, temperature anomalies in the mixing layer between 1 and 1.3°C, and durations of 10 to 40 days, with exceptional events lasting several months. In this region, MHW are closely related to the ENSO cycles, in such a way that El Niño and, to a lesser extent, La Niña events increase the probability of high intensity and extreme duration MHWs. To analyze the MHW drivers, we use the global ocean reanalysis GLORYS2 to perform a heat budget in the surface mixed layer. We find that most events are dominated by diminished heat loss –associated with reduced evaporation– and enhanced insolation; thus, this group is called ASHF (for air-sea heat fluxes). The second type of MHWs is driven by heat advection, predominantly forced by anomalous eastward surface currents superimposed on a mean westward temperature gradient. The third type of MHWs results from a combination of positive (seaward) anomalies of air-sea heat fluxes and heat advection; this group exhibits the greatest values of spatial extension, intensity, and duration. Copyright © 2023 Carrasco, Pizarro, Jacques-Coper and Narváez.Frontiers in Marine Science22967745https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1129276art112927610Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, air-sea heat fluxes; el niño; heat advection; marine heatwaves; mixed-layer heat budget; ocean extreme events; southeastern pacificGraduate Program in Oceanography, University of Concepcion, Concepcion, Chile; Millennium Institute of Oceanography, Concepcion, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Concepción, Concepcion, Chile; Center for Climate Change and Resilience Research (CR)2, University of Concepcion, Concepción, Chile; Center for Oceanographic Research Centro de Investigación Oceanográfica en el Pacífico Sur-Oriental (COPAS) Coastal, University of Concepcion, Concepcion, Chile; Department of Oceanography, Faculty of Natural and Oceanographic Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion, Chile
Coastal territorialities and ontologies in friction: a review of multiple coastal settlements in the context of climate changeCarrasco Henríquez N.; Vergara-Pinto F.Zonas Costeras202310.1007/s11852-023-00947-xCo-existence among multiple coastal settlements (MCS) following diverse ecological, economic, and cultural traditions drives to examine the territorial and ontological dimensions underlying the development of heterogeneous worldviews within common coastal geographies. In the case of the coastal zone in Chile, cultural diversity is evident as a historical field of dispute, which in the current context of adaptation to climate change may be reproducing or moving to other new trajectories. Using a literature review specifically on the case of the Arauco province in Chile, this article aims to identify a typology of multiple territorialities and ontologies interacting and being sustained by common coastal environments, although embedded in frictions and both structural and historical inequalities. Through thematic analysis framed in poststructuralist political ecology, this review identified three categories of territorialities that develop in the study area (i.e. colonial, intercultural, and interstitial). Each one leads to recognising the power dynamics that underlie the interactions of practices and discourses on the territory, the sea, and the conservation of nature. Results show that the historical predominance of modern ontology has produced permissible ways of being and moving through this geography. In contrast, resistance has been generated by other ways of living based on relational, traditional, and contemporaneous ontologies with discourses aimed at socio-ecological equilibrium. The current challenge is understanding these ontological frictions and interstices wherein multiple territorialities configured in a common coastal geography can co-exist and co-participate in climate change governance. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.Journal of Coastal Conservation14000350https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-023-00947-xart1727Thomson Reuters SCIEarauco province; climate change; extractivism; inequalities; territorial heterogeneity, arauco; bio bio; chile; adaptive management; climate change; coastal zone; human settlement; territorialityDepartamento de Historia, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Humanitarian and Conflict Response Institute, University of Manchester, Oxford Road M13 9PL, Manchester, United Kingdom
A firebreak placement model for optimizing biodiversity protection at landscape scaleCarrasco J.; Mahaluf R.; Lisón F.; Pais C.; Miranda A.; de la Barra F.; Palacios D.; Weintraub A.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202310.1016/j.jenvman.2023.118087A solution approach is proposed to optimize the selection of landscape cells for inclusion in firebreaks. It involves linking spatially explicit information on a landscape's ecological values, historical ignition patterns and fire spread behavior. A firebreak placement optimization model is formulated that captures the tradeoff between the direct loss of biodiversity due to the elimination of vegetation in areas designated for placement of firebreaks and the protection provided by the firebreaks from losses due to future forest fires. The optimal solution generated by the model reduced expected losses from wildfires on a biodiversity combined index due to wildfires by 30% relative to a landscape without any treatment. It also reduced expected losses by 16% compared to a randomly chosen solution. These results suggest that biodiversity loss resulting from the removal of vegetation in areas where firebreaks are placed can be offset by the reduction in biodiversity loss due to the firebreaks’ protective function. © 2023 Elsevier LtdJournal of Environmental Management03014797https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2023.118087art118087342Thomson Reuters SCIEbiodiversity; conservation; deforestation; ecology; fire hazards; fires; vegetation; biodiversity loss; decision making at landscape-scale; decisions makings; expected loss; fire ecology; fire effect; fire risks; landscape scale; mitigation of fire effect; placement model; biodiversity; decision making; fire behavior; forest cover; forest fire; landscape protection; mitigation; reduction; article; biodiversity; decision making; drug combination; fire ecology; forest fire; landscape; mitigation; vegetation; wildfire; decision making, conservation; decision making at landscape-scale; fire ecology; fire risk; mitigation of fire effectsUniversity of Chile, Industrial Engineering Department, Santiago, Chile; Complex Engineering System Institute - ISCI, Santiago, Chile; Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Lab, Departamento de Zoología, Fac. Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Laboratorio de Ecología del Paisaje y Conservación, Departamento de Ciencias Forestales y Medioambiente, Fac. Ciencias Agropecuarias y Forestales, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile; University of California Berkeley, IEOR Department, Berkeley, United States; University of Chile, ), Santiago, Chile
Climatic control of the surface mass balance of the Patagonian IcefieldsCarrasco-Escaff T.; Rojas M.; Garreaud R.D.; Bozkurt D.; Schaefer M.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Agua y Extremos202310.5194/tc-17-1127-2023The Patagonian Icefields (Northern and Southern Patagonian Icefield) are the largest ice masses in the Andes Cordillera. Despite its importance, little is known about the main mechanisms that underpin the interaction between these ice masses and climate. Furthermore, the nature of large-scale climatic control over the surface mass variations of the Patagonian Icefields still remains unclear. The main aim of this study is to understand the present-day climatic control of the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Patagonian Icefields at interannual timescales, especially considering large-scale processes. We modeled the present-day (1980-2015) glacioclimatic surface conditions for the southern Andes Cordillera by statistically downscaling the output from a regional climate model (RegCMv4) from a 10km spatial resolution to a 450m resolution grid and then using the downscaled fields as input for a simplified SMB model. Series of spatially averaged modeled fields over the Patagonian Icefields were used to derive regression and correlation maps against fields of climate variables from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. Years of relatively high SMB are associated with the establishment of an anomalous low-pressure center near the Drake Passage, the Drake low, that induces an anomalous cyclonic circulation accompanied with enhanced westerlies impinging on the Patagonian Icefields, which in turn leads to increases in the precipitation and the accumulation over the icefields. Also, the Drake low is thermodynamically maintained by a core of cold air that tends to reduce the ablation. Years of relatively low SMB are associated with the opposite conditions. We found low dependence of the SMB on main atmospheric modes of variability (El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Southern Annular Mode), revealing a poor ability of the associated indices to reproduce the interannual variability of the SMB. Instead, this study highlights the Drake Passage as a key region that has the potential to influence the SMB variability of the Patagonian Icefields. © 2023 The Author(s).Cryosphere19940416https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-17-1127-20231127-114917Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, aisen; andes; chile; drake passage; northern patagonian ice field; southern patagonian ice field; annual variation; climate modeling; el nino-southern oscillation; ice field; mass balance; precipitation (climatology)Department of Geophysics, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Meteorology, University of Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile
Seasonal and Spatially Distributed Viral Metagenomes from Comau Fjord (42°S), PatagoniaCastro-Nallar E.; Berríos-Farías V.; Díez B.; Guajardo-Leiva S.Zonas Costeras202310.1128/mra.00082-23Viruses are key players in marine environments, affecting food webs and biogeochemical cycles. We present 48 viral metagenomes and 5,656 viral operational taxonomic units (vOTUs) from Comau Fjord, Patagonia (42°S), to understand viral-mediated processes in coastal and estuarine waters. These data represent a spatial (35-km transect, two depths) and seasonal (winter and fall) data set. Copyright © 2023 Castro-Nallar et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.Microbiology Resource Announcements2576098Xhttps://doi.org/10.1128/mra.00082-2312Thomson Reuters ESCInan, brackish water; contig; nylon; polycarbonate; polyethersulfone; sea water; aquaculture; article; biogeochemical cycle; cluster analysis; ecosystem service; estuary; flocculation; hierarchical clustering; marine environment; metagenome; nonhuman; operational taxonomic unit; phylogenetic tree; prokaryote; season; seasonal variation; viral diversityDepartamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile; Centro de Ecología Integrativa, Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Millennium Institute Center for Genome Regulation (CGR), Santiago, Chile
Andean peatlands at risk? Spatiotemporal patterns of extreme NDVI anomalies, water extraction and drought severity in a large-scale mining area of Atacama, northern ChileChávez R.O.; Meseguer-Ruiz O.; Olea M.; Calderón-Seguel M.; Yager K.; Isela Meneses R.; Lastra J.A.; Núñez-Hidalgo I.; Sarricolea P.; Serrano-Notivoli R.; Prieto M.Ciudades Resilientes202310.1016/j.jag.2022.103138In the Andes, multiple human and climatic factors threaten the conservation of bofedales, a type of high altitude peat forming wetland widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical Andes. In northern Chile, climate change and water extraction for industrial activities are among the most significant threats to these relevant socio-hydrological systems hosting indigenous pastoral communities. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) anomalies, drought severity and water rights granted to industry to provide insight on the conservation status of bofedales, historical drivers of their transformation, and current threats. Using Landsat satellite imagery from 1986 to 2018, we identify spatio-temporal NDVI changes of 442 bofedales in one of the leading copper producing regions of the world. The NDVI time series analysis over 32 growing seasons was used to detect extreme anomalies, i.e. values outside the 95 % of the reference frequency distribution, indicating periods of extreme changes in the productivity of these high Andes wetlands. To evaluate the relationship between bofedales NDVI extreme periods to drought and continued water extraction activities, we combine a climate-based multi-temporal-scale drought index (SPEI) with the geospatial latitudinal distribution of water rights granted for extractive industries in the study area. Over the time period of analysis, the total amount of granted water rights increased 465 % from 1,201 l/s recorded before 1985 to 5,584 l/s in 2018. In the areas where the highest amount of water rights are concentrated, i.e. between 21.3°S and 22.1°S, “green” bofedales (NDVI>=0.23) are practically absent. NDVI of the austral summer (JFM) was highly correlated with the severity of drought occurring during the three months of the growing season peak. While our findings show bofedal productivity is mostly influenced by precipitation and temperature of the wet season (JFM) during the study period, results also raise questions regarding possible bofedal loss occurring over the previous 80 years prior to the satellite record, wherein water extraction activities have significantly increased according to official records. © 2022International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation15698432https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1569843222003260art103138116Thomson Reuters SCIEandes; atacama; atacama desert; chile; conservation status; drought; growing season; land degradation; landsat; mining; ndvi; peatland; risk assessment; satellite imagery; spatiotemporal analysis; time series analysis; water resource; wetland, atacama desert; bofedal; npphen; productivity; speiMillenium Nucleus in Andean Peatlands (AndesPeat), Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), Chile; Laboratorio de Geo-Información y Percepción Remota, Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, 2362807, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Históricas y Geográficas, Universidad de Tarapacá, Luis Emilio Recabarren 2477, Iquique, 1101783, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Sociales, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas, Universidad de Tarapacá, Iquique 1101319, Baquedano, 1325, Chile; School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Endeavour 145, Stony Brook, 11790, NY, United States; Instituto de Arqueología y Antropología, Universidad Católica del Norte, Le Paige 380, San Pedro de Atacama, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins 340, Región Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Estudios en Ecología Espacial y Medio Ambiente - Ecogeografía, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad de Chile, Portugal 84, Santiago, Santiago, 8331051, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Francisco Tomás y Valiente 1, Madrid, 28049, Spain; Departamento de Ciencias Históricas y Geográficas, Universidad de Tarapacá, 18 de septiembre, 2222, Arica, 1010069, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Assessment of the RegCM4-CORDEX-CORE performance in simulating cyclones affecting the western coast of South AmericaCrespo N.M.; Reboita M.S.; Gozzo L.F.; de Jesus E.M.; Torres-Alavez J.A.; Lagos-Zúñiga M.Á.; Torrez-Rodriguez L.; Reale M.; da Rocha R.P.Zonas Costeras202310.1007/s00382-022-06419-6In this study, we assess the performance of the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) in simulating the climatology of the cyclones near the west coast of South America. The synoptic evolution and seasonality of these systems are thoroughly investigated. The analyses are based on four simulations from the CORDEX-CORE Southern America (SA) domain, at 0.25° of horizontal resolution: one driven by ERA-Interim and three driven by different GCMs. The reference dataset is represented by ERA5. Cyclones were detected by an objective scheme in the period 1995–2005 and classified in three different classes: (i) Coastal Lows (CLs) and cyclones affecting the coast (CAC) (ii) crossing and (iii) not crossing the Andes. In general, RegCM4 is able to reproduce the climatology of cyclones affecting the western coast of SA. In particular: (i) CLs are shown to be more frequent in austral summer although their frequency is underestimated by the simulations in this season; (ii) CAC not crossing the Andes represent 76% of all CAC and are more frequent in winter, with simulation underestimating their frequency by ~ 22% due to the differences in the simulated upper-level jets, which tend to get weaker (by ~ 5–10 m s− 1) northwards of 30°S; (iii) the frequency of CAC crossing the Andes tends to be overestimated mainly in winter, which is associated with the combination of the stronger upper-level jets and weaker SLP in the simulations, especially southwards of 40°S. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.Climate Dynamics09307575https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-022-06419-62041-205960Thomson Reuters SCIEsouth america; anticyclone; assessment method; climate modeling; coastal zone; jet; regional climate; seasonal variation, climatology; coastal lows; cyclones; regional climate modeling; western south americaInstituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, São Paulo, Brazil; Instituto de Recursos Naturais, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, MG, Itajubá, Brazil; Departamento de Física e Meteorologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, SP, Bauru, Brazil; Earth System Physics, The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy; Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Advanced Mining Technology Center, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Civil Engineering Department, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Universidad de La Serena, La Serena, Chile; National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics-OGS, Trieste, Italy
The intensification of coastal hypoxia off central Chile: Long term and high frequency variabilityDe La Maza L.; Farías L.Zonas Costeras202310.3389/feart.2022.929271Hypoxia is a phenomenon where dissolved oxygen (DO) is reduced to levels that are low enough to strongly affect ecological and biogeochemical processes. This occurs within the continental shelf off central Chile (36°S), influenced by seasonal coastal upwelling (Spring-Summer). Monthly measurements of DO and other oceanographic variables in the water column (1997−2021) over the 92 m isobath along with high-resolution and near-surface observations (POSAR buoy), are analyzed to examine incidences of hypoxia and understand the physical and biogeochemical processes modulating DO vertical distribution and its temporal variability. On average, the percentage of the water column with DO levels below 89 (hypoxia) and 22 (severe hypoxia) μmol L−1 reaches 68% (i.e., hypoxic waters are found below 30 m) and 44% (below 50 m depth), respectively, but during the upwelling season, as much as 87% (below 12 m depth) and 81% (below 17 m depth) of the water column exhibits these levels. On the sub-seasonal scale during upwelling season six hypoxic events lasting at least 2 days occur at 10 m depth. There is a strong seasonal correlation between the volume of the seawater presenting hypoxia and upwelling favorable winds. Furthermore, there is a high DO interannual variability partially related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Over 2 decades, it is estimated that DO concentration in surface and subsurface layers decreases (up to 21 μmol L−1 decade−1) as waters get colder (up to 0.29°C decade−1). Remarkably, the volume of hypoxic and severe hypoxic waters over the shelf has increased more than 2 times since 1997 and shows a significant positive correlation with the upwelling index. These preliminary findings indicate that the increase in local DO consumption is partially associated with upwelling intensification. Given the clear evidence of wind intensification in coastal upwelling ecosystems and thus the increase in hypoxic events, the coastal zone may be highly vulnerable to hypoxia, impacting biological resources and biogeochemical cycles. Copyright © 2023 De La Maza and Farías.Frontiers in Earth Science22966463https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feart.2022.929271/fullart92927110Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; annual variation; coastal zone; continental shelf; decadal variation; dissolved oxygen; hypoxia; seasonal variation; temporal variation; time series; upwelling; vertical distribution; water column, central chile; coastal upwelling; decadal trend; intra-seasonal; marine hypoxia; seasonal and inter-annual variability; time seriesCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR), Santiago, Chile; Instituto Milenio de Socio-Ecología Costera (SECOS), Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Millennium Nucleus Understanding Past Coastal Upwelling Systems and Environmental Local and Lasting Impacts (UPWELL), ANID Millennium Science Initiative, Coquimbo, Chile
A machine learning approach to address air quality changes during the COVID-19 lockdown in Buenos Aires, ArgentinaDiaz Resquin M.; Lichtig P.; Alessandrello D.; De Oto M.; Gómez D.; Rössler C.; Castesana P.; Dawidowski L.Ciudades Resilientes202310.5194/essd-15-189-2023Having a prediction model for air quality at a low computational cost can be useful for research, forecasting, regulatory, and monitoring applications. This is of particular importance for Latin America, where rapid urbanization has imposed increasing stress on the air quality of almost all cities. In recent years, machine learning techniques have been increasingly accepted as a useful tool for air quality forecasting. Out of these, random forest has proven to be an approach that is both well-performing and computationally efficient while still providing key components reflecting the nonlinear relationships among emissions, chemical reactions, and meteorological effects. In this work, we employed the random forest methodology to build and test a forecasting model for the city of Buenos Aires. We used this model to study the deep decline in most pollutants during the lockdown imposed by the COVID-19 (COronaVIrus Disease 2019) pandemic by analyzing the effects of the change in emissions, while taking into account the changes in the meteorology, using two different approaches. First, we built random forest models trained with the data from before the beginning of the lockdown periods. We used the data to make predictions of the business-as-usual scenario during the lockdown periods and estimated the changes in concentrations by comparing the model results with the observations. This allowed us to assess the combined effects of the particular weather conditions and the reduction in emissions during the period when restrictions were in place. Second, we used random forest with meteorological normalization to compare the observational data from the lockdown periods with the data from the same dates in 2019, thus decoupling the effects of the meteorology from short-term emission changes. This allowed us to analyze the general effect that restrictions similar to those imposed during the pandemic could have on pollutant concentrations, and this information could be useful to design mitigation strategies. The results during testing showed that the model captured the observed hourly variations and the diurnal cycles of these pollutants with a normalized mean bias of less than 6% and Pearson correlation coefficients of the diurnal variations between 0.64 and 0.91 for all the pollutants considered. Based on the random forest results, we estimated that the lockdown implied relative changes in concentration of up to -45% for CO, -75% for NO, -46% for NO2, -12% for SO2, and -33% for PM10 during the strictest mobility restrictions. O3 had a positive relative change in concentration (up to an 80%) that is consistent with the response in a volatile-organic-compound-limited chemical regime to the decline in NOx emissions. The relative changes estimated using the meteorological normalization technique show mostly smaller changes than those obtained by the random forest predictive model. The relative changes were up to -26% for CO, up to -47% for NO, -36% for NO2, -20% for PM10, and up to 27% for O3. SO2 is the only species that had a larger relative change when the meteorology was normalized (up to 20%). This points out the need for accounting not only for differences in emissions but also in meteorological variables in order to evaluate the lockdown effects on air quality. The findings of this study may be valuable for formulating emission control strategies that do not disregard their implication on secondary pollutants. We believe that the model itself can also be a valuable contribution to a forecasting system in the city and that the general methodology could also be easily applied to other Latin American cities as well. We also provide the first O3 and SO2 observational dataset in more that a decade for a residential area in Buenos Aires, and it is openly available at 10.17632/h9y4hb8sf8.1 . © 2023 Melisa Diaz Resquin et al.Earth System Science Data18663508https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-15-189-2023189-20915Thomson Reuters SCIEComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Gerencia Química, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Modeling and Observing Systems, Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Comisión de Ambiente, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Misión Ambiente, YPF Tecnología S. A. (Y-TEC), Buenos Aires, Argentina
The impact of local and climate change drivers on the formation, dynamics, and potential recurrence of a massive fish-killing microalgal bloom in Patagonian fjordDíaz P.A.; Pérez-Santos I.; Basti L.; Garreaud R.; Pinilla E.; Barrera F.; Tello A.; Schwerter C.; Arenas-Uribe S.; Soto-Riquelme C.; Navarro P.; Díaz M.; Álvarez G.; Linford P.M.; Altamirano R.; Mancilla-Gutiérrez G.; Rodríguez-Villegas C.; Figueroa R.I.Zonas Costeras; Agua y Extremos202310.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.161288Harmful algal blooms (HABs) in southern Chile are a serious threat to public health, tourism, artisanal fisheries, and aquaculture in this region. Ichthyotoxic HAB species have recently become a major annual threat to the Chilean salmon farming industry, due to their severe economic impacts. In early austral autumn 2021, an intense bloom of the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo was detected in Comau Fjord, Chilean Patagonia, resulting in a high mortality of farmed salmon (nearly 6000 tons of biomass) within 15 days. H. akashiwo cells were first detected at the head of the fjord on March 16, 2021 (up to 478 cells mL−1). On March 31, the cell density at the surface had reached a maximum of 2 × 105 cells mL−1, with intense brown spots visible on the water surface. Strong and persistent high-pressure anomalies over the southern tip of South America, consistent with the positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), resulted in extremely dry conditions, high solar radiation, and strong southerly winds. A coupling of these features with the high water retention times inside the fjord can explain the spatial-temporal dynamics of this bloom event. Other factors, such as the internal local physical uplift process (favored by the north-to-south orientation of the fjord), salt-fingering events, and the uplift of subantarctic deep-water renewal, likely resulted in the injection of nutrients into the euphotic layer, which in turn could have promoted cell growth and thus high microalgal cell densities, such as reached by the bloom. © 2022 Elsevier B.V.Science of the Total Environment00489697https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969722083929art161288865Thomson Reuters SCIEbiogeochemistry; brown tide; climate anomalies; nw chilean patagonia; salmon mortality; southern annular mode (sam); upwelling, animals; chile; climate change; estuaries; harmful algal bloom; microalgae; salmon; water; chile; comau fjord; los lagos; patagonia; climate change; farms; health risks; dissolved oxygen; water; brown tide; cell density; climate anomalies; harmful algal blooms; nw chilean patagonium; patagonia; salmon mortality; southern annular mode; upwelling; algal bloom; biogeochemistry; brown tide; climate change; fjord; microaggregate; mortality; salmonid fishery; spatiotemporal analysis; upwelling; water retention; algal bloom; article; autumn; biogeochemistry; biomass; brown spot; cell density; cell growth; chemical oxygen demand; chile; climate change; fish; heterosigma akashiwo; marine environment; medieval warm period; microbial community; mortality; nonhuman; particulate matter; phytoplankton; public health; river; salmonine; sea surface temperature; south america; water residence time; algal bloom; animal; climate change; estuary; microalga; cell proliferationCentro i~mar, Universidad de Los Lagos, Casilla 557, Puerto Montt, Chile; CeBiB, Universidad de Los Lagos, Casilla 557, Puerto Montt, Chile; Center for Oceanographic Research COPAS Sur-Austral and COPAS COASTAL, Universidad de Concepción, Chile; Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas de la Patagonia (CIEP), Coyhaique, Chile; Faculty of Marine Environment and Resources, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo, 108-8477, Japan; College of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, Department of Integrative Agriculture, United Arab Emirates University, Abu Dhabi, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates; Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Región Metropolitana, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR2), Universidad de Chile, Chile; Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP), Putemún, Castro, Chile; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maine, 5711 Boardman Hall, Orono, ME, United States; Salmones Camanchaca S.A., Puerto Montt, Chile; Instituto de Acuicultura & Programa de Investigación Pesquera, Universidad Austral de Chile, Los Pinos s/n, Puerto Montt, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Departamento de Acuicultura, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, 1281, Chile; Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Algas (CIDTA), Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo, Chile; Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo, Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO-CSIC), Vigo, ...
From lipophilic to hydrophilic toxin producers: Phytoplankton succession driven by an atmospheric river in western PatagoniaDíaz P.A.; Álvarez G.; Figueroa R.I.; Garreaud R.; Pérez-Santos I.; Schwerter C.; Díaz M.; López L.; Pinto-Torres M.; Krock B.Agua y Extremos202310.1016/j.marpolbul.2023.115214Phytoplankton succession is related to hydroclimatic conditions. In this study we provide the first description of a toxic phytoplankton succession in the Patagonian Fjord System. The shift was modulated by atmospheric-oceanographic forcing and consisted of the replacement of the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta in a highly stratified water column during austral summer by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha in a mixed water column during late summer and early autumn. This transition, accompanied by a change in the biotoxin profiles (from lipophilic dinophysis toxins to hydrophilic domoic acid), was induced by the arrival of an intense atmospheric river. The winds in Magdalena Sound may have been further amplified, due to its west-east orientation and its location within a tall, narrow mountain canyon. This work also documents the first known appearance of toxic P. calliantha in Northern Patagonian. The potential impacts of the biotoxins of this species on higher trophic levels are discussed. © 2023 Elsevier LtdMarine Pollution Bulletin0025326Xhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2023.115214art115214193Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, amnesic shellfish poisoning; domoic acid; hydro-climatic modulation; lipophilic toxins; patagonian fjord system; pseudo-nitzschia callianthaCentro i~mar, Universidad de Los Lagos, Casilla 557, Puerto Montt, Chile; CeBiB, Universidad de Los Lagos, Casilla 557, Puerto Montt, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Departamento de Acuicultura, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, 1281, Chile; Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Algas (CIDTA), Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo, Chile; Center for Ecology and Sustainable Management of Oceanic Islands (ESMOI), Departamento de Biología Marina, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile; Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo, Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO-CSIC), Vigo, Spain; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR2), Universidad de Chile, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Región Metropolitana, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Centro de Investigación Oceanográfica COPAS COASTAL, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas de la Patagonia (CIEP), Coyhaique, Chile; Instituto de Acuicultura, Programa de Investigación Pesquera, Universidad Austral de Chile, Los Pinos S/N, Puerto Montt, Chile; Centro de Estudios de Algas Nocivas (CREAN), Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP), Padre Harter 574, Puerto Montt, Chile; Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias de la Acuicultura, Universidad Austral de Chile, Los Pinos S/N, Puerto Montt, Chile; Centro FONDAP de Investigación de Ecosistemas de Altas Latitudes (IDEAL), Univer...
Chilean long-term Socio-Ecological Research Network: progresses and challenges towards improving stewardship of unique ecosystems: Red Chilena de Investigación Socio-Ecológica de Largo Plazo: Avances y desafíos para el manejo responsable de ecosistemas únicosFrêne C.; Armesto J.J.; Nespolo R.F.; Gaxiola A.; Navarrete S.A.; Troncoso A.; Muñoz A.; Corcuera L.J.Agua y Extremos202310.1186/s40693-023-00114-4Ecosystems provide a variety of benefits to human society and humanity’s utilization of ecosystems affects their composition, structure, and functions. Global change drivers demand us to study the interactions between ecological and social systems, and advise strategies to protect the large fraction of Chilean unique ecosystems. Long-term research and monitoring are vital for meaningful understanding of human impacts and socio-ecological feedback, which occur over multiple spatial and time-scales and can be invisible to traditional grant-sponsored short-term studies. Despite the large fraction of unique ecosystems, Chilean government agencies have not established long-term monitoring programs to inform and guide management decisions for use, conservation, and adaptation to climate change. Responding to this void, the Chilean Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research Network (LTSER-Chile) was created, comprising nine study sites funded by a variety of private and public institutions, that broadly seeks to understand how global change is altering biodiversity and ecosystem functions. The LTSER-Chile is currently in a phase of institutional consolidation to achieve its objectives of alignment with international efforts, fill the need for high-quality, long-term data on social, biological and physical components of Chilean ecosystems, and develop itself as an open research platform for the world. Despite the wide diversity of ecosystems ecncompased by LTSER-Chile sites, several common variables are monitored, especially climatic and hydrographic variables and many ecological indicator variables that consider temporal fluctuations, population and community dynamics. The main challenges currently facing the LTSER-Chile are to secure funding to maintain existing long-term monitoring programs, to persuade public and private decision-makers about its central role in informing and anticipating socio-ecological problems, and to achieve greater ecosystem representation by integrating new long-term study sites. This will require a more decisive political commitment of the State, to improve the stewardship of our unique terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and the realization that sound ecologically-sustainable policies will never be possible without a national monitoring network. We argue that the State should build on LTSER and several other private and university initiatives to provide the country with a monitoring network. In the absence of this commitment, the LTSER system is subject to discontinuity and frequent interruptions, which jeopardizes the long-term effort to understand the functioning of nature and its biodiversity. © 2023, The Author(s).Revista Chilena de Historia Natural0716078Xhttps://doi.org/10.1186/s40693-023-00114-4art196Thomson Reuters SCIElong-term studies; social systems; terrestrial and marine ecosystems, nanInstituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Millenium Nucleus of Patagonian Limit of Life (LiLi) and Millennium Institute for Integrative Biology (iBio), Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, P. Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Departamento de Ecología, Santiago, Chile; Estación Costera de Investigaciones Marinas, Las Cruces, Coastal Socieo-Ecological Millenium Istitute (SECOS), Millenium Nucleus for Ecology and Conservation of Temperate Mesophotic Reef Ecosystems (NUTME) and Centro Basal COPAS-COASTAL, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Biología, Universidad de La Serena, Coquimbo, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Fundación San Ignacio del Huinay, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Acción Climática, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia, Santiago, Chile; Fundación Parque Katalapi, Puerto Montt, Chile
Surviving in a hostile landscape: Nothofagus alessandrii remnant forests threatened by mega-fires and exotic pine invasion in the coastal range of central ChileGonzález M.E.; Galleguillos M.; Lopatin J.; Leal C.; Becerra-Rodas C.; Lara A.; San Martín J.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202310.1017/S0030605322000102Nothofagus alessandrii, categorized as Endangered on the IUCN Red List, is an endemic, deciduous tree species of the coastal range of central Chile. We assessed the effects of fire severity, invasion by the exotic fire-prone Pinus radiata, and land-cover composition and configuration of the landscape on the resilience of fragments of N. alessandrii after a mega-fire in 2017. We used remote sensing data to estimate land-use classes and cover, fire severity and invasion cover of P. radiata. We monitored forest composition and structure and post-fire responses of N. alessandrii forests in situ for 2 years after the mega-fire. In the coastal Maule region wildfires have been favoured by intense drought and widespread exotic pine plantations, increasing the ability of fire-adapted invasive species to colonize native forest remnants. Over 85% of N. alessandrii forests were moderately or severely burnt. The propagation and severity of fire was probably amplified by the exotic pines located along the edges of, or inside, the N. alessandrii fragments and the highly flammable pine plantations surrounding these fragments (> 60% of land use is pine plantations). Pinus radiata, a fire-adapted pioneer species, showed strong post-fire recruitment within the N. alessandrii fragments, especially those severely burnt. Positive feedback between climate change (i.e. droughts and heat waves), wildfires and pine invasions is driving N. alessandrii forests into an undesirable and probably irreversible state (i.e. a landscape trap). A large-scale restoration programme to design a diverse and less flammable landscape is needed to avoid the loss of these highly threatened forest ecosystems. Copyright © The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Fauna & Flora International.ORYX00306053https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0030605322000102/type/journal_article228-23857Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; endangered species; exotic invasion; nothofagus alessandrii; pinus radiata; wildfire, chile; biological invasion; coniferous forest; coniferous tree; deciduous tree; endangered species; forest ecosystem; landscape ecology; wildfireInst. de Conservacion Biodiversidad y Territorio Centro Del Fuego y Resiliencia de Socioecosistemas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567 Campus Isla Teja, Valdivia, Chile; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, Chile; Escuela de Graduados, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile
A First Insight into the Microbial and Viral Communities of Comau Fjord—A Unique Human-Impacted Ecosystem in Patagonia (42° S)Guajardo-Leiva S.; Mendez K.N.; Meneses C.; Díez B.; Castro-Nallar E.Zonas Costeras202310.3390/microorganisms11040904While progress has been made in surveying the oceans to understand microbial and viral communities, the coastal ocean and, specifically, estuarine waters, where the effects of anthropogenic activity are greatest, remain partially understudied. The coastal waters of Northern Patagonia are of interest since this region experiences high-density salmon farming as well as other disturbances such as maritime transport of humans and cargo. Here, we hypothesized that viral and microbial communities from the Comau Fjord would be distinct from those collected in global surveys yet would have the distinctive features of microbes from coastal and temperate regions. We further hypothesized that microbial communities will be functionally enriched in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in general and in those related to salmon farming in particular. Here, the analysis of metagenomes and viromes obtained for three surface water sites showed that the structure of the microbial communities was distinct in comparison to global surveys such as the Tara Ocean, though their composition converges with that of cosmopolitan marine microbes belonging to Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. Similarly, viral communities were also divergent in structure and composition but matched known viral members from North America and the southern oceans. Microbial communities were functionally enriched in ARGs dominated by beta-lactams and tetracyclines, bacitracin, and the group macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin (MLS) but were not different from other communities from the South Atlantic, South Pacific, and Southern Oceans. Similarly, viral communities were characterized by exhibiting protein clusters similar to those described globally (Tara Oceans Virome); however, Comau Fjord viromes displayed up to 50% uniqueness in their protein content. Altogether, our results indicate that microbial and viral communities from the Comau Fjord are a reservoir of untapped diversity and that, given the increasing anthropogenic impacts in the region, they warrant further study, specifically regarding resilience and resistance against antimicrobials and hydrocarbons. © 2023 by the authors.Microorganisms20762607https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11040904art90411Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, coastal microbiome; estuarine waters; patagonia; shotgun metagenomicsDepartamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Talca, Campus Talca, Avda. Lircay s/n, Talca, 3465548, Chile; Centro de Ecología Integrativa, Universidad de Talca, Campus Talca, Avda. Lircay s/n, Talca, 3465548, Chile; Center for Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago, 8370186, Chile; Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 8331150, Chile; Departamento de Fruticultura y Enología, Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 8331150, Chile; ANID—Millennium Science Initiative Program—Millennium Nucleus for the Development of Super Adaptable Plants (MN-SAP), Santiago, 8370186, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Millennium Institute Center for Genome Regulation (CGR), Santiago, 7800003, Chile
Earth system justice needed to identify and live within Earth system boundariesGupta J.; Liverman D.; Prodani K.; Aldunce P.; Bai X.; Broadgate W.; Ciobanu D.; Gifford L.; Gordon C.; Hurlbert M.; Inoue C.Y.A.; Jacobson L.; Kanie N.; Lade S.J.; Lenton T.M.; Obura D.; Okereke C.; Otto I.M.; Pereira L.; Rockström J.; Scholtens J.; Rocha J.; Stewart-Koster B.; David Tàbara J.; Rammelt C.; Verburg P.H.Agua y Extremos202310.1038/s41893-023-01064-1Living within planetary limits requires attention to justice as biophysical boundaries are not inherently just. Through collaboration between natural and social scientists, the Earth Commission defines and operationalizes Earth system justice to ensure that boundaries reduce harm, increase well-being, and reflect substantive and procedural justice. Such stringent boundaries may also affect ‘just access’ to food, water, energy and infrastructure. We show how boundaries may need to be adjusted to reduce harm and increase access, and challenge inequality to ensure a safe and just future for people, other species and the planet. Earth system justice may enable living justly within boundaries. © 2023, Springer Nature Limited.Nature Sustainability23989629https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-023-01064-1630-6386Thomson Reuters SCIE, SSCInan, earth systems; natural scientists; planetary limits; procedural justice; social scientists; stringents; system boundary; water infrastructure; well being; well reflectsUniversity of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States; University of Chile and Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, Chile; Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; Future Earth Global Hub Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden; Institute for Environment and Sanitations Studies, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana; Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy, University of Regina, Regina, SK, Canada; Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands; Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Kanagawa, Fujisawa, Japan; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; Global Systems Institute, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom; CORDIO East Africa, Mombasa, Kenya; Centre for Climate Change and Development, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ebony State, Abakaliki, Nigeria; Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change, University of Graz, Graz, Austria; Global Change Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; Global Climate Forum, Berlin, Germany; Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland
Forest landscape dynamics after intentional large-scale fires in western Patagonia reveal unusual temperate forest recovery trendsHernández-Moreno Á.; Soto D.P.; Miranda A.; Holz A.; Armenteras-Pascual D.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202310.1007/s10980-023-01687-xContext: Western Chilean Patagonia is an isolated temperate region with an important proportion of intact forest landscapes (IFL) that was subjected to large-scale fires over 60 years ago. However, there is no empirical evaluation of the land cover dynamics to establish the forest loss and recovery, and the effect on the landscape structure and function, and remnant IFL following the fires. Objectives: The present study addressed the following questions: (1) What have been the main trends of the land cover dynamics between 1984 and 2018 following earlier fires, and how have these trends shaped the spatial patterns and potential carbon stock of forests in western Patagonia? (2) What proportion of forest landscape remains intact following fires in this region? Methods: We selected the Coyhaique Province (1,231,910 ha) in western Chilean Patagonia as the study area. Land cover maps for three dates (1984, 2000, 2018) were used to evaluate landscape dynamics after fires. A map of persistence and change occurrence was made to estimate the IFL area over the 1984–2018 period. Landscape metrics were used to assess landscape structure change, and potential carbon stock was estimated based on a literature review. Results: Following fires, the main land cover changes between 1984 and 2018 were loss of ~ 32,600 ha of old-growth forest and a recovery of ~ 69,000 ha of second-growth forest. The increase in second-growth forest area mainly resulted from loss of agricultural cover (~ 41% of the area). Despite these changes, ~ 61% of the area could potentially remain as IFL after fires. Over the 1984–2018 period, a slight increase in fragmentation of old-growth forest, and a decline in second-growth forest were observed. Coyhaique Province experienced a slight increase (3.6%) in overall potential carbon stock, likely as a result of second-growth forest recovery. Conclusions: Our study provides the first evidence of the western Patagonia landscape state after more than six decades since the large-scale fires. The results provide baseline information on landscape structure and function that could help to make conservation and forest management decisions on specific territory areas. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.Landscape Ecology09212973https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-023-01687-xThomson Reuters SCIEnan, forest fragmentation; forest regeneration; landscape metrics; temperate ecosystemCentro de Investigación en Ecosistemas de la Patagonia, Camino Baguales S/N Km 4, Coyhaique, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Tecnología, Universidad de Aysén, Coyhaique, Chile; Laboratorio de Ecología del Paisaje y Conservación, Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Global Environmental Change Lab, Department of Geography, Portland State University, Portland, OR, United States; Laboratorio de Ecología del Paisaje y Modelación de Ecosistemas ECOLMOD, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá, Colombia
Synoptic-to-intraseasonal atmospheric modulation of phytoplankton biomass in the inner sea of Chiloé, Northwest Patagonia (42.5°-43.5°S, 72.5°-74°W), ChileJacques-Coper M.; Segura C.; de la Torre M.B.; Valdebenito Muñoz P.; Vásquez S.I.; Narváez D.A.Zonas Costeras202310.3389/fmars.2023.1160230The Inner Sea of Chiloé (ISC) in northwestern Patagonia has experienced large harmful algal blooms in the past decade, impacting human health and affecting the large aquaculture industry of the region. Thus, the investigation of factors favouring regional phytoplankton growth are of particular interest. Analysing the synoptic-to-intraseasonal variability, we explore changes in phytoplankton biomass in southern ISC (S-ISC, 42.5°-43.5°S, 72.5°-74°W) and their concurrent mesoscale and large-scale meteorological and oceanographic conditions. We use high-resolution satellite normalized fluorescence line height (nFLH) and chlorophyll-a (CHL-A) from the MODIS-Aqua sensor as proxies for phytoplankton biomass, besides oceanic and atmospheric variables derived from various remote-sensing sources and atmospheric fields from the ERA5 reanalysis. Specifically, we focus on high phytoplankton biomass events HBEs, which are defined as those cases when intraseasonal nFLH anomaly (nFLH’) exceeds the 95th percentile threshold. Each event was characterised by its first date of occurrence (called day 0). We detected 16 HBE between 2003 and 2019 in S-ISC. HBEs tend to occur under the influence of a mid-latitude migratory anticyclone that induce persistent cloudless conditions preceding day 0, leading to enhanced photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) starting around day -8, and positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies between days -4 and +4. We hypothesise that HBEs are mainly modulated by i) mixing and advection that could contribute to a greater availability of nutrients in the upper sea layers before the onset of the anticyclonic anomalies; and ii) increased thermal stratification related to positive PAR and SST anomalies that would promote phytoplankton growth during the anticyclonic regime. Furthermore, we show that the Madden-Julian Oscillation modulates the frequency of nFLH’ and thus of HBEs, a result that suggests an enhanced predictability of these cases. Copyright © 2023 Jacques-Coper, Segura, de la Torre, Valdebenito Muñoz, Vásquez and Narváez.Frontiers in Marine Science22967745https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2023.1160230/abstractart116023010Thomson Reuters SCIEcoastal process; extreme event; harmful algal bloom (hab); migratory anticyclone; ocean-atmosphere interaction; patagonia; phytoplankton; upwelling, nanDepartamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Centro de Investigación Oceanográfica COPAS Coastal, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; CTPA-Putemún, Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP), Castro, Chile; Departamento de Pesquerías, Instituto de Investigación Pesquera, Talcahuano, Chile; Programa de Doctorado en Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
Panta Rhei benchmark dataset: socio-hydrological data of paired events of floods and droughtsKreibich H.; Schröter K.; Di Baldassarre G.; Van Loon A.F.; Mazzoleni M.; Abeshu G.W.; Agafonova S.; Aghakouchak A.; Aksoy H.; Alvarez-Garreton C.; Aznar B.; Balkhi L.; Barendrecht M.H.; Biancamaria S.; Bos-Burgering L.; Bradley C.; Budiyono Y.; Buytaert W.; Capewell L.; Carlson H.; Cavus Y.; Couasnon A.; Coxon G.; Daliakopoulos I.; De Ruiter M.C.; Delus C.; Erfurt M.; Esposito G.; François D.; Frappart F.; Freer J.; Frolova N.; Gain A.K.; Grillakis M.; Grima J.O.; Guzmán D.A.; Huning L.S.; Ioni...Agua y Extremos202310.5194/essd-15-2009-2023As the adverse impacts of hydrological extremes increase in many regions of the world, a better understanding of the drivers of changes in risk and impacts is essential for effective flood and drought risk management and climate adaptation. However, there is currently a lack of comprehensive, empirical data about the processes, interactions, and feedbacks in complex human-water systems leading to flood and drought impacts. Here we present a benchmark dataset containing socio-hydrological data of paired events, i.e. two floods or two droughts that occurred in the same area. The 45 paired events occurred in 42 different study areas and cover a wide range of socio-economic and hydro-climatic conditions. The dataset is unique in covering both floods and droughts, in the number of cases assessed and in the quantity of socio-hydrological data. The benchmark dataset comprises (1) detailed review-style reports about the events and key processes between the two events of a pair; (2) the key data table containing variables that assess the indicators which characterize management shortcomings, hazard, exposure, vulnerability, and impacts of all events; and (3) a table of the indicators of change that indicate the differences between the first and second event of a pair. The advantages of the dataset are that it enables comparative analyses across all the paired events based on the indicators of change and allows for detailed context- and location-specific assessments based on the extensive data and reports of the individual study areas. The dataset can be used by the scientific community for exploratory data analyses, e.g. focused on causal links between risk management; changes in hazard, exposure and vulnerability; and flood or drought impacts. The data can also be used for the development, calibration, and validation of socio-hydrological models. The dataset is available to the public through the GFZ Data Services (Kreibich et al., 2023, 10.5880/GFZ.4.4.2023.001). © 2023 Heidi Kreibich et al.Earth System Science Data18663508https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-15-2009-20232009-202315Thomson Reuters SCIESection Hydrology, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany; Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX, United States; Department of Land Hydrology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA, United States; Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), FONDAP 1522A0001, Santiago, Chile; Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile; Operations Department, Barcelona Cicle de l'Aigua SA, Barcelona, Spain; Global Institute for Water Security, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; LEGOS, Université de Toulouse, CNES, CNRS, IRD, UPS, Toulouse, France; Department of Groundwater Management, Deltares, Delft, Netherlands; School of Geography Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom; National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Jakarta, Indonesia; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; Department of Civil Engineering, Beykent University, Istanbul, Turkey; Graduate School, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey; Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Freiburg, Fr...
A large diffusion and small amplification dynamics for density classification on graphsLeal L.; Montealegre P.; Osses A.; Rapaport I.Ciudades Resilientes202310.1142/S0129183123500560The density classification problem on graphs consists in finding a local dynamics such that, given a graph and an initial configuration of 0's and 1's assigned to the nodes of the graph, the dynamics converge to the fixed point configuration of all 1's if the fraction of 1's is greater than the critical density (typically 1/2) and, otherwise, it converges to the all 0's fixed point configuration. To solve this problem, we follow the idea proposed in [R. Briceño, P. M. de Espanés, A. Osses and I. Rapaport, Physica D 261, 70 (2013)], where the authors designed a cellular automaton inspired by two mechanisms: diffusion and amplification. We apply this approach to different well-known graph classes: complete, regular, star, Erdös-Rényi and Barabási-Albert graphs. © 2023 World Scientific Publishing Company.International Journal of Modern Physics C01291831https://doi.org/10.1142/S0129183123500560art235005634Thomson Reuters SCIEautomata networks; density classification; laplacian matrix, nanDepartamento de Ingeniería Matemática, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Chile; DIM-CMM (UMI 2807 CNRS), Universidad de Chile, Chile
Recent Deoxygenation of Patagonian Fjord Subsurface Waters Connected to the Peru–Chile Undercurrent and Equatorial Subsurface Water VariabilityLinford P.; Pérez-Santos I.; Montes I.; Dewitte B.; Buchan S.; Narváez D.; Saldías G.; Pinilla E.; Garreaud R.; Díaz P.; Schwerter C.; Montero P.; Rodríguez-Villegas C.; Cáceres-Soto M.; Mancilla-Gutiérrez G.; Altamirano R.Agua y Extremos202310.1029/2022GB007688In recent decades, global dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements have registered a decrease of ∼1%–2% in oxygen content, raising concerns regarding the negative impacts of ocean deoxygenation on marine life and the greenhouse gas cycle. By combining in situ data from 2016 to 2022, satellite remote sensing, and outputs from a physical-biogeochemical model, we revealed the deoxygenation process in the Patagonian fjords for the first time. Deoxygenation was associated with the advection of equatorial subsurface water (ESSW) mass into the northern region of Patagonia. An analysis of the circulation regime using the Mercator-Ocean global high-resolution model confirmed the importance of the Peru–Chile undercurrent (PCUC) in transporting the ESSW poleward, contributing to the entrance of ESSW into the northern Patagonian fjords. A mooring system installed in the water interchange area between the Pacific Ocean and Patagonian fjords detected a decreasing DO of −21.66 μmol L−1 over 7 years, which was explained by the increase in PCUC transport of 1.46 Sv. Inside the Puyuhuapi fjord system, a second DO time series exhibited more marked deoxygenation with −88.6 μmol L−1 over 3 years linked with the influence of ESSW and local processes, such as DO consumption by the organic matter degradation. The recent deoxygenation registered in the northern Patagonian fjords demonstrates the significance of studying DO in the context of reducing the global oxygen content, further warranting the quantification of the impacts of deoxygenation on life cycles of marine organisms that inhabit the Patagonian fjords and channels and the Humboldt current system. © 2023. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.Global Biogeochemical Cycles08866236https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2022GB007688arte2022GB00768837Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, biogeochemical model; deoxygenation; equatorial dynamics; hypoxia; patagonian fjords; water massesPrograma de Doctorado en Ciencias, Mención Conservación y Manejo de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de los Lagos, Puerto Montt, Chile; Centro i-mar de la Universidad de los Lagos, Puerto Montt, Chile; Center for Oceanographic Research COPAS Sur-Austral and COPAS COASTAL, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas de la Patagonia (CIEP), Coyhaique, Chile; Instituto de Geofísica del Perú (IGP), Lima, Peru; Centro de Estudios Avanzado en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Coquimbo, Chile; Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile; Millennium Nucleus for Ecology and Sustainable Management of Oceanic Islands (ESMOI), Coquimbo, Chile; CECI, Université de Toulouse, CERFACS/CNRS, Toulouse, France; Department of Oceanography, University of Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, United States; Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Concepción, Chile; Instituto Milenio en Socio-Ecología Costera (SECOS), Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP), CTPA-Putemún, Castro, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR2), Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; CeBiB, Universidad de Los Lagos, Puerto Montt, Chile; Servicio Hidrográfico y Oceanográfico Armada (SHOA), Valparaíso, Chile
Spatio-temporal multidisciplinary analysis of socio-environmental conditions to explore the COVID-19 early evolution in urban sites in South AmericaMantilla Caicedo G.C.; Rusticucci M.; Suli S.; Dankiewicz V.; Ayala S.; Caiman Peñarete A.; Díaz M.; Fontán S.; Chesini F.; Jiménez-Buitrago D.; Barreto Pedraza L.R.; Barrera F.Zonas Costeras202310.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e16056This study aimed to analyse how socio-environmental conditions affected the early evolution of COVID-19 in 14 urban sites in South America based on a spatio-temporal multidisciplinary approach. The daily incidence rate of new COVID-19 cases with symptoms as the dependent variable and meteorological-climatic data (mean, maximum, and minimum temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity) as the independent variables were analysed. The study period was from March to November of 2020. We inquired associations of these variables with COVID-19 data using Spearman's non-parametric correlation test, and a principal component analysis considering socio economic and demographic variables, new cases, and rates of COVID-19 new cases. Finally, an analysis using non-metric multidimensional scale ordering by the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix of meteorological data, socio economic and demographic variables, and COVID-19 was performed. Our findings revealed that the average, maximum, and minimum temperatures and relative humidity were significantly associated with rates of COVID-19 new cases in most of the sites, while precipitation was significantly associated only in four sites. Additionally, demographic variables such as the number of inhabitants, the percentage of the population aged 60 years and above, the masculinity index, and the GINI index showed a significant correlation with COVID-19 cases. Due to the rapid evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic, these findings provide strong evidence that biomedical, social, and physical sciences should join forces in truly multidisciplinary research that is critically needed in the current state of our region. © 2023Heliyon24058440https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e16056arte160569Thomson Reuters SCIEclimate variability; gini; pandemic; parametric and non-parametric analysis; sars-cov-2, nanGlobal Consortium on Climate and Health Education, Columbia University, New York, United States; Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmósfera y los Océanos, CONICET, Argentina; Universidad de Chile, Programa de Doctorado en Salud Pública, Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Chile; Subred Integrada de Servicios Hospitalarios Centro Oriente ESE, Red Hospitalaria Bogotá Distrito Capital, Colombia; Universidad Nacional de La Matanza, Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Argentina; Ministerio de Salud de Argentina, Argentina; Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social, Mesa de Variabilidad y Cambio Climático de la CONASA, Colombia; Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales - IDEAM, Subdirección de Meteorología, Mesa de Variabilidad y Cambio Climático de la CONASA, Miembro del grupo QuASAR UPN, Colombia; Centro Austral de Investigaciones Científicas (CADIC), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Ushuaia, Argentina; Centro i∼mar, Universidad de Los Lagos, Chile and Centre for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Casilla 557, Puerto Montt, Chile
Extreme harmful algal blooms, climate change, and potential risk of eutrophication in Patagonian fjords: Insights from an exceptional Heterosigma akashiwo fish-killing eventMardones J.I.; Paredes-Mella J.; Flores-Leñero A.; Yarimizu K.; Godoy M.; Artal O.; Corredor-Acosta A.; Marcus L.; Cascales E.; Pablo Espinoza J.; Norambuena L.; Garreaud R.D.; González H.E.; Iriarte J.L.Agua y Extremos202310.1016/j.pocean.2022.102921The Patagonian fjords have experienced intense harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the last decade, affecting important aquaculture areas in southern Chile. Climatic anomalies have recently triggered ‘super blooms’ of opportunistic toxic microalgal genera, especially due to persistent thermal stratification which likely provides an optimal niche for HABs development in fjord systems. In March-April 2021, an intense and widespread bloom of the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo caused high salmon mortalities (>6,000 t) in the Comau fjord, Los Lagos Region. A climate variability analysis showed the effects of the positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM > 1.2 hPa) overcame those of La Niña (Niño3.4 = -0.9 °C) leading to an intense drought on the northern part of Patagonia with record low rainfall (the 2nd driest summer in the last 70 years) and increased water temperature. A regional satellite analysis revealed an extreme and persistent shallow Mixed Layer Depth (MLD) during summer periods since 2019 within the inland seas. In situ vertical fine-resolution measurements during the bloom event showed high cell abundances in the first 3 m of the water column (max. ∼ 70,000 cells mL−1), associated with warmer water temperature (∼15.5 – 17.5 °C), low salinity (∼25–30 psu), moderate to high dissolved oxygen (5 – 8.5 mg/L) and extremely high fluorescence signals in dense superficial cell aggregations (max. 74.9 µg/L). A 18S rRNA metabarcoding analysis formally confirmed the presence of H. akashiwo and its almost monospecific bloom development at the water surface. HPLC pigment analysis showed the carotenoid fucoxanthin in high proportion (48.8 %) compared to other photosynthetic pigments, becoming a potential pigment biomarker for early satellite H. akashiwo detection. Cell growth and cytotoxic in vitro experiments revealed high phenotypic plasticity of Chilean H. akashiwo against sudden changes in salinity. An RTgill-W1 gill cell assay revealed high cytotoxic activity (viability down to ∼ 50 – 30 % of controls) only at high cell abundances (>40,000H. akashiwo cells mL−1), which was in accordance with histological examination of moribund salmon that showed gill damage and circulatory disorders mainly due to long-term exposure to hypoxic conditions and not to potent cytotoxic effects. The Party-MOSA particles dispersion model revealed a high retention of water masses within the Comau fjord during the H. akashiwo outbreak, a scenario that may have boosted fish kills due to enhanced cells patchiness, ichthyotoxins persistence and hypoxic conditions. A historical dissolved inorganic nutrient data analysis showed that inner Patagonian fjords maintain low N and P concentrations including those environments considered of high eutrophication risk. Low N:P (<16:1) ratios measured at Comau fjord during the 2021 suggests that toxic flagellates growth could be favored over diatoms; however, low N:Si (<1:1 – N deficiency) evidences a clear need for better understanding of the role of mixotrophy in the persistence of the 2021H. akashiwo bloom for several weeks. These results highlight the fact that HABs responses against climate drivers and potential eutrophication are not universal and need to be assessed yearly and locally, particularly because extreme droughts and intensive aquaculture in northern Patagonia are expected to continue throughout the 21st century. © 2022 Elsevier LtdProgress in Oceanography00796611https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S007966112200180Xart102921210Thomson Reuters SCIEfjord́s water renewal; ichthyotoxicity; metabarcoding; nutrients; pigment signature; salmon farming, chile; los lagos; patagonia; algae control; biochemical oxygen demand; carotenoids; cell proliferation; climate change; dissolved oxygen; farms; fluorescence; nutrients; rain; rna; water temperature; cell abundance; fjord́s water renewal; harmful algal blooms; heterosigma akashiwo; ichthyotoxicity; metabarcoding; pigment signature; salmon farming; water renewal; water temperatures; algal bloom; climate change; ecotoxicology; eutrophication; extreme event; fjord; intensive culture; nutrient dynamics; pigment; risk assessment; salmonid culture; eutrophicationCentro de Estudios de Algas Nocivas (CREAN), Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP), Puerto Montt, Chile; Centro FONDAP de Investigación en Dinámica de Ecosistemas Marinos de Altas Latitudes (IDEAL), Valdivia, Chile; CAICAI Foundation, Puerto Varas, Chile; Japan Fisheries Research and Education Agency, Fisheries Resources Institute, Fisheries Stock Assessment Center, 2-12-4 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Kanagawa, Yokohama, 236-8648, Japan; Office of Industry-Academia-Government and Community Collaboration, Hiroshima University, 1-3-2 22 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima, Higashi-Hiroshima City, 739-8511, Japan; Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas Aplicadas (CIBA), Puerto Montt, Chile; Laboratorio de Biotecnología Aplicada, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Sede de la Patagonia, Puerto Montt, 5480000, Chile; CTPA-Putemún, Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP), Castro, Chile; Department of Zoology, Faculty of Natural and Oceanographic Sciences, University of Concepción, Chile; San Ignacio del Huinay Scientific Field Station, Los Lagos, Chile; Department of Geophysics and Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Ciencias Marinas y Limnológicas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Instituto de Acuicultura, Universidad Austral de Chile, Puerto Montt, Chile; Centro de Investigación, Oceanográfica COPAS Sur-Austral, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Programa de Magíster en Oceanografía, Escuela de Ciencias del Mar, Facultad de ...
Kanamycin treatment in the pre-symptomatic stage of a Drosophila PD model prevents the onset of non-motor alterationsMolina-Mateo D.; Valderrama B.P.; Zárate R.V.; Hidalgo S.; Tamayo-Leiva J.; Soto-González A.; Guerra-Ayala S.; Arriagada-Vera V.; Oliva C.; Diez B.; Campusano J.M.Zonas Costeras202310.1016/j.neuropharm.2023.109573Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor alterations, which is preceded by a prodromal stage where non-motor symptoms are observed. Over recent years, it has become evident that this disorder involves other organs that communicate with the brain like the gut. Importantly, the microbial community that lives in the gut plays a key role in this communication, the so-called microbiota-gut-brain axis. Alterations in this axis have been associated to several disorders including PD. Here we proposed that the gut microbiota is different in the presymptomatic stage of a Drosophila model for PD, the Pink1B9 mutant fly, as compared to that observed in control animals. Our results show this is the case: there is basal dysbiosis in mutant animals evidenced by substantial difference in the composition of midgut microbiota in 8–9 days old Pink1B9 mutant flies as compared with control animals. Further, we fed young adult control and mutant flies kanamycin and analyzed motor and non-motor behavioral parameters in these animals. Data show that kanamycin treatment induces the recovery of some of the non-motor parameters altered in the pre-motor stage of the PD fly model, while there is no substantial change in locomotor parameters recorded at this stage. On the other hand, our results show that feeding young animals the antibiotic, results in a long-lasting improvement of locomotion in control flies. Our data support that manipulations of gut microbiota in young animals could have beneficial effects on PD progression and age-dependent motor impairments. © 2023 Elsevier LtdNeuropharmacology00283908https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2023.109573art109573236Thomson Reuters SCIEbenzaldehyde; distilled water; kanamycin; adult; aging; animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; anxiety; article; asymptomatic disease; behavior disorder; behavioral test parameters; cell manipulation; centrophobism; cohort analysis; controlled study; disease course; disease exacerbation; drug effect; dysbiosis; fruit fly model; intestine flora; locomotion; male; microbial diversity; midgut; motor activity; motor dysfunction; nonhuman; parkinson disease; pink1 mutant (drosophila); pink1b9 mutant (drosophila); smelling disorder; species composition; young adult, aging; drosophila; microbiota; parkinson's disease; pink1; presymptomatic stageDepartamento de Biología Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Centro Interdisciplinario de Neurociencia UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Center for Genome Regulation, Faculty of Science, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
Drought increase since the mid-20th century in the northern South American Altiplano revealed by a 389-year precipitation recordMorales M.S.; Crispín-Delacruz D.B.; Álvarez C.; Christie D.A.; Eugenia Ferrero M.; Andreu-Hayles L.; Villalba R.; Guerra A.; Ticse-Otarola G.; Rodríguez-Ramírez E.C.; Llocclla-Martínez R.; Sanchez-Ferrer J.; Requena-Rojas E.J.Agua y Extremos202310.5194/cp-19-457-2023Given the short span of instrumental precipitation records in the South American Altiplano, longer-term hydroclimatic records are needed to understand the nature of climate variability and to improve the predictability of precipitation, a key natural resource for the socioeconomic development in the Altiplano and adjacent arid lowlands. In this region grows Polylepis tarapacana, a long-lived tree species that is very sensitive to hydroclimatic changes and has been widely used for tree-ring studies in the central and southern Altiplano. However, in the northern sector of the Peruvian and Chilean Altiplano (16-19°S) still exists a gap of high-resolution hydroclimatic data based on tree-ring records. Our study provides an overview of the temporal evolution of the late-spring-mid-summer precipitation for the period 1625-2013 CE at the northern South American Altiplano, allowing for the identification of wet or dry periods based on a regional reconstruction from three P. tarapacana chronologies. An increase in the occurrence of extreme dry events, together with a decreasing trend in the reconstructed precipitation, has been recorded since the 1970s in the northern Altiplano within the context of the last ∼4 centuries. The average precipitation over the last 17 years stands out as the driest in our 389-year reconstruction. We reveal a temporal and spatial synchrony across the Altiplano region of dry conditions since the mid-1970s. Independent tree-ring-based hydroclimate reconstructions and several paleoclimatic records based on other proxies available for the tropical Andes record this synchrony. The influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the northern Altiplano precipitation was detected by our rainfall reconstruction that showed past drier conditions in our study region associated with ENSO warm events. The spectral properties of the rainfall reconstruction showed strong imprints of ENSO variability at decadal, sub-decadal, and inter-annual timescales, in particular from the Pacific NIÑO 3 sector. Overall, the recent reduction in precipitation in comparison with previous centuries, the increase in extreme dry events and the coupling between precipitation and ENSO variability reported by this work is essential information in the context of the growing demand for water resources in the Altiplano. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the vulnerability and resilience of the region to the projected evapotranspiration increase for the 21st century associated with global warming. © 2023 Mariano S. Morales et al.Climate of the Past18149324https://cp.copernicus.org/articles/19/457/2023/457-47619Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, andes; south america; chronology; climate variation; drought; el nino-southern oscillation; evapotranspiration; global warming; hydrometeorology; precipitation (climatology); rainfall; reconstruction; tree ring; twentieth centuryLaboratorio de Dendrocronología, Universidad Continental, Huancayo, 12000, Peru; Instituto Argentino de Nivología Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales, Conicet, Mendoza, 5500, Argentina; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Cambio Global, Instituto de Conservación Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, 5110566, Chile; Escuela de Graduados, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, 5110566, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, 9160000, Chile; Cape Horn International Center (CHIC), Punta Arenas, 6200000, Chile; Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, New York, 10964, NY, United States; Creaf, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola Del Vallés), Barcelona, 08193, Spain; Icrea, Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona, 08010, Spain; Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Nacional Del Centro Del Perú, Huancayo, 12006, Peru; Departamento de Biologia, Instituto de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, 37203-202, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Florestais, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, 52171-900, Brazil; Programa de Investigación de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Asociación Andinus, Huancayo, 12002, Peru
Fires and rates of change in the temperate rainforests of northwestern Patagonia since ∼18 kaMoreno P.I.; Méndez C.; Henríquez C.A.; Fercovic E.I.; Videla J.; Reyes O.; Villacís L.A.; Villa-Martínez R.; Alloway B.V.Agua y Extremos202310.1016/j.quascirev.2022.107899We examine the temporal and spatial structure of wildfires and rates of vegetation change in the Pacific sector of northwestern Patagonia (40°-44°S) over the last ∼18,000 years. Macroscopic Charcoal Accumulation Rates (CHAR), a proxy of past local fires, shows a geographic variation that mirrors the modern north-to-south and low-to-high elevation increase in annual precipitation and decrease in precipitation seasonality, and the frequency of explosive volcanic events. Variability in past fires is evident at multiple timescales, with a significant multi-millennial low between ∼18–13.1 ka, an abrupt rise between ∼13.1–12.5 ka, and heightened fire activity between ∼11.4–8.2 ka with significant high values between ∼10–9.4 ka. A subsequent decline led to the lowest Holocene values between ∼6–5.4 ka, which rose and led to significant high values between ∼3.1 ka and the present. Andean and Western Upwind Environments share a multi-millennial structure of fire activity since ∼18 ka, overprinted by millennial and centennial-scale divergences. These differences underscore the role of explosive volcanism as a trigger or modulator of fire activity in the vicinity of Andean eruptive centers. We posit that fire activity in Western Upwind Environments was driven primarily by hydroclimate variations, namely changes in the intensity of the Southern Westerly Winds. Compilations of CHAR and the Rates of Change (ROC) parameter, a measure of the magnitude and rapidity of changes in the pollen records, covary during the onset of the interglacial fire regime at ∼13.1 ka and the last ∼4000 years, suggesting that fires catalyzed vegetation changes during specific intervals since the last glaciation. Highly mobile human occupations deployed along the coasts started at ∼6.2 ka, increased in pulses, and spread widely during the last two millennia. Covariation with CHAR and ROC since ∼4 ka suggests that hunter-gatherer-fishers contributed to enhanced fire activity and abrupt vegetation changes at regional scale. The ubiquitous fire maximum over the last four centuries relates to widespread settlement and associated large-scale land clearance conducted by European/Chilean settlers. © 2022 Elsevier LtdQuaternary Science Reviews02773791https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0277379122005303art107899300Thomson Reuters SCIEchilean/european settlers; explosive volcanism; human occupations; macroscopic charcoal accumulation rates; northwestern patagonia; rates of vegetation change; southern westerly winds; temperate rainforests, pacific sector; patagonia; southern ocean; explosives; fires; glacial geology; vegetation; accumulation rates; chilean/european settler; explosive volcanism; human occupation; macroscopic charcoal accumulation rate; northwestern patagonium; patagonia; rate of vegetation change; southern westerly winds; temperate rainforest; vegetation change; charcoal; explosive volcanism; fire; geographical variation; holocene; interglacial; occupation; rainforest; temperate forest; westerly; charcoalCenter for Climate Research and Resilience, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Investigación en Ecosistemas de la Patagonia, Coyhaique, Chile; Centro de Estudios del Hombre Austral, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Centro de Investigación GAIA-Antártica, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Assessment of the potential impacts of a carbon tax in Chile using dynamic CGE modelO'Ryan R.; Nasirov S.; Osorio H.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202310.1016/j.jclepro.2023.136694Carbon taxes have been proposed as a major instrument to mitigate carbon emissions and promote an energy transition to low carbon sources. However, its adoption remains politically challenging, particularly amid rising inflation and energy prices. Despite the need for more aggressive action on carbon mitigation to reach the Paris Agreement goals, few countries in Latin America have adopted carbon taxes and the tax levels are relatively low. A key concern for these countries, is to adequately assess the tradeoffs between stricter emission goals and the potential negative economy wide as well as sectoral and distributive impacts. In this context, in this paper we first propose a step by step approach to enhance an existing dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model for Chile based on OECD's Green model. The contribution of this research is twofold. Firstly, emission factors are estimated and the development of the electricity sector is aligned with the expectations of decision makers. As a result, credible emission and energy sector development forecasts are generated by the model, that are in line with what policymakers expect to happen based on other bottom-up engineering models. Secondly, this baseline is then used in the CGE model to examine the use of a carbon tax to reach Chile's first Nationally Determined Contribution. The required tax level is determined together with CO2 emissions and the economywide, sectoral and distributive impacts. The results allow concluding about the applicability of carbon taxes and possible complementary measures. © 2023 Elsevier LtdJournal of Cleaner Production09596526https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.136694art136694403Thomson Reuters SCIEcarbon dioxide; decision making; economic and social effects; emission control; taxation; a-carbon; carbon emissions; carbon taxes; chile; co2 emissions; computable general equilibrium modeling; dynamic computable general equilibrium models; economy wide effects; potential impacts; tax levels; carbon, carbon tax; cge model; chile; co2 emissions; economy-wide effectsFacultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibañez, Avenida Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago, 7941169, Chile
Building Back Better in Latin America: Examining the Sustainability of Covid-19 Recovery and Development ProgramsO'Ryan R.; Villavicencio A.; Gajardo J.; Ulloa A.; Ibarra C.; Rojas M.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202310.1017/sus.2023.7NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY The significant outlays by countries in the Global South to recover from the Covid-19 crisis could have been an opportunity to build back better, advancing both a green recovery and addressing pressing social problems, thus advancing sustainability. To examine if this was the case, in this paper we analyze the expected impacts of recovery initiatives in five Latin American countries. Our results show that these programs do not support the possibility of building back better, weakly impacting twelve dimensions related to sustainability. We also propose a methodology to improve how sustainability concerns can be included in future choice of projects. TECHNICAL SUMMARY It has been argued that the significant outlays by governments across the world required to recover from the Covid-19 crisis can be an opportunity to build back better, i.e. advance towards greener societies. In the Global South, which suffered acute social, economic and environmental problems prior to this health crisis, recovery initiatives would be best suited to focus on sustainable economic recovery which — along with the environmental concerns of a green recovery — could address pressing local problems. To this end, we analyzed the expected impacts of recovery initiatives in five Latin American countries on each of 71 sustainability criteria. These criteria are based on the UN sustainable development goals and other relevant literature related to sustainable development. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use or in order to create a derivative work. Using principal component analysis, criteria are grouped into twelve dimensions. Our results show that recovery programs examined do not take advantage of the possibility of building back better, and many relevant dimensions related to a sustainable recovery are only weakly considered. Our methodology provides a step forward towards supporting governments in their efforts to identify better policies and investment projects and consequently put together packages of initiatives that advance on sustainability, green recovery, or other long-term goals they may have. SOCIAL MEDIA SUMMARY Methodology to analyze covid-19 recovery packages shows small impact on sustainability in 5 Latin American countries. © 2023 Cambridge University Press. All rights reserved.Global Sustainability20594798https://doi.org/10.1017/sus.2023.7Thomson Reuters ESCIcovid-19; environmental management; green recovery; latin america; sustainable recovery, nanCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Chile; Centra, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, Chile; Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Facultad de Gobierno, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Prokaryotic community dynamics and nitrogen-cycling genes in an oxygen-deficient upwelling system during La Niña and El Niño conditionsPajares S.; Merino-Ibarra M.; Farías L.Zonas Costeras202310.1111/1462-2920.16362Dissolved oxygen regulates microbial distribution and nitrogen cycling and, therefore, ocean productivity and Earth's climate. To date, the assembly of microbial communities in relation to oceanographic changes due to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) remains poorly understood in oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). The Mexican Pacific upwelling system supports high productivity and a permanent OMZ. Here, the spatiotemporal distribution of the prokaryotic community and nitrogen-cycling genes was investigated along a repeated transect subjected to varying oceanographic conditions associated with La Niña in 2018 and El Niño in 2019. The community was more diverse during La Niña and in the aphotic OMZ, dominated by the Subtropical Subsurface water mass, where the highest abundances of nitrogen-cycling genes were found. The largest proportion of the Gulf of California water mass during El Niño provided warmer, more oxygenated, and nutrient-poor waters towards the coast, leading to a significant increase of Synechococcus in the euphotic layer compared with the opposite conditions during La Niña. These findings suggest that prokaryotic assemblages and nitrogen genes are linked to local physicochemical conditions (e.g. light, oxygen, nutrients), but also to oceanographic fluctuations associated with ENSO phases, indicating the crucial role of climate variability in microbial community dynamics in this OMZ. © 2023 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Applied Microbiology International and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Environmental Microbiology14622912https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.163621281-129925Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, el nino-southern oscillation; microbiota; oxygen; water; oxygen; water; el nino; genetics; microfloraUnidad Académica de Ecología y Biodiversidad Acuática, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico City, Mexico; Departamento de Oceanografía, Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia, Instituto Milenio de Socio-Ecología Costera, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
Hydrological connections in a glaciated Andean catchment under permafrost conditions (33°S)Pereira S.R.; Díez B.; Cifuentes-Anticevic J.; Leray S.; Fernandoy F.; Marquardt C.; Lambert F.Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes202310.1016/j.ejrh.2022.101311Fresh water supply is critical along the Andes, where drought conditions over the past decade are projected to persist. At high Andean headwater catchments, frozen ground conditions are assumed to modulate groundwater flow paths and their hydrological signals at different timescales. However, knowledge of hydrological connections in subtropical Andean catchments is still very sparse. This study assessed hydrological connections and their impacts on groundwater contribution to baseflow in a headwater proglacial aquifer located in central Chile at 33° S and 3600 m a.s.l. We collected and analyzed snow, glacial stream, and groundwater spring water samples between 2019 and 2021. We combined of water isotope and metagenomic proxies with the hydraulic parameterization of the catchment to deliver mean transit time distributions through the proglacial aquifer. The new hydrological insights for the region include the finding that groundwater spring signals delivered sub-decadal transit times, implying likely origins from glacial or interstitial ice. Additionally, the stable isotope signature showed that groundwater consistently differs from snow and surface runoff. The 16S rRNA metabarcoding analyses demonstrated the presence of psychrophilic microorganisms in groundwater springs, supporting the idea of a late warm-season activation of interstitial ice due to thawing events associated with a differential relative-abundance of specific cryophilic bacteria. Finally, our results suggest hydrological connections and dampening timeframes between glaciers, proglacial areas, and groundwater springs, most likely from thawing sources. © 2023 The AuthorsJournal of Hydrology: Regional Studies22145818https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S221458182200324Xart10131145Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, 16s rrna metabarcoding; cryophilic bacteria; high andes; mountain permafrost; proglacial aquifer; transit timesDepartamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Millennium Institute Center for Genome Regulation (CGR), Chile; Centro de Cambio Global, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Laboratorio de Análisis Isotópico, Universidad Andrés Bello, Viña del Mar, Chile; DIEM/DIEG, Escuela de Ingeniería, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Warming and Drought Weaken the Carbon Sink Capacity of an Endangered Paleoendemic Temperate Rainforest in South AmericaPerez-Quezada J.F.; Barichivich J.; Urrutia-Jalabert R.; Carrasco E.; Aguilera D.; Bacour C.; Lara A.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202310.1029/2022JG007258Measurements of ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes in temperate forests are concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere, leaving the functionally diverse temperate forests in the Southern Hemisphere underrepresented. Here, we report 3 years (February 2018 to January 2021) of C fluxes, studied with eddy-covariance and closed chamber techniques, in an endangered temperate evergreen rainforest of the long-lived paleoendemic South American conifer Fitzroya cupressoides. Using classification and regression trees, we analyzed the most relevant drivers and thresholds of daily net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and soil respiration. The annual NEE showed that the forest was a moderate C sink during the period analyzed (−287 ± 38 g C m−2 year −1). We found that the capacity to capture C of the Fitzroya rainforests in the Coastal Range of southern Chile is optimal under cool and rainy conditions in the early austral spring (October–November) and decreases rapidly toward the summer dry season (January–February) and autumn. Although the studied forest type has a narrow geographical coverage, the gross primary productivity measured at the tower was highly representative of Fitzroya and other rainforests in the region. Our results suggest that C fluxes in paleoendemic cool F. cupressoides forests may be negatively affected by the warming and drying predicted by climate change models, reinforcing the importance of maintaining this and other long-term ecological research sites in the Southern Hemisphere. © 2023. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences21698953https://doi.org/10.1029/2022JG007258arte2022JG007258128Thomson Reuters SCIEcarbon cycle; eddy covariance; environmental thresholds; fitzroya; fluorescence; gross primary productivity, chile; coastal cordillera; carbon sink; climate change; coniferous tree; drought; dry season; eddy covariance; endangered species; endemic species; fluorescence; global warming; net ecosystem exchange; rainforest; temperate forest; thresholdDepartment of Environmental Science and Renewable Natural Resources, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, Barrio Universitario, Concepción, Chile; Cape Horn International Institute, Punta Arenas, Chile; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Cambio Global, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Tecnología, Universidad de Aysén, Coyhaique, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Instrumentacion Científica, Universidad Adventista de Chile, Chillán, Chile; Fundación Centro de los Bosques Nativos FORECOS, Valdivia, Chile
How much carbon is stored in the terrestrial ecosystems of the Chilean Patagonia?Perez-Quezada J.F.; Moncada M.; Barrales P.; Urrutia-Jalabert R.; Pfeiffer M.; Herrera A.F.; Sagardía R.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202310.1111/aec.13331We estimated the amount of carbon (C) stored in terrestrial ecosystems of the Chilean Patagonia and the proportion within protected areas. We used existing public databases that provide information on C stocks in biomass and soils. Data were analysed by ecosystem and forest type in the case of native forests. Our results show that some ecosystems have been more extensively studied both for their stocks in biomass and soils (e.g. forests) compared with others (e.g. shrublands). Forests and peatlands store the largest amount of C because of their large stocks per hectare and the large area they cover. The total amount of C stored per unit area varies from 261.7 to 432.8 Mg C ha−1, depending on the published value used for soil organic C stocks in peatlands, highlighting the need to have more precise estimates of the C stored in this and other ecosystems. The mean stock in national parks (508 Mg C ha−1) is almost twice the amount stored in undisturbed forests in the Amazon. State and private protected areas contain 58.9% and 2.1% of the C stock, respectively, playing a key role in protecting ecosystems in this once pristine area. © 2023 Ecological Society of Australia.Austral Ecology14429985https://doi.org/10.1111/aec.13331Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, carbon density; carbon sequestration; south america; storage; temperate rainforestsDepartment of Environmental Sciences and Renewable Natural Resources, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, Victoria 631, Barrio Universitario, Concepción, Chile; Cape Horn International Center, Punta Arenas, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Tecnología, Universidad de Aysén, Coyhaique, Chile; Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia, CR2, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería y Suelos, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Programa Austral Patagonia, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Administrativas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Instituto Forestal, INFOR, Valdivia, Chile
Road transport exhaust emissions in Colombia. 1990–2020 trends and spatial disaggregationRojas N.Y.; Mangones S.C.; Osses M.; Granier C.; Laengle I.; Alfonso A. J.V.; Mendez J.A.Ciudades Resilientes202310.1016/j.trd.2023.103780Road traffic-related air pollution costs society in terms of lost lives, health problems, and financial damages. For directing regulatory actions and enhancing air quality, governments require emission inventories and trends over time across all geographic areas. This study provides a high-resolution spatially disaggregated on-road transportation emissions inventory in Colombia from 1990 to 2020. Our estimates followed a top-down approach that accounted for local characteristics such as fleet technology, fuel consumption, road infrastructure, and activity factors at a national and state level. We report annual CO2, CH4, NOx, VOCs, PM2,5, and black carbon at a spatial resolution of 0.01° x 0.01°. Economic crises (1998–2001), stringent emission requirements (2011), and the most recent sanitary quarantine (2020) all have an impact on emissions patterns, which grow at a slower rate than vehicle activity. For the annual emissions of CH4, CO, and PM2.5, the growth of motorbikes in the vehicle fleet is particularly crucial. © 2023 Elsevier LtdTransportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment13619209https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1361920923001773art103780121Thomson Reuters SCIE, SSCIair quality; fleet operations; obsolescence; roads and streets; vehicles; ch 4; colombia; emission inventories; energy-consumption; exhausts emissions; on-road transport; road transports; spatial disaggregation; transport emissions; vehicle obsolescence; energy utilization, air pollution; emission inventory; energy consumption; on-road transport; transport emissions; vehicle obsolescenceDepartment of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 45 26-85, Bogotá, 111321, Colombia; Department of Civil and Agricultural Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 45 26-85, Bogotá, 111321, Colombia; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Campus San Joaquín, Vicuña Mackenna 3939, Santiago, Chile; LAERO - Laboratoire d'Aérologie, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 14 avenue Édouard Belin, Toulouse, 31400, France; CSL - NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory and CIRES - University of Colorado, 325 Broadway R/CSL, CO, Boulder, 80305-3337, United States
Land-use change and windstorms legacies drove the recolonization dynamics of laurel forests in Tenerife, Canary islandsRozas V.; García-López M.A.; Olano J.M.; Sangüesa-Barreda G.; García-Hidalgo M.; Gómez-González S.; López-Rubio R.; Fernández-Palacios J.M.; García-González I.; Lozano-López L.; García-González P.; García-Cervigón A.I.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202310.1016/j.fecs.2023.100098Laurel forests are quite relevant for biodiversity conservation and are among the island ecosystems most severely damaged by human activities. In the past, Canary laurel forests have been greatly altered by logging, livestock and agriculture. The remains of laurel forests are currently protected in the Canary Islands (Spain). However, we miss basic information needed for their restoration and adaptive management, such as tree longevity, growth potential and responsiveness to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Using dendrochronological methods, we studied how forest dynamic is related to land-use change and windstorms in two well-preserved laurel forests on Tenerife Island. Wood cores were collected from over 80 trees per stand at three stands per forest. We used ring-width series to estimate tree ages and calculate annual basal area increments (BAI), cumulative diameter increases, and changes indicative of released and suppressed growth. Twelve tree species were found in all stands, with Laurus novocanariensis, Ilex canariensis and Morella faya being the most common species. Although some individuals were over 100 years old, 61.8%–88.9% of the trees per stand established between 1940 and 1970, coinciding with a post-war period of land abandonment, rural exodus and the onset of a tourism economy. Some trees have shown growth rates larger than 1 ​cm diameter per year and most species have had increasing BAI trends over the past decades. Strong growth releases occurred after windstorms at both sites, but the effects of windstorms were site-dependent, with the 1958 storm affecting mainly the eastern tip of the island (Anaga massif) and the 1991 storm the western tip (Teno massif). Given the great ability of laurel forest trees to establish after land use cessation and to increase growth after local disturbances such as windstorms, passive restoration may be sufficient to regenerate this habitat in currently degraded areas. © 2023 The AuthorsForest Ecosystems20956355https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fecs.2023.100098art10009810Thomson Reuters SCIEcanary islands; dendroecology; disturbance; forest structure; macaronesia; management cessation; tree rings, nanEiFAB-iuFOR, Universidad de Valladolid, Campus Duques de Soria, Soria, 42004, Spain; Departamento de Biología-IVAGRO, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro, Puerto Real, 11510, Spain; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Área de Biodiversidad y Conservación, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/Tulipán s/n, Móstoles, 28933, Spain; Grupo de Ecología y Biogeografía Insular, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, La Laguna, 38206, Spain; BIOAPLIC, Departamento de Botánica, Escola Politécnica Superior de Enxeñaría, Campus Terra, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, 27002, Spain
The role of atmospheric rivers in rainfall-induced landslides: A study from the Elqui valleyRutllant J.A.; Matus F.; Rudloff V.; Rondanelli R.Zonas Costeras202310.1016/j.jaridenv.2023.105016The purpose of the present study is to explore the synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation and water vapor transport that contribute to triggering landslides in the mid-Elqui basin (30°S, 70.5°W) since the early 20th century. A total of 12 storms during the modern period (1957–2017) were identified from various sources and analyzed using ERA5 Reanalysis data. An additional set of eight storms was included and characterized using 20th Century Reanalysis data. The results reveal that high-amplitude, deep troughs extending into the subtropics off the west coast of South America are ubiquitous in these storms. Maximum integrated water vapor transport from the northwest (NW) or west-northwest (WNW) was observed on the coast (25–30°S), with values sometimes exceeding 300 kg s-1 m-1, often reaching more than five standard deviations above the mean. Atmospheric rivers near the study region were found to be involved in all 12 modern landslide-producing storms. Moreover, most storms occur during the warm phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and/or phases 7–8–1 of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO). Backward-trajectory analyses indicate that in all but one of the modern storms, water vapor transport originated in the Central Tropical Pacific, where ocean warming characterizes the convective phases of ENSO and/or MJO. © 2023 The AuthorsJournal of Arid Environments01401963https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0140196323000873art105016216Thomson Reuters SCIEatmospheric rivers; central chile; deep troughs; enso; integrated water vapor transport (ivt); landslides; mjo; rainstorm; subtropical andes, nanCenter for Advanced Studies in Arid Zones, CEAZA, La Serena, Chile; Department of Geophysics, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center of Climate and Resilience Research, CR2, Santiago, Chile; Museum of Water - University of O'Higgins, UOH, Rancagua, Chile
Información científica clave para la gestión y conservación del ecosistema biocultural del Pewén en Chile y ArgentinaSanguinetti,Javier;Ditgen,Rebecca S;Donoso-Calderón,Sergio R;Hadad,Martín A;Gallo,Leonardo;González,Mauro E;Ibarra,J Tomás;Ladio,Ana;Lambertucci,Sergio A;Marchelli,Paula;Mundo,Ignacio A;Nuñez,Martín A.;Pauchard,Aníbal;Puchi,Paulina;Relva,María A.;Skewes,Oscar;Shepherd,John D;Speziale,Karina;Vélez,María L;Salgado-Salomón,María E;Zamorano-Elgueta,Carlos;Cambio de Uso de Suelo202310.4067/s0717-92002023000100179Bosque (Valdivia)0717-9200http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-92002023000100179&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en179-19044Thomson Reuters SCIE
Precipitation extremes in the Puna of Atacama Desert, Chile: How to manage current and future uncertainty?; [Precipitación extrema en la Puna del Desierto de Atacama: ¿Cómo gestionar la incertidumbre actual y futura?]Sarricolea P.; Romero-Aravena H.; Serrano-Notivoli R.; Meseguer-Ruiz O.; Dubreuil V.; Funatsu B.M.Ciudades Resilientes202310.14198/INGEO.22852Chile is one of the Latin American countries most affected by Climate Change. There is a high level of uncertainty regarding the variability of precipitation and its projections in many regions of this country. This poses challenges for climate characterization and for defining strategies to reduce its risks. The study area is the Puna of Atacama Desert, Andean highlands located to the eastern side of the extreme arid lands, a region that concentrates the main copper and lithium mining at word scale, and where meteorological observations are scarce, with missing data and unreliable projections. Considering this data limitations, a daily precipitation database of 35 weather stations was constructed in order to evaluate some extreme precipitation indices that allow establishing changes between 1981-2017, in addition to spatial interpolations based on topography. It is concluded that most of the meteorological stations do not present significant trends of change, e.g. Extremely wet days (R99p), Wet days (RR) and Consecutive wet days (CWD). The index with the highest number of stations with a trend is CDD, which shows an increase in consecutive dry days. One of the main contributions of this research was to expand the number of observations and to generate maps of the spatial distribution of the indices of extremes. We are facing open questions regarding living with uncertainty, and meeting the challenges of maintaining records to increase the levels of certainty of climatic changes. © Pablo Sarricolea, Hugo Romero, Roberto Serrano-Notivoli, Oliver Meseguer-Ruiz, Vincent Dubreuil, Beatriz M. Funatsu.Investigaciones Geograficas (Spain)02134691https://doi.org/10.14198/INGEO.2285251-66Thomson Reuters ESCIextreme indices; precipitation trends; salar de san pedro de atacama; uncertainty, nanDepartamento de Geografía, Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Departamento de Geografía y Ordenación del Territorio, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain; Departamento de Ciencias Históricas y Geográficas, Universidad de Tarapacá, Sede Iquique, Chile; Université Rennes 2, LETG-COSTEL, UMR 6554 CNRS, France; CNRS, Nantes Université, LETG UMR, 6554, France
Volatile organic compounds measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry over the complex terrain of Quintero Bay, Central ChileSeguel R.J.; Garreaud R.; Muñoz R.; Bozkurt D.; Gallardo L.; Opazo C.; Jorquera H.; Castillo L.; Menares C.Agua y Extremos; Ciudades Resilientes202310.1016/j.envpol.2023.121759This research provides new evidence regarding the different kinds of air quality episodes, and their underlying mechanisms, that frequently impact the urban area of Quintero Bay in Central Chile, which is located along complex coastal terrain and is surrounded by industries. The monitoring campaign was carried out in January 2022 and encompassed two distinctive meteorological regimes. The first part of the month was dominated by a coastal low centered to the south of Quintero, which resulted in prevailing northerly flow (or weak southerlies) and a deep cloud-topped marine boundary layer. After a 2–3-day transition, the latter collapsed, and a clear-sky regime ensued, which was characterized by a shallow boundary layer and strong southerly winds during the daytime that lasted until the end of the campaign. By using proton transfer reaction time of flight mass spectrometry (PTR–TOF–MS) at a high temporal resolution (1 s), we measured high levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during air quality episodes in real time. The episodes detected were associated with different prevailing meteorological regimes, suggesting that different point sources were involved. In the first episode, propene/cyclopropane, butenes, benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene/xylenes were associated with north and northwesterly weak winds. Complaints associated with hydrocarbon odor were reported. The pollution originated from industrial and petrochemical units located to the north of Quintero, which transport and store natural gas, liquified petroleum gas and oil. The second episode was linked to an oil refinery located south of our measurement site. In this case, high levels of phenol, furan and cresols occurred under strong southwesterly winds. During this event, headaches and dizziness were reported. By contrast, the levels of other aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene/xylenes) were lower than in the first air pollution episode. © 2023 Elsevier LtdEnvironmental Pollution02697491https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0269749123007613art121759330Thomson Reuters SCIEair pollutants; bays; benzene; chile; environmental monitoring; mass spectrometry; protons; toluene; volatile organic compounds; xylenes; chile; quintero bay; valparaiso [chile]; air quality; benzene; boundary layers; ethylbenzene; mass spectrometry; meteorology; petroleum transportation; proton transfer; toluene; wind; aromatic compound; benzene; cresol; cyclopropane; ethylbenzene; furan; natural gas; oil; petroleum derivative; phenol; propylene; toluene; volatile organic compound; xylene; benzene; proton; toluene; volatile organic compound; xylene; air quality episode; central chile; clear sky; coastal terrain; complex terrains; marine boundary layers; proton transfer reactions; proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometries; sacrifice zone; urban areas; air quality; atmospheric pollution; benzene; coastal zone; complex terrain; mass spectrometry; pollutant source; pollution monitoring; reaction kinetics; toluene; topographic effect; urban area; volatile organic compound; wind field; air pollutant; air pollution; air quality; article; chile; controlled study; dizziness; headache; limit of detection; mass spectrometry; meteorology; oil industry; particulate matter 2.5; proton transport; reaction time; semiarid climate; time of flight mass spectrometry; urban area; air pollutant; bay; environmental monitoring; mass spectrometry; procedures; volatile organic compounds, air quality episodes; benzene; proton transfer reaction; sacrifice zone; toluene; volatile organic compoundsSantiago, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Meteorology, University of Valparaíso, Chile; Center for Oceanographic Research COPAS COASTAL, University of Concepción, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Desarrollo Urbano Sustentable (CEDEUS), Chile
Ecosystem services of Chilean sclerophyllous forests and shrublands on the verge of collapse: A reviewSmith-Ramírez C.; Grez A.; Galleguillos M.; Cerda C.; Ocampo-Melgar A.; Miranda M.D.; Muñoz A.A.; Rendón-Funes A.; Díaz I.; Cifuentes C.; Alaniz A.; Seguel O.; Ovalle J.; Montenegro G.; Saldes-Cortés A.; Martínez-Harms M.J.; Armesto J.J.; Vita A.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Agua y Extremos202310.1016/j.jaridenv.2022.104927Dryland forests are the areas most threatened by climate change, urbanization and land-use change simultaneously. Ecosystem services provided by Mediterranean dryland forests are have been in steep decline, and are extensively studied in the Mediterranean basin, however considerably less in other areas with Mediterranean climates. Knowledge of these services is necessary for the promotion of their conservation and restoration. Here, we synthesize current knowledge regarding the main ecosystem services provided by Chilean Mediterranean sclerophyllous forests and shrublands (SFSh). This knowledge allows for the valuation of SFSh in order to conserve, restore and study them. We found 158 studies, including technical reports, theses, and scientific literature regarding the social and environmental benefits derived from Chilean SFSh, though many did not use the term “ecosystem services” (ES). We found data on 19 ecosystem services with four or more studies per service. ES studies in Chile increased in number a couple years after Millennium Ecosystem Assessment published its synthesis in 2005. The most frequently reported services were provisioning services, especially medicinal plants and extracts. Despite the advances in knowledge, ecosystem services of SFSh appear to be rarely quantified, most frequently using oversimplified variable indicators. Services related to animal biodiversity, such as pollination and plague control, are poorly known. In recent years social studies of perception and valuation have increased, showing people's high valuation of SFSh. Additional studies are needed especially regarding water regulation and provision, as global warming will significantly reduce water supply in Mediterranean climates. Finally, we reflect on the advances necessary to enhance conservation, restoration and adaptation of ecosystems and their benefits to people, especially considering political, social and scientific factors. © 2023 Elsevier LtdJournal of Arid Environments01401963https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0140196322002221art104927211Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; biodiversity; climate change; deciduous forest; ecosystem service; environmental assessment; global warming; land use change; literature review; medicinal plant; perception; pollination; shrubland; urbanization; water supply, cultural services; dryland forests; mediterranean forests; provision services; regulation servicesDepartamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Biodiversidad, Universidad de Los Lagos, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), Chile; Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias y Pecuarias, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Chile; Departamento de Gestión Forestal y su Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y de la Conservación de la Naturaleza, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Pontificia Universidad Católica de, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Acción Climática, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Ciencia el Clima y la Resiliencia CR2, Santiago, Chile; Fundación San Ignacio del Huinay, Chile; Área de Ecología, Museo de Historia Natural Alcide d'Orbigny, Cochabamba, Bolivia; Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral, Valdivia, Chile; Departamento de Ecología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Geográfica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y de la Conservación de la Naturaleza, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Fores...
Health and Safety Effects of Airborne Soil Dust in the Americas and BeyondTong D.Q.; Gill T.E.; Sprigg W.A.; Van Pelt R.S.; Baklanov A.A.; Barker B.M.; Bell J.E.; Castillo J.; Gassó S.; Gaston C.J.; Griffin D.W.; Huneeus N.; Kahn R.A.; Kuciauskas A.P.; Ladino L.A.; Li J.; Mayol-Bracero O.L.; McCotter O.Z.; Méndez-Lázaro P.A.; Mudu P.; Nickovic S.; Oyarzun D.; Prospero J.; Raga G.B.; Raysoni A.U.; Ren L.; Sarafoglou N.; Sealy A.; Sun Z.; Vimic A.V.Ciudades Resilientes202310.1029/2021RG000763Risks associated with dust hazards are often underappreciated, a gap between the knowledge pool and public awareness that can be costly for impacted communities. This study reviews the emission sources and chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of airborne soil particles (dust) and their effects on human and environmental health and safety in the Pan-American region. American dust originates from both local sources (western United States, northern Mexico, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina) and long-range transport from Africa and Asia. Dust properties, as well as the trends and interactions with criteria air pollutants, are summarized. Human exposure to dust is associated with adverse health effects, including asthma, allergies, fungal infections, and premature death. In the Americas, a well-documented and striking effect of soil dust is its association with Coccidioidomycosis, commonly known as Valley fever, an infection caused by inhalation of soil-dwelling fungi unique to this region. Besides human health, dust affects environmental health through nutrients that increase phytoplankton biomass, contaminants that diminish water supply and affect food (crops/fruits/vegetables and ready-to-eat meat), spread crop and marine pathogens, cause Valley fever among domestic and wild animals, transport heavy metals, radionuclides and microplastics, and reduce solar and wind power generation. Dust is also a safety hazard to road transportation and aviation, in the southwestern US where blowing dust is one of the deadliest weather hazards. To mitigate the harmful effects, coordinated regional and international efforts are needed to enhance dust observations and prediction capabilities, soil conservation measures, and Valley fever and other disease surveillance. © 2023. The Authors.Reviews of Geophysics87551209https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2021RG000763arte2021RG00076361Thomson Reuters SCIEair pollution; crops; diseases; fungi; hazards; health risks; heavy metals; landforms; power generation; soil conservation; soil pollution; soils; water supply; wind power; airborne soils; america; dust hazards; environmental health; health and safety; health effects; human health; mitigation; public awareness; soil dust; dust, america; dust; environmental health; health effect; mitigation; safetyGeorge Mason University, Fairfax, VA, United States; Department of Earth, Environmental and Resource Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, United States; Science Policy Consultants and University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States; USDA-ARS Wind Erosion and Water Conservation, Big Spring, TX, United States; World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Pathogen and Microbiome Institute, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, United States; Department of Environmental, Agricultural and Occupational Health, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, United States; Pan-American Health Organization, Washington, DC, United States; University of Maryland/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, United States; Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States; United States Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL, United States; Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Earth Sciences Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, United States; Marine Meteorology Division, United States Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, CA, United States; Instituto de Ciencias de la Atmósfera y Cambio Climático, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Department of Geography, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, United States; Oregon Health Authority, Portland, OR, United S...
A pilot study for climate risk assessment in agriculture: a climate-based index for cherry treesTudela V.; Sarricolea P.; Serrano-Notivoli R.; Meseguer-Ruiz O.Ciudades Resilientes202310.1007/s11069-022-05549-8Cherry trees are one of Chile’s most important specialty crop activities. Its commercial orchards have an extensive spatial distribution between the 31° S and 48° S, spreading from semiarid to tundra climates, but the trees appear primarily in the Mediterranean climate. Different extreme weather events, such as frosts, precipitation, and high temperatures, affect this crop at different phenological stages, especially in bloom, ripening, and floral differentiation. Based on a high-resolution climatic-gridded dataset of daily temperature and precipitation data, we defined an integrated risk index (RI) representing the frequency of occurrence of the events throughout the plant development period and considering each type of risk affecting each concrete phenological stage. High RI values indicate high climatic risk. The RI follows a meridional pattern influenced by elevation, with higher values in the highest elevations between 36° S and 40° S, sensitive to the simultaneous occurrence of frosts and precipitation events. The northern coast exhibited the lowest risk values, while a general gradient from low values in coastal areas to higher ones in inland elevated zones revealed an altitudinal pattern. Low-risk areas have a sparse distribution of crops, which can be explained by several factors restricting cherry cultivation such as soil limitations, high slopes, lack of productive support infrastructure, and competition with other profitable forestry and agricultural activities in the north and forest production in the south. These results will help to improve climate impact assessments for production systems, which can be conducted by following an easy-to-understand tool. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.Natural Hazards0921030Xhttps://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11069-022-05549-8163-185115Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; agriculture; angiosperm; extreme event; precipitation assessment; risk assessment; semiarid region; spatial distribution, extreme events; frosts; heat damage; precipitation events; risk index; sweet cherryInstituto de Ciencias Agroalimentarias, Animales y Ambientales – ICA3, Universidad de O’Higgins, San Fernando, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; CITRID, Programa de Reducción de Riesgos y Desastres, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Departamento de Ciencias Históricas y Geográficas, Universidad de Tarapacá, Iquique, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Chile's road plans threaten ancient forestsUrrutia-Jalabert R.; Barichivich J.; Gutiérrez ÁG.; Miranda A.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202310.1126/science.adi0228[No abstract available]Science (New York, N.Y.)10959203https://doi.org/10.1126/science.adi0228903380Thomson Reuters SCIEDepartamento de Ciencias Naturales y Tecnología, Universidad de Aysén, Coyhaique, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia, Santiago, Chile; Valdivia, Chile; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay ,Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Cató lica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales y Recursos Naturales Renovables, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Santiago, Chile; Laboratorio de Ecología del Paisaje y Conservación, Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile
Ecophysiological Responses of Nothofagus obliqua Forests to Recent Climate Drying Across the Mediterranean-Temperate Biome Transition in South-Central ChileUrrutia-Jalabert R.; Barichivich J.; Szejner P.; Rozas V.; Lara A.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202310.1029/2022JG007293The forests of south-central Chile are facing a drying climate and a megadrought that started in 2010. This study addressed the physiological responses of five Nothofagus obliqua stands across the Mediterranean-Temperate gradient (35.9°−40.3°S) using carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13 C) and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) in tree rings during 1967–2017. Moreover, tree ring δ18O was evaluated in the northernmost site to better understand the effects of the megadrought in this drier location. These forests have become more efficient in their use of water. However, trees from the densest stand are discriminating more against 13C, probably due to reduced photosynthetic rates associated with increasing light competition. The strongest associations between climate and Δ13C were found in the northernmost stand, suggesting that warmer and drier conditions could have reduced 13C discrimination. Tree growth in this site has not decreased, and δ18O was negatively related to annual rainfall. However, a shift in this relationship was found since 2007, when both precipitation and δ18O decreased, while correlations between δ18O and growth increased. This implies that tree growth and δ18O are coupled in recent years, but precipitation is not the cause, suggesting that trees probably changed their water source to deeper and more depleted pools. Our research demonstrates that forests are not reducing their growth in central Chile, mainly due to a shift toward the use of deeper water sources. Despite a common climate trend across the gradient, there is a non-uniform response of N. obliqua forests to climate drying, being their response site-specific. © 2023. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences21698953https://doi.org/10.1029/2022JG007293arte2022JG007293128Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; biome; climate change; deciduous forest; mediterranean environment; physiological response; physiology; stable isotope; temperate environment; tree ring; water use efficiency, climate change; climate gradient; megadrought; stable isotopes; tree physiology; tree ringsDepartamento de Ciencias Naturales y Tecnología, Universidad de Aysén, Coyhaique, Chile; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Cambio Global, Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia, CR2, Santiago, Chile; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement, IPSL, CRNS/CEA/UVSQ, Gif-Sur-Yvette, France; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Bioeconomy and Environment Unit, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland; iuFOR-EiFAB, Área de Botánica, Campus Duques de Soria, Universidad de Valladolid, Soria, Spain; Fundación Centro de los Bosques Nativos FORECOS, Valdivia, Chile
Sclerophyllous Forest Tree Growth Under the Influence of a Historic Megadrought in the Mediterranean Ecoregion of ChileVenegas-González A.; Muñoz A.A.; Carpintero-Gibson S.; González-Reyes A.; Schneider I.; Gipolou-Zuñiga T.; Aguilera-Betti I.; Roig F.A.Agua y Extremos202310.1007/s10021-022-00760-xThe Mediterranean-type Ecosystems of Central Chile is one of the most threatened regions in South America by global change, particularly evidenced by the historical megadrought that has occurred in central Chile since 2010. The sclerophyllous forest stands out, whose history and relationship with drought conditions has been little studied. Cryptocarya alba and Beilschmiedia miersii (Lauraceae), two large endemic trees, represent an opportunity to analyze the incidence of intense droughts in the growth of sclerophyllous forests by analyzing their tree rings. Here, we considered > 400 trees from nineteen populations of C. alba and B. miersii growing across a latitudinal gradient (32°–35° S). To study the influence of local and large-scale climatic variability on tree growth, we first grouped the sites by species and explored the relationships between tree-growth patterns of C. alba and B. miersii with temperature, precipitation, and climate water deficit (CWD). Second, we performed Principal Component Analysis to detect common modes of variability and to explore relationships between growth patterns and their relationship to Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), ENSO and SAM indices. We detected a breaking point as of 2002 at regional level, where a persistent and pronounced decrease in tree growth occurred, mainly influenced by the increase in CWD and the decrease in winter-spring rainfall. In addition, a positive (negative) relationship was showed between PC1 growth-PDSI and PC1 growth-ENSO (growth-SAM), that is, growth increases (decreases) in the same direction as PDSI and ENSO (SAM). Despite the fact that sclerophyllous populations are highly resistant to drought events, we suggest that the sclerophyllous populations studied here experienced a generalized growth decline, and possibly the natural dynamics of their forests have been altered, mainly due to the accumulating effects of the unprecedented drought since 2010. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.Ecosystems14329840https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10021-022-00760-x344-36126Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; dendroecology; drought; ecoregion; el nino-southern oscillation; endemic species; forest ecosystem; global change; growth rate; latitudinal gradient; rainfall; tree; tree ring, beilschmiedia miersii; chilean forests; cryptocarya alba; dendroecology; global change; increased drought condition; mediterranean forests; tree ringsHémera Centro de Observación de la Tierra, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Mayor, Camino La Pirámide 5750, Santiago, Huechuraba, Chile; Instituto de Ciencias Agroalimentarias, Animales y Ambientales (ICA3), Universidad de O’Higgins, San Fernando, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Acción Climática, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, Chile; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Cambio Global, Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Antárticas y Subantárticas, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Centro Transdisciplinario de Estudios Ambientales y Desarrollo Humano Sostenible (CEAM), Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología e Historia Ambiental, IANIGLA-CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina
A freshwater diatom perspective on the evolution of the southern westerlies for the past ∼14,000 years in southwestern PatagoniaVillacís L.A.; Moreno P.I.; Vilanova I.; Henríquez C.A.; Henríquez W.I.; Villa-Martínez R.P.; Sepúlveda-Zúñiga E.A.; Maidana N.I.Agua y Extremos202310.1016/j.quascirev.2022.107929Conflicting, even opposite interpretations on the evolution of the Southern Westerly Winds (SWW) are evident in paleoenvironmental records from southwestern Patagonia since the last ice age. These divergences call for new approaches utilizing different, ideally independent indicators of paleoenvironmental/paleoclimatic change from sensitive sites in climatically relevant locations. Here we present a multidecadally resolved diatom record from Lago Cipreses (51°S), a small closed-basin lake located in a bedrock depression along the eastern foothills of the southern Patagonian Andes. The hydrological balance evolution of this isolated lake affords a direct tie with SWW intensity in a mountainous sector where zonal wind strength and local precipitation are highly correlated. We detect cold-tolerant diatoms (small fragilarioids) between ∼14-11.9 cal. ka BP followed by a shift to planktonic assemblages (Discostella pseudostelligera, Aulacoseira spp.) under warmer Holocene conditions. Diatom assemblages indicative of stratified water-column conditions (Discostella pseudostelligera, Achnanthidium aff tepidaricola, Achnanthidium sieminskae) reached their maximum stability between ∼9.1-7.4 cal. ka BP. Stronger water-column mixing is evident by an abrupt species turnover to Aulacoseira spp. between ∼7.4-3.1 cal. ka BP, superimposed on centennial-scale alternations between assemblages since ∼6.1 cal. ka BP. Cold-tolerant diatoms resurge at ∼3.1 cal. ka BP and persist until the present. Our record offers assemblage-based evidence we interpret as sub-centennial to multimillennial scale changes in hydroclimate indicative of: (i) strong SWW influence between ∼14-11.9 cal. ka BP, (ii) a transition between ∼11.9-11.3 cal. ka BP to weak SWW influence between ∼11.3-6.5 cal. ka BP, with a SWW minimum between ∼9.1-7.4 cal. ka BP, and (iii) strong SWW influence since ∼6.5 cal. ka BP, with a Holocene SWW maximum since ∼3.1 cal. ka BP. We posit that enhanced hydroclimate variability since ∼6.1 cal. ka BP attests to the onset of Southern Annular Mode-like changes at centennial-to sub-centennial timescales. We detect a remarkably coherent and synchronous response of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at local scale since ∼14 cal. ka BP, highlighting the overriding importance of variations in SWW influence in terrestrial and aquatic environments at multiple timescales. © 2022 Elsevier LtdQuaternary Science Reviews02773791https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0277379122005601art107929301Thomson Reuters SCIEholocene; hydroclimate variability; paleolimnology; southern annular mode; southern westerly winds; southwestern patagonia, andes; patagonia; mixing; phytoplankton; wind; condition; freshwater diatoms; holocenes; hydroclimate variability; hydroclimates; patagonia; southern annular mode; southern westerly winds; southwestern patagonium; wind influences; assembly rule; diatom; freshwater ecosystem; holocene; hydrological regime; hydrometeorology; paleoclimate; paleoenvironment; paleolimnology; pleistocene; westerly; lakesCenter for Climate Research and Resilience, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; CONICET- Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales BR., Buenos Aires, Argentina; School of Geography, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Centro de Investigación GAIA-Antártida, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Facultad de Historia, Geografía y Ciencias Política, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental y Aplicada, CONICET-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Advances in Simulating the Global Spatial Heterogeneity of Air Quality and Source Sector Contributions: Insights into the Global SouthZhang D.; Martin R.V.; Bindle L.; Li C.; Eastham S.D.; van Donkelaar A.; Gallardo L.Ciudades Resilientes202310.1021/acs.est.2c07253High-resolution simulations are essential to resolve fine-scale air pollution patterns due to localized emissions, nonlinear chemical feedbacks, and complex meteorology. However, high-resolution global simulations of air quality remain rare, especially of the Global South. Here, we exploit recent developments to the GEOS-Chem model in its high-performance implementation to conduct 1-year simulations in 2015 at cubed-sphere C360 (∼25 km) and C48 (∼200 km) resolutions. We investigate the resolution dependence of population exposure and sectoral contributions to surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), focusing on understudied regions. Our results indicate pronounced spatial heterogeneity at high resolution (C360) with large global population-weighted normalized root-mean-square difference (PW-NRMSD) across resolutions for primary (62-126%) and secondary (26-35%) PM2.5 species. Developing regions are more sensitive to spatial resolution resulting from sparse pollution hotspots, with PW-NRMSD for PM2.5 in the Global South (33%), 1.3 times higher than globally. The PW-NRMSD for PM2.5 for discrete southern cities (49%) is substantially higher than for more clustered northern cities (28%). We find that the relative order of sectoral contributions to population exposure depends on simulation resolution, with implications for location-specific air pollution control strategies. © 2023 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.Environmental Science and Technology0013936Xhttps://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.2c072536955-696457Thomson Reuters SCIEair quality modeling; fine particulate matter; high resolution; nitrogen dioxide; population exposure; sectoral contributions, air pollutants; air pollution; cities; computer simulation; environmental monitoring; particulate matter; air pollution control; nitrogen oxides; particles (particulate matter); nitrogen dioxide; air quality models; fine particulate matter; fine-scale; high resolution; high resolution simulations; pm 2.5; population exposure; root mean square differences; sectoral contribution; spatial heterogeneity; air quality; atmospheric pollution; global perspective; nitrogen dioxide; particulate matter; pollution control; air pollution control; air quality; article; particulate matter 2.5; population exposure; spatial analysis; air pollutant; air pollution; city; computer simulation; environmental monitoring; particulate matter; procedures; air qualityDepartment of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, 63130, MO, United States; Laboratory for Aviation and the Environment, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 02139, MA, United States; Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 02139, MA, United States; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, 8370448, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Physical Sciences and Mathematics, University of Chile, Santiago, 8370448, Chile
High resolution urban climatic risk impact maps in Gran Valparaiso, ChileAlamos,Nicolás;Videla,Jose;Madariaga,Marcelo;Gajardo,Vicente;Muñoz,Ariel;Billi,Marco;Amigo,Catalina;Agua y Extremos; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes202310.17605/OSF.IO/E7FPYThis collection of maps contains a set of 6 layers assessing the risk of the population of the Gran Valparaíso conurbation (Chile) in the face of threats of extreme heat, storm surges, floods, forest fires, landslides, and Droughts. The maps have a resolution at the Chilean census block level. The layers show as available attributes the overall level of risk and its components: threat (A), exposure (E), sensitivity (S), and response capacity (CR). To estimate the risk, A, E, S, and CR indices are combined through a fuzzy logic methodology, which considers using causality rules co-constructed and validated with local experts and stakeholders. It should be considered that the values ​​presented by each census block on the maps represent an ordering of risk (and of A, E, S, and CR), where higher values ​​indicate a greater risk than apples with lower values. The results are ordinal, ranging from mild, through moderately mild, to moderate, high, or very high. Moreover, they are not absolute values but relative to the specific case study and should not be comparable or extrapolated to other study areas. This Work is an actualization of what is presented by Alamos, N., Billi, M., Amigo, C., Urquiza, A., Winckler, P., Larraguibel, C., … Valdebenito, C. (2022, March 23). Fuzzy logic modeling to assess high-resolution spatial urban climatic risk impact in Valparaiso, Chile. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/2XTVS Español Esta colección de mapas contiene un conjunto de 6 capas que evalúan el riesgo de la población de la connurbación del Gran Valparaíso (Chile) ante amenazas de calor extremo, marejadas, inundaciones, incendios forestales, deslizamientos y sequías. Los mapas tienen una resolución a nivel de manzana censal. Las capas muestran como atributos disponibles el nivel global de riesgo y sus componentes: amenaza (A), exposición (E), sensibilidad (S) y capacidad de respuesta (CR). Para estimar el riesgo, los índices de A, E, S y CR se combinan a través de una metodología de lógica difusa, que considera el uso de reglas de causalidad co-construidas y validadas con expertos locales y partes interesadas. Se debe considerar que los valores que presenta cada manzana censal en los mapas representan un ordenamiento de riesgo (y de A, E, S y CR), donde los valores más altos indican mayor riesgo que las manzanas con valores más bajos. Los resultados son ordinales, que van desde leves, pasando por moderadamente leves, hasta moderados, altos o muy altos. Además, no son valores absolutos, sino relativos al caso de estudio específico y no deben ser comparables ni extrapolables a otras áreas de estudio. Este Trabajo es una actualización de lo presentado por Alamos, N., Billi, M., Amigo, C., Urquiza, A., Winckler, P., Larraguibel, C., … Valdebenito, C. (2022, March 23). Fuzzy logic modelling to assess high resolution spatial urban climatic risk impact in Valparaiso, Chile. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/2XTVS omparables ni extrapolables a otras áreas de estudio. Este Trabajo es una actualización de lo presentado por Alamos, N., Billi, M., Amigo, C., Urquiza, A., Winckler, P., Larraguibel, C., … Valdebenito, C. (2022, March 23). Fuzzy logic modelling to assess high resolution spatial urban climatic risk impact in Valparaiso, Chile. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/2XTVS omparables ni extrapolables a otras áreas de estudio. Este Trabajo es una actualización de lo presentado por Alamos, N., Billi, M., Amigo, C., Urquiza, A., Winckler, P., Larraguibel, C., … Valdebenito, C. (2022, March 23). Fuzzy logic modelling to assess high resolution spatial urban climatic risk impact in Valparaiso, Chile. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/2XTVShttps://osf.io/e7fpy/Not Indexed
CR2MET: A high-resolution precipitation and temperature dataset for the period 1960-2021 in continental Chile.Boisier,Juan P.;Agua y Extremos202310.5281/zenodo.7529682The Center for Climate and Resilience Research Meteorological dataset (CR2MET) includes two spatially-distributed products of daily precipitation and maximum/minimum near surface temperatures. The dataset covers the domain of continental Chile over a regular 0.05 degree latitude-longitude grid, and spans the period 1960-2021. Both a products are built on statistical models of the corresponding variables, calibrated against quality-controlled observational records. The CR2MET models are nurtured with a combination of data that includes different variables from ECMWF reanalysis ERA5, topographic parameters and land-surface temperature estimates from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor.https://zenodo.org/record/7529682Not Indexed
Comité Científico de Cambio Climático: Desalinización: Oportunidades y desafíos para abordar la inseguridad hídrica en Chile.Vicuña,S.;Daniele,L.;Farías,L.;González,H.;Marquet,P.;Palma-Behnke,R.;Stehr,A.;Urquiza,A.;Wagemann,E.;Arenas-Herrera,M.;Borquez,R.;Cornejo-Ponce,L.;Delgado,V.;Etcheberry,G.;Fragkou,M.;Fuster,R.;Gelcich,S.;Melo,O.;Monsalve,T.;Olivares,M.;Ramajo,L.;Ramirez-Pascualli,C.;Rojas,Carolina;Rojas,Christian;Vilca-Salinas,P.;Winckler,P.;Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes2023Frente al problema de escasez hídrica forzada por el cambio climático en Chile, particularmente en la zona norte del país, se han instalado plantas desalinizadoras de distintos tamaños, con varias más en proceso de estudio y evaluación. La masificación de esta tecnología nos plantea el desafío de planificar su desarrollo futuro tomando decisiones con bases científicas considerando las ventajas y desventajas de este tipo de tecnología. El presente documento fue elaborado en respuesta a la solicitud formal del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente para que el Comité Asesor Ministerial Científico para el Cambio Climático (C4) redactase un informe sobre el desarrollo de plantas desalinizadoras en el país. A partir de dicha solicitud, el Comité trabajó recopilando antecedentes y organizando talleres de trabajo con la comunidad científica a lo largo de varias etapas. Como resultado se prepararon una serie de recomendaciones, no siempre consensuadas, acerca del desarrollo de esta tecnología en el país.https://comitecientifico.minciencia.gob.cl/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/2022_informe_desalinizacion.pdfNot Indexed
A stability result for the identification of a permeability parameter on Navier-Stokes equationsAguayo J.; Osses A.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1088/1361-6420/ac6971In this work, we present a stability result for the inverse problem of recovering a smooth scalar permeability parameter given by the Brinkman's law applied to the steady Navier-Stokes equations from local observations of the fluid velocity on a fixed domain. In comparison with (Choulli et al 2013 Appl. Anal. 92 2127-43), we prove a logarithmic estimate under weaker assumptions, since our proof is based in a strategy that does not require pressure observations. This kind or result are useful for inverse problems in soft tissue elastography (see Honarvar et al 2012 Phys. Med. Biol. 57 5909-27). Finally, we present some numerical tests that validate our theoretical results. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing LtdInverse Problems02665611https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6420/ac6971art07500138Thomson Reuters SCIEinverse problems; medical imaging; navier stokes equations; a-stability; brinkman laws; carleman inequalities; elastography; fluid velocities; local observations; numerical tests; soft tissue; stability estimates; stability results; viscous flow, carleman inequalities; inverse problems; navier-stokes equations; stability estimateMathematical Engineering Department, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Bernoulli Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands; Center for Mathematical Modelling, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
High-resolution inventory of atmospheric emissions from transport, industrial, energy, mining and residential activities in ChileAlamos N.; Huneeus N.; Opazo M.; Osses M.; Puja S.; Pantoja N.; Denier Van Der Gon H.; Schueftan A.; Reyes R.; Calvo R.Ciudades Resilientes202210.5194/essd-14-361-2022This study presents the first high-resolution national inventory of anthropogenic emissions for Chile (Inventario Nacional de Emisiones Antropogenicas, INEMA). Emissions for the vehicular, industrial, energy, mining and residential sectors are estimated for the period 2015-2017 and spatially distributed onto a high-resolution grid (approximately 1km×1gkm). The pollutants included are CO2, NOx, SO2, CO, VOCs (volatile organic compounds), NH3 and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) for all sectors. CH4 and black carbon are included for transport and residential sources, while arsenic, benzene, mercury, lead, toluene, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furan (PCDD/F) are estimated for energy, mining and industrial sources. New activity data and emissions factors are compiled to estimate emissions, which are subsequently spatially distributed using census data and Chile's road network information. The estimated annual average total national emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 during the study period are 191 and 173kta-1 (kilotons per year), respectively. The residential sector is responsible for over 90g% of these emissions. This sector also emits 81g% and 87g% of total CO and VOC, respectively. On the other hand, the energy and industry sectors contribute significantly to NH3, SO2 and CO2 emissions, while the transport sector dominates NOx and CO2 emissions, and the mining sector dominates SO2 emissions. In general, emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants and CO2 in northern Chile are dominated by mining activities as well as thermoelectric power plants, while in central Chile the dominant sources are transport and residential emissions. The latter also mostly dominates emissions in southern Chile, which has a much colder climate. Preliminary analysis revealed the dominant role of the emission factors in the final emission uncertainty. Nevertheless, uncertainty in activity data also contributes as suggested by the difference in CO2 emissions between INEMA and EDGAR (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research). A comparison between these two inventories also revealed considerable differences for all pollutants in terms of magnitude and sectoral contribution, especially for the residential sector. EDGAR presents larger emissions for most of the pollutants except for CH4 and PM2.5. The differences between both inventories can partly be explained by the use of different emission factors, in particular for the residential sector, where emission factors incorporate information on firewood and local operation conditions. Although both inventories use similar emission factors, differences in CO2 emissions between both inventories indicate biases in the quantification of the activity. This inventory (available at 10.5281/zenodo.4784286, Alamos et al., 2021) will support the design of policies that seek to mitigate climate change and improve air quality by providing policymakers, stakeholders and scientists with qualified scientific spatially explicit emission information. © Copyright: Earth System Science Data18663508https://essd.copernicus.org/articles/14/361/2022/361-37914Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, chile; anthropogenic source; atmospheric pollution; carbon emission; dioxin; industrial emission; particulate matter; spatiotemporal analysisCenter for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias de la Computacion, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Climate, Air and Sustainability, TNO, Utrecht, Netherlands; Instituto Forestal, Valdivia, Chile; Instituto de Arquitectura y Urbanismo, Facultad de Arquitectura y Artes, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Institute of Geography, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Dark Diazotrophy during the Late Summer in Surface Waters of Chile Bay, West Antarctic PeninsulaAlcamán-Arias M.E.; Cifuentes-Anticevic J.; Castillo-Inaipil W.; Farías L.; Sanhueza C.; Fernández B.; Verdugo J.; Abarzua L.; Ridley C.; Tamayo-Leiva J.; Díez B.Zonas Costeras202210.3390/microorganisms10061140Although crucial for the addition of new nitrogen in marine ecosystems, dinitrogen (N2) fixation remains an understudied process, especially under dark conditions and in polar coastal areas, such as the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). New measurements of light and dark N2 fixation rates in parallel with carbon (C) fixation rates, as well as analysis of the genetic marker nifH for diazotrophic organisms, were conducted during the late summer in the coastal waters of Chile Bay, South Shetland Islands, WAP. During six late summers (February 2013 to 2019), Chile Bay was characterized by high NO3- concentrations (~20 µM) and an NH4+ content that remained stable near 0.5 µM. The N:P ratio was approximately 14.1, thus close to that of the Redfield ratio (16:1). The presence of Cluster I and Cluster III nifH gene sequences closely related to Alpha-, Delta-and, to a lesser extent, Gammaproteobacteria, suggests that chemosynthetic and heterotrophic bacteria are primarily responsible for N2 fixation in the bay. Photosynthetic carbon assimilation ranged from 51.18 to 1471 nmol C L−1 d−1, while dark chemosynthesis ranged from 9.24 to 805 nmol C L−1 d−1. N2 fixation rates were higher under dark conditions (up to 45.40 nmol N L−1 d−1) than under light conditions (up to 7.70 nmol N L−1 d−1), possibly contributing more than 37% to new nitrogen-based production (≥2.5 g N m−2 y−1). Of all the environmental factors measured, only PO43- exhibited a significant correlation with C and N2 rates, being negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with dark chemosynthesis and N2 fixation under the light condition, revealing the importance of the N:P ratio for these processes in Chile Bay. This significant contribution of N2 fixation expands the ubiquity and biological potential of these marine chemosynthetic diazotrophs. As such, this process should be considered along with the entire N cycle when further reviewing highly productive Antarctic coastal waters and the diazotrophic potential of the global marine ecosystem. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Microorganisms20762607https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2607/10/6/1140art114010Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, diazotrophy; heterotrophic diazotrophy; nitrogen fixation; wap/new productionDepartamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, 4030000, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, 8320000, Chile; Escuela de Medicina, Universidad Espíritu Santo, Guayaquil, 0901952, Ecuador; Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 8331150, Chile; Instituto de Oceanografía y Cambio Global (IOCAG), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), Las Palmas, 35001, Spain; Alfred-Wegener-Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, 27570, Germany; Center for Genome Regulation (CRG), Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2085, Santiago, 8320000, Chile
Surface Ammonia-Oxidizer Abundance During the Late Summer in the West Antarctic Coastal SystemAlcamán-Arias M.E.; Cifuentes-Anticevic J.; Díez B.; Testa G.; Troncoso M.; Bello E.; Farías L.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Zonas Costeras202210.3389/fmicb.2022.821902Marine ammonia oxidizers that oxidize ammonium to nitrite are abundant in polar waters, especially during the winter in the deeper mixed-layer of West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) waters. However, the activity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizers during the summer in surface coastal Antarctic waters remain unclear. In this study, the ammonia-oxidation rates, abundance and identity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) were evaluated in the marine surface layer (to 30 m depth) in Chile Bay (Greenwich Island, WAP) over three consecutive late-summer periods (2017, 2018, and 2019). Ammonia-oxidation rates of 68.31 nmol N L−1 day−1 (2018) and 37.28 nmol N L−1 day−1 (2019) were detected from illuminated 2 m seawater incubations. However, high ammonia-oxidation rates between 267.75 and 109.38 nmol N L−1 day−1 were obtained under the dark condition at 30 m in 2018 and 2019, respectively. During the late-summer sampling periods both stratifying and mixing events occurring in the water column over short timescales (February–March). Metagenomic analysis of seven nitrogen cycle modules revealed the presence of ammonia-oxidizers, such as the Archaea Nitrosopumilus and the Bacteria Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira, with AOA often being more abundant than AOB. However, quantification of specific amoA gene transcripts showed number of AOB being two orders of magnitude higher than AOA, with Nitrosomonas representing the most transcriptionally active AOB in the surface waters. Additionally, Candidatus Nitrosopelagicus and Nitrosopumilus, phylogenetically related to surface members of the NP-ε and NP-γ clades respectively, were the predominant AOA. Our findings expand the known distribution of ammonium-oxidizers to the marine surface layer, exposing their potential ecological role in supporting the marine Antarctic system during the productive summer periods. Copyright © 2022 Alcamán-Arias, Cifuentes-Anticevic, Díez, Testa, Troncoso, Bello and Farías.Frontiers in Microbiology1664302Xhttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2022.821902/fullart82190213Thomson Reuters SCIEammonia-oxidizers; archaea; bacteria; nitrification; photic layer; western antarctic peninsula, acetone; ammonia; ammonium chloride; chloroform; chlorophyll a; complementary dna; deoxyribonuclease; deoxyribonuclease i; dodecyl sulfate sodium; isopentyl alcohol; nitrite; nitrogen; phenol; ribonuclease; rna 16s; sea water; surface water; tracer; agar gel electrophoresis; ammonia oxidizer; ammonia oxidizing archaeon; ammonia oxidizing bacterium; article; bacterioplankton; centrifugation; colorimetry; dna extraction; dna synthesis; fluorescence; fluorometry; genetic transcription; high throughput sequencing; incubation time; metagenome; metagenomics; microbial biomass; nitrification; nitrogen cycle; nitrosomonas; nitrosopumilus; nitrosospira; nonhuman; oxidation; phylogenetic tree; phylogeny; phytoplankton; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; rna extraction; spectrophotometryDepartamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Escuela de Medicina, Universidad Espíritu Santo, Guayaquil, Ecuador; Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Genome Regulation (CGR), Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Programa de Postgrado en Oceanografía, Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Research Center Dynamics of High Latitude Marine Ecosystems (IDEAL), Punta Arenas, Chile
Evaluating adaptation to drought in a changing climate: experience at the local scale in the Aconcagua ValleyAldunce P.; Lillo-Ortega G.; Araya-Valenzuela D.; Maldonado-Portilla P.; Gallardo L.Ciudades Resilientes; Agua y Extremos202210.1080/17565529.2021.1893150Since 2010, a severe drought has affected central Chile, resulting in losses that prompt the need to evaluate and improve adaptation responses. The evaluation process requires the engagement of multiple actors in order to collect knowledge of their experiences and to inform future design and implementation of adaptation responses. A case study was conducted in four counties of the Aconcagua Valley, Chile, to evaluate the usefulness of existing drought response measures, and to identify strengths and weaknesses, and relevant actors’ recommendations for overcoming them. We applied the Index for the Usefulness of Adaptation Practices (IUPA), a multi-criteria tool that systematically identifies the perceived usefulness of measures. The most salient strengths of the evaluated measures were: replicability, pertinence, and efficacy; representing key factors that could facilitate the implementation of drought responses in similar contexts. The most salient weaknesses were: lack of integration with other policy domains and projects, low environmental protection, diminished autonomy in decision-making, and inequity. Proposed recommendations to overcome these weaknesses have real potential for implementation because they emerged from local actors. Results present empirical evidence of the utility of participatory approaches for a context-specific evaluation of measures, contributing to enhance adaptation to climate variability and change. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.Climate and Development17565529https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17565529.2021.1893150121-13214Thomson Reuters SSCIchile; climate change; drought; evaluation of adaptation; index for the usefulness of adaptation practices (iupa), aconcagua valley; chile; valparaiso [chile]; adaptive management; autonomy; decision making; design; environmental policy; environmental protection; index method; knowledge; participatory approach; policy implementationFaculty of Agricultural Science, Department of Environmental Science and Renewable Natural Resources, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Heinrich Böll Foundation Cono Sur, Santiago, Chile; Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany; Independent consultant, Santiago, Chile
Refinement of the tephrostratigraphy straddling the northern Patagonian Andes (40–41°S): new tephra markers, reconciling different archives and ascertaining the timing of piedmont deglaciationAlloway B.V.; Pearce N.J.G.; Moreno P.I.; Villarosa G.; Jara I.A.; Henríquez C.A.; Sagredo E.A.; Ryan M.T.; Outes V.Agua y Extremos202210.1002/jqs.3389We describe the stratigraphy, age, geochemistry and correlation of tephra from west to east across the northern Patagonian Andes (c. 40–41°S) with a view to further refining the eruptive history of this region back to the onset of the Last Glacial Termination (~18 cal. ka). Eastwards across the Andes, rhyodacite to rhyolitic tephra markers of dominantly Puyehue-Cordón Caulle source are persistently recognised and provide a stratigraphic context for more numerously erupted intervening tephra of basalt to basaltic–andesite composition. Tephra from distal eruptive centres are also recognised. West of the Andean Cordillera, organic-rich cores from a small closed lake basin (Lago Pichilafquén) reveal an exceptional high-resolution record of lowland vegetation–climate change and eruptive activity spanning the last 15 400 years. Three new rhyodacite tephra (BT6-T1, -T2 and -T4) identified near the base of the Pichilafquén record, spanning 13.2 to 13.9 cal. ka bp, can be geochemically matched with correlatives in basal andic soil sequences closely overlying regolith and/or basement rock. The repetitiveness of this tephrostratigraphy across this Andean transect suggests near-synchronous tephra accretion and onset of up-building soil formation under more stable (revegetating) ground-surface conditions following rapid piedmont deglaciation on both sides of the Cordillera by at least ~14 cal. ka bp. © 2021 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Journal of Quaternary Science02678179https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jqs.3389441-47737Thomson Reuters SCIEpatagonia; deglaciation; last glacial; tephra; tephrochronology; volcanic eruption, andes; last glacial termination; northwest patagonia; tephra; volcán puyehueSchool of Environment, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; Núcleo Milenio Paleoclima, Centro de Estudios del Clima y la Resiliencia, and Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Geography & Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, United Kingdom; Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali, Università di Bologna, Italy; IPATEC, CONICET-Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Bariloche, Argentina; Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), La Serena, Chile; ENGEO Ltd., Wellington, New Zealand
Seasonal Variations in Fjord Sediment Grain Size: A Pre-requisite for Hydrological and Climate Reconstructions in Partially Glacierized Watersheds (Baker River, Patagonia)Amann B.; Bertrand S.; Alvarez-Garreton C.; Reid B.Agua y Extremos202210.1029/2021JF006391Fjord sediments are increasingly recognized as high-resolution archives of past hydrological and climate variability. Using them as such, however, requires a comprehensive understanding of the variables that affect their accumulation rates and properties. Here, we conduct a spatial and temporal study of sediment samples collected at the head of Martínez Channel (Chilean Patagonia, 48°S), to understand how the fjord's sediments register changes in the hydrology of Baker River, Chile's largest river in terms of mean annual discharge. We apply end-member modeling to particle-size distributions of: (a) river suspended sediments, (b) surface sediments collected along a proximal-distal transect at the fjord head, and (c) fjord sediments collected in a sequential sediment trap at 15-day resolution during two consecutive years. We then validate the use of the grain-size end members for hydrological and climate reconstructions, using a sediment core that covers the last 35 years. Results show that the river suspended sediments and fjord sediments are consistently composed of two grain-size subpopulations. The finest end member (EM1; mode 4.03 μm) reflects the meltwater contribution, which dominates in all but the winter season. The coarser end member (EM2; mode 18.7 μm) dominates in winter, when meltwater contribution is reduced, and is associated with rainfall. We show that the fluxes of EM1 and EM2 provide quantitative estimates of baseflow (r = 0.87, p < 0.001) and quickflow (r = 0.86, p < 0.001), respectively. Additionally, we propose that log (EM1/EM2) can be used to reconstruct meltwater production (r = 0.67, p < 0.001) and temperature (r = 0.81, p < 0.001) in the lower Baker River watershed. These results support the use of fjord sediments for quantitative reconstructions of hydrological and climate variability in partially glacierized watersheds. © 2022. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface21699003https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2021JF006391arte2021JF006391127Thomson Reuters SCIEaisen; baker basin; chile; patagonia; fjord; grain size; meltwater; paleoclimate; paleohydrology; reconstruction; river discharge; seasonal variation; suspended sediment; temperature; watershed, end-member analysis; fjord sediments; meltwater; river suspended sediments; sediment fluxes; temperatureRenard Centre of Marine Geology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Sciences, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile; Centro de Investigación en Ecosistemas de la Patagonia (CIEP), Coyhaique, Chile
Prosopis L. woody growth in relation to hydrology in South America: A reviewAmbite S.; Ferrero M.E.; Piraino S.; Badagian J.; Muñoz A.A.; Aguilera-Betti I.; Gamazo P.; Roig F.A.; Lucas C.Agua y Extremos202210.1016/j.dendro.2022.126017Arboreal species of the genus Prosopis L. have played an important role in the development of tree-ring research in arid and semi-arid ecoregions of South America. Given the distribution of Prosopis across a broad precipitation gradient from 0 to 2000 mm y−1 and its unique role as a phreatophyte, the relationship between Prosopis species growth and water has been a recurring theme over the past century. We conducted a systematic review of the literature addressing Prosopis and water research in South America, and combined site coordinates with GIS data of mean annual precipitation (MAP), elevation, biome, and soil moisture from online databases to understand the spatial distribution of research to date. We compiled 40 publications from 1931 to 2022, including results from 11 species of Prosopis among four countries, on the relationship between Prosopis spp and precipitation, groundwater levels, soil humidity, among other hydrological parameters. The spatial distribution of research sites spans tropical-subtropical and temperate latitudes from 4° to 35°S, excluding regions where the genus is present in Patagonia and northeastern South America. Studies covered a broad range of elevations from 30 to 3500 m a.s.l. but was limited to 1–730 mm y−1 MAP, excluding more humid climates where Prosopis occurs. Results obtained from 32 dendrochronological studies and eight studies relating to Prosopis and hydrology, were grouped into sub-disciplines of tree-ring formation and the hydrosystem, dendroclimatology, dendrohydrology, and dendroecology. The review highlights the unique affinities of Prosopis to arid conditions, and the use of tree rings as a proxy for historical droughts and variability in water tables. Nonetheless, there are opportunities to expand the geographical-climatological extent of Prosopis growth research to humid climates, as well as to incorporate novel techniques such as stable isotopes and vessel size chronologies to understand how this genus records hydrological change throughout South America. © 2022 Elsevier GmbHDendrochronologia11257865https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1125786522000972art12601776Thomson Reuters SCIEdendrochronology; prosopis; south america; tree-ring research; wood anatomy, patagonia; south america; dendrochronology; hydrological change; soil moisture; spatial distribution; tree ringPostgraduate Program PEDECIBA - BioloXgía, Universidad de la República, Uruguay; Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales, CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología, Universidad Continental, Huancayo, Peru; Cátedra de Dasonomía, FCA-UNCuyo, Mendoza, Argentina; Departamento del Agua, CENUR Litoral Norte - Universidad de la República, Salto, Uruguay; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Estudios Ambientales, Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Acción Climática, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia CR2, Santiago, Chile; Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Antárticas y Subantárticas, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Centro Transdisciplinario de Estudios Ambientales y Desarrollo Humano Sostenible (CEAM), Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Hémera Centro de Observación de la Tierra, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Mayor, Huechuraba, Santiago, Chile; Laboratorio Ecología Fluvial, Depto. De Ciencias Biológicas, CENUR Litoral Norte - Universidad de la República, Uruguay
Lived environmental citizenship through intersectional lenses: The experience of female community leaders in rural ChileArriagada E.; Garcés Sotomayor A.; Maillet A.; Viveros Barrientos K.; Zambra A.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202210.1016/j.jrurstud.2022.07.007The 2019 social uprising in Chile revealed the widespread discontent the citizens of this country experience. In particular, rural areas were part of this social mobilization during which discontent around environmental issues were particularly salient. However, we still know little about the daily experiences of environmental suffering outside urban areas, and the different ways individuals and collectives confront it. To tackle these issues and contribute to the broader discussion about environmental citizenship and non-traditional forms of mobilization and activism, we build on the experience of the “School for Female Leaders on Socio-environmental and Territorial Issues”, a research-action joint-venture project that brought together women from different non-urban districts of the Metropolitan Region with a team of social and social scientists and practitioners. Sharing experiences about environmental suffering and the particular ways female leaders respond led us to propose the concept of lived environmental citizenship, which accounts for the incompleteness these women felt in relation to the promises of formal citizenship, and their personal, community and political work to address it. This concept and the findings of our research contribute to enhancing discussions on gendered rural and environmental politics. © 2022Journal of Rural Studies07430167https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0743016722001668353-36594Thomson Reuters SSCIgender; lived environmental citizenship; participatory action research; rurality, chile; citizenship; environmental politics; female; gender relations; metropolitan area; rural societyInstitute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, Canada; Fundación para la Superación de la Pobreza (FUSUPO), Chile; Faculty of Goverment, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Centro de Estudios de Conflicto y Cohesión Social (COES), Chile; Observatorio de Desigualdades, Universidad Diego Portales, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2, Chile; Doctoral program “Territorio Espacio y Sociedad”, Universidad de Chile, Chile
A general theory for temperature dependence in biologyArroyo J.I.; Díezc B.; Kempes C.P.; West G.B.; Marquet P.A.Zonas Costeras202210.1073/pnas.2119872119At present, there is no simple, first principles-based, and general model for quantitatively describing the full range of observed biological temperature responses. Here we derive a general theory for temperature dependence in biology based on Eyring-Evans- Polanyi's theory for chemical reaction rates. Assuming only that the conformational entropy of molecules changes with temperature, we derive a theory for the temperature dependence of enzyme reaction rates which takes the form of an exponential function modified by a power law and that describes the characteristic asymmetric curved temperature response. Based on a few additional principles, our model can be used to predict the temperature response above the enzyme level, thus spanning quantum to classical scales. Our theory provides an analytical description for the shape of temperature response curves and demonstrates its generality by showing the convergence of all temperature dependence responses onto universal relationships - a universal data collapse - under appropriate normalization and by identifying a general optimal temperature, around 25 °C, characterizing all temperature response curves. The model provides a good fit to empirical data for a wide variety of biological rates, times, and steady-state quantities, from molecular to ecological scales and across multiple taxonomic groups (from viruses to mammals). This theory provides a simple framework to understand and predict the impact of temperature on biological quantities based on the first principles of thermodynamics, bridging quantum to classical scales. Copyright © 2022 the Author(s).Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America00278424https://pnas.org/doi/full/10.1073/pnas.2119872119arte2119872119119Thomson Reuters SCIEanimals; biology; entropy; mammals; temperature; thermodynamics; article; biology; conformational transition; entropy; enzyme mechanism; steady state; temperature dependence; thermodynamics; animal; biology; mammal; temperature, metabolic theory; scaling; temperature kineticsDepartamento de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, CP 8331150, Chile; The Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, 87501, NM, United States; Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, CP 8331150, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, FONDAP (Fondo de Financiamiento de Centros de Investigacion en Areas Prioritarias), University of Chile, Santiago, CP 8370449, Chile; Center for Genome Regulation, FONDAP, Faculty of Science, University of Chile, Santiago, CP 7800003, Chile; Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Santiago, CP 7800003, Chile; Centro de Cambio Global Universidad Catolica, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, CP 8331150, Chile; Instituto de Sistemas Complejos de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, CP 2340000, Chile; Centro de Modelamiento Matemático, Universidad de Chile, International Research Laboratory 2807, CNRS, Santiago, CP 8370456, Chile
A simplified homogenization model applied to viscoelastic behavior of cortical bone at ultrasonic frequenciesAróstica R.; Aguilera A.; Osses A.; Minonzio J.-G.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1016/j.jbiomech.2021.110868Cortical bone is a complex multiscale medium and its study is of importance for clinical fracture prevention. In particular, cortical attenuation is known to be linked with shock energy absorption and ability to resist fracture. However, the links between cortical bone absorption and its multiscale structure are still not well understood. This work is about the use of homogenized tensors in order to characterize the viscoelastic behavior of cortical bone at ultrasonic frequencies, i.e., about 0.1 to 10 MHz. Such tensors are derived from the cell problem via two-scale homogenization theory for linear elastic and Kelvin–Voigt viscoelastic descriptions. The elliptic formulations obtained from the cell problems are implemented within the range of medically-observed porosities. Microstructure is assessed considering cubic cells with cylindrical inclusion and transverse isotropic assumption. A simplified model, adding one temporal parameter τ per phase, allows a good agreement with experimental data. The corresponding attenuation is proportional to the square of the frequency, in agreement with Kramer–Kronig relations. This development is proposed in the context of robust clinical inverse problem approaches using a restricted number of parameter. Two main properties for the material filling the pores are adjusted and discussed: absorption and shear contribution. Best agreement with experimental data is observed for material inside the pores being solid and highly attenuating. © 2021 Elsevier LtdJournal of Biomechanics00219290https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0021929021006242art110868131Thomson Reuters SCIEbone and bones; cortical bone; elasticity; porosity; ultrasonics; bone; inverse problems; tensors; ultrasonic waves; viscoelasticity; attenuation; cell problems; cortical bone; homogenization theory; microstructure mechanic; multiscale; quality factors; simplified homogenizations; ultrasonic frequency; viscoelastic behaviors; article; cortical bone; porosity; ultrasound; viscoelasticity; bone; diagnostic imaging; elasticity; microstructure, attenuation; cortical bone; homogenization theory; microstructure mechanics; multiscale; quality factor; ultrasound; viscoelasticityDepartamento de Ingeniería Matemática and Center for Mathematical Modeling UMI CNRS 2807, FCFM, Universidad de Chile, Av. Beaucheff 851, Santiago, Chile; Millenium Nucleus in Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Cardio MR, Chile; Millenium Nucleus Applied Control and Inverse Problems, ACIP, Chile; Escuela de Ingeniería Informática, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería en Salud, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile
A combined microbial and biogeochemical dataset from high-latitude ecosystems with respect to methane cycleBarret M.; Gandois L.; Thalasso F.; Martinez Cruz K.; Sepulveda Jauregui A.; Lavergne C.; Teisserenc R.; Aguilar P.; Gerardo Nieto O.; Etchebehere C.; Martins Dellagnezze B.; Bovio Winkler P.; Fochesatto G.J.; Tananaev N.; Svenning M.M.; Seppey C.; Tveit A.; Chamy R.; Astorga España M.S.; Mansilla A.; Van de Putte A.; Sweetlove M.; Murray A.E.; Cabrol L.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.1038/s41597-022-01759-8High latitudes are experiencing intense ecosystem changes with climate warming. The underlying methane (CH4) cycling dynamics remain unresolved, despite its crucial climatic feedback. Atmospheric CH4 emissions are heterogeneous, resulting from local geochemical drivers, global climatic factors, and microbial production/consumption balance. Holistic studies are mandatory to capture CH4 cycling complexity. Here, we report a large set of integrated microbial and biogeochemical data from 387 samples, using a concerted sampling strategy and experimental protocols. The study followed international standards to ensure inter-comparisons of data amongst three high-latitude regions: Alaska, Siberia, and Patagonia. The dataset encompasses different representative environmental features (e.g. lake, wetland, tundra, forest soil) of these high-latitude sites and their respective heterogeneity (e.g. characteristic microtopographic patterns). The data included physicochemical parameters, greenhouse gas concentrations and emissions, organic matter characterization, trace elements and nutrients, isotopes, microbial quantification and composition. This dataset addresses the need for a robust physicochemical framework to conduct and contextualize future research on the interactions between climate change, biogeochemical cycles and microbial communities at high-latitudes. © 2022, The Author(s).Scientific Data20524463https://www.nature.com/articles/s41597-022-01759-8art6749Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, carbon dioxide; greenhouse gases; methane; microbiota; soil; wetlands; carbon dioxide; methane; greenhouse gas; microflora; soil; wetlandLaboratoire d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse, France; Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Center for Research and Advanced Studies (Cinvestav), Mexico City, Mexico; University of Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Environmental Physics Group, Limnological Institute, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; HUB AMBIENTAL UPLA, Universidad Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile; Unidad Académica de Ecología y Biodiversidad Acuática, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, UNAM, Mexico City, Mexico; Microbial Ecology Laboratory, BioGem Department, Biological Research Institute Clemente Estable, Montevideo, Uruguay; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, United States; Melnikov Permafrost Institute, Yakutsk, Russian Federation; North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk, Russian Federation; Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsoe, Norway; Institute of Environmental Science and Geography, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany; Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso, Valparaiso, Chile; BEDIC, OD Nature, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels, Belgium; Division of Earth and Ecosystem sciences, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV, United States; Aix-Marseille University, Univ Toulon, CNRS, IRD, M.I.O. UM 110, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography, Marse...
Comment on: “The impact of a lack of government strategies for sustainable water management and land use planning on the hydrology of water bodies: lessons learned from the disappearance of the Aculeo Lagoon in central Chile” by Valdés-Pineda et al. 2022 in Sustainability, 14(1), 413Barría P.; Ocampo-Melgar A.; Chadwick C.; Galleguillos M.; Garreaud R.; Díaz-Vasconcellos R.; Poblete D.; Rubio-Álvarez E.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Agua y Extremos202210.1007/s10113-022-01991-3Valdés-Pineda et al. (Sustainability 14:413, 2022) present data for changes in climate, socio-economic, and land use and land cover (LULC) from diverse sources, concluding that the main causes for the desiccation of the Aculeo Lake were the river deviations and aquifer pumping, along with the impact of reduced precipitation. Based on that, they infer that the previous study of Barría et al. (Reg Environ Change 21:1–5, 2021a), which concluded that the impact of the decade-long drought was ten times larger than the increase of human extractions on the lake desiccation lacks scientific validity. We disagree with the conclusions from Valdés-Pineda et al. (Sustainability 14:413, 2022) and document that their article uses fragmentary information of a complex system, misinterprets of our results, and fails to present a reliable attribution methodology. We show that the hypothesis that the disappearance of Aculeo Lake was largely due to local anthropogenic uses is unsupported. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.Regional Environmental Change14363798https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10113-022-01991-3art13122Thomson Reuters SCIE, SSCInan, anthropogenic; attribution; decision-making; drought; land use/land cover; water budgetFaculty of Forest Sciences and Conservation of Nature, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Santiago, Chile; Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Diagonal Las Torres, Peñalolén, Santiago, 26407941169, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; School of Civil Engineering, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Eridanus Ingeniería en Recursos Hídricos, Santiago, Chile
Neoliberal resilience within drinking water re-nationalisation in Uruguay; [Re-estatização da água potável e a resiliência neoliberal no Uruguai]; [Reestatización del agua potable y resiliencia neoliberal en Uruguay]Bascans M.-A.; Nicolas-Artero C.; Gautreau P.; Santos C.Agua y Extremos202210.1590/2175-3369.014.e20210133The article discusses the neoliberalisation of nature based on the study of the re-establishment of drinking water and sanitation services in Uruguay during the progressive government of the Frente Amplio. The concept of neoliberal resilience is proposed to understand the reproduction of a neoliberal logic in the management of these services despite the recognition of the human right to water in the Constitution. Using a qualitative and quantitative methodology, we reconstruct the process of privatisation of drinking water services and its social repercussions. Four processes are identified that slow down the return to public and state services: the permanence of concessions with private capital, the weakening of the system of cross-subsidies, the demobilisation of the opposition and the insertion of a neoliberal economic development model. © 2022 Editora CHAMPAGNAT. All rights reserved.Urbe21753369http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2175-33692022000100212&tlng=esarte2021013314Thomson Reuters ESCInan, neoliberalism; privatisation; public utility service; uruguay; water supplyUniversité Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Paris, Île-de-France, France; Universidad de Chile, Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, Chile; Université Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne, Instituto de Geografía, Île-de-France, Paris, France; Universidad de la República, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Montevideo, Uruguay
Learning from crises? The long and winding road of the salmon industry in Chiloé Island, ChileBilli M.; Mascareño A.; Henríquez P.A.; Rodríguez I.; Padilla F.; Ruz G.A.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202210.1016/j.marpol.2022.105069The rapid development of salmon aquaculture worldwide and the growing criticism of the activity in recent decades have raised doubts about the capacity of the sector to learn from its own crises. In this article, we assess the discursive, behavioral and outcome performance dimensions of the industry to identify actual learning and lessons to be learned. We focus on the case of Chiloé Island, Chile, a global center of salmon production since 1990 that has gone through two severe crises in the last 15 years (2007–2009 ISAV crisis and 2016 red tide crisis). On the basis of a multi-method approach combining qualitative analysis of interviews and statistical data analysis, we observe that the industry has discursively learned the relevance of both self-regulation and the well-being of communities. However, at the behavioral and outcome performance levels, the data show a highly heterogeneous conduct that questions the ability of the sector as a whole to learn from crises. We conclude that detrimental effects for ecosystems and society will increase if learning remains at the level of discourses. Without significant changes in operational practices and market performance there are no real perspectives for the sustainability of the industry. This intensifies when considering the uneven responses to governance mechanisms. The sector needs to adapt its factual performance to sustainable goals and reflexively monitor this process. The first step for achieving this is to produce reliable data to make evidence-based decisions that align the operational dynamics of the entire sector with a more sustainable trajectory in the near future, as well as advancing towards hybrid and more reflexive governance arrangements. © 2022 Elsevier LtdMarine Policy0308597Xhttps://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0308597X22001166art105069140Thomson Reuters SSCIaquaculture; behavior; crisis; discourse; governance; learning; outcome performance; regulation; salmon industry, chile; chiloe island; los lagos; aquaculture; governance approach; learning; qualitative analysis; salmonid; salmonid culture; statistical dataCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Centro de Estudios Públicos, Monseñor Sótero Sanz 162, Providencia, Santiago, 7500011, Chile; Escuela de Gobierno, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago, 7941169, Chile; Facultad de Economía y Empresas, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Sta. Clara 797, Huechuraba, Santiago, 8581169, Chile; Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Universität Luzern, Frohburgstrasse 3, Luzern, 6002, Switzerland; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago, 7941169, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Santiago, 8331150, Chile
Editorial: Discussing structural, systemic and enabling approaches to socio-environmental transformations: Stimulating an interdisciplinary and plural debate within the social sciencesBilli M.; Zurbriggen C.; Morchain D.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202210.3389/fsoc.2022.968018[No abstract available]Frontiers in Sociology22977775https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fsoc.2022.968018/fullart9680187Thomson Reuters ESCInan, social framing; social learning; socio-ecological resilience; socio-technical transitions; systems theory; transformationDepartment of Rural Management and Innovation, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Transdisciplinary Systemic Research Hub (NEST.R3), Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Ciencia Política, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay; South American Institute for Resilience and Sustainability Studies (SARAS), Maldonado, Uruguay; The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA, United States; International Institute for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
Antarctic Polyester Hydrolases Degrade Aliphatic and Aromatic Polyesters at Moderate TemperaturesBlázquez-Sánchez P.; Engelberger F.; Cifuentes-Anticevic J.; Sonnendecker C.; Griñén A.; Reyes J.; Díez B.; Guixé V.; Richter P.K.; Zimmermann W.; Ramírez-Sarmiento C.A.Zonas Costeras202210.1128/AEM.01842-21Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the most widely used synthetic plastics in the packaging industry, and consequently has become one of the main components of plastic waste found in the environment. However, several microorganisms have been described to encode enzymes that catalyze the depolymerization of PET. While most known PET hydrolases are thermophilic and require reaction temperatures between 60°C and 70°C for an efficient hydrolysis of PET, a partial hydrolysis of amorphous PET at lower temperatures by the polyester hydrolase IsPETase from the mesophilic bacterium Ideonella sakaiensis has also been reported. We show that polyester hydrolases from the Antarctic bacteria Moraxella sp. strain TA144 (Mors1) and Oleispira antarctica RB-8 (OaCut) were able to hydrolyze the aliphatic polyester polycaprolactone as well as the aromatic polyester PET at a reaction temperature of 25°C. Mors1 caused a weight loss of amorphous PET films and thus constitutes a PET-degrading psychrophilic enzyme. Comparative modeling of Mors1 showed that the amino acid composition of its active site resembled both thermophilic and mesophilic PET hydrolases. Lastly, bioinformatic analysis of Antarctic metagenomic samples demonstrated that members of the Moraxellaceae family carry candidate genes coding for further potential psychrophilic PET hydrolases. IMPORTANCE A myriad of consumer products contains polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a plastic that has accumulated as waste in the environment due to its longterm stability and poor waste management. One promising solution is the enzymatic biodegradation of PET, with most known enzymes only catalyzing this process at high temperatures. Here, we bioinformatically identified and biochemically characterized an enzyme from an Antarctic organism that degrades PET at 25°C with similar efficiency to the few PET-degrading enzymes active at moderate temperatures. Reasoning that Antarctica harbors other PET-degrading enzymes, we analyzed available data from Antarctic metagenomic samples and successfully identified other potential enzymes. Our findings contribute to increasing the repertoire of known PET-degrading enzymes that are currently being considered as biocatalysts for the biological recycling of plastic waste. © 2022 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.Applied and Environmental Microbiology00992240https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/AEM.01842-21arte0184288Thomson Reuters SCIEantarctic regions; hydrolases; hydrolysis; polyesters; polyethylene terephthalates; temperature; bacteria; biodegradation; hydrolases; hydrolysis; plastic bottles; waste management; hydrolase; polyester; polyethylene terephthalate; antarctica; degrading enzymes; moraxella; moraxellum sp.; oleispirum antarctica; plastic biodegradation; polyester hydrolase; polyethylene terephthalate; psychrophilic enzyme; bacterium; biodegradation; catalysis; catalyst; enzyme; plastic; antarctica; genetics; hydrolysis; temperature; polyethylene terephthalates, antarctica; moraxella sp.; oleispira antarctica; plastic biodegradation; polyester hydrolases; polyethylene terephthalate (pet); psychrophilic enzymesInstitute for Biological and Medical Engineering, Schools of Engineering, Medicine and Biological Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; ANID - Millennium Science Initiative Program - Millennium Institute for Integrative Biology (IBio), Santiago, Chile; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, School of Biological Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; FONDAP Center for Genome Regulation (CGR), Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany
Temperature and moisture transport during atmospheric blocking patterns around the Antarctic PeninsulaBozkurt D.; Marín J.C.; Barrett B.S.Agua y Extremos202210.1016/j.wace.2022.100506We assess temperature and moisture transport in and around the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) associated with atmospheric blocking over two domains, one located to the west (150–90°W, 50–70°S, Western AP (WAP)) and the other over and to the east (90–30°W, 50–70°S, Eastern AP (EAP)) of the AP. We make use of surface meteorological observations, ERA5 reanalysis data, and a state-of-the-art atmospheric river (AR) database. Observed temperature anomalies indicate that the WAP and EAP blocking patterns are characterized by significant cold and warm anomalies over the AP, respectively, particularly in austral autumn, winter and spring. Consistent with these changes, cold anomalies depicted by ERA5 are associated with the transport of cold and dry air from the Antarctic continent by southerly and southeasterly flow over the eastern flank of the WAP blocking. ERA5 results highlight the importance of blocking days over the EAP domain (largely centered over the Drake Passage) to the occurrence of warm events associated with northerly and northwesterly warm air transport. Significant increases in integrated vapor transport (IVT) and AR frequency are also evident during the EAP blocking, particularly on the windward side of the AP. During the most extreme blocking days in this domain, there exist significant increases in latent and sensible heat fluxes on the windward side of the AP and the Larsen C Ice Shelf, respectively, indicating the contribution of foehn events to warm anomalies, especially in austral autumn and winter. The co-occurrences between landfalling ARs and blocking are found to amplify foehn effect due to higher IVT and associated latent heat condensation compared to blocking days without ARs. We conclude that blocking patterns are important to understand the occurrence of extremely warm events and landfalling ARs in the AP and their potential impacts on the surface cryospheric processes. © 2022 The Author(s)Weather and Climate Extremes22120947https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212094722000858art10050638Thomson Reuters SCIEantarctic peninsula; antarctica; drake passage; larsen ice shelf; west antarctica; air temperature; anticyclone; atmospheric blocking; boundary layer; latent heat flux; river basin; sensible heat flux, anticyclone; atmospheric river; extreme temperature; heat flux; larsen c ice shelfDepartamento de Meteorología, Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Estudios Atmosféricos y Astroestadística (CEAAS), Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Center for Oceanographic Research COPAS COASTAL, Universidad de Concepción, Chile; Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Arlington, VA, United States
Global wood anatomical perspective on the onset of the Late Antique Little Ice Age (LALIA) in the mid-6th century CEBüntgen U.; Crivellaro A.; Arseneault D.; Baillie M.; Barclay D.; Bernabei M.; Bontadi J.; Boswijk G.; Brown D.; Christie D.A.; Churakova O.V.; Cook E.R.; D'Arrigo R.; Davi N.; Esper J.; Fonti P.; Greaves C.; Hantemirov R.M.; Hughes M.K.; Kirdyanov A.V.; Krusic P.J.; Le Quesne C.; Ljungqvist F.C.; McCormick M.; Myglan V.S.; Nicolussi K.; Oppenheimer C.; Palmer J.; Qin C.; Reinig F.; Salzer M.; Stoffel M.; Torbenson M.; Trnka M.; Villalba R.; Wiesenberg N.; Wiles G.; Yang B.; Piermattei A.Agua y Extremos202210.1016/j.scib.2022.10.019Linked to major volcanic eruptions around 536 and 540 CE, the onset of the Late Antique Little Ice Age has been described as the coldest period of the past two millennia. The exact timing and spatial extent of this exceptional cold phase are, however, still under debate because of the limited resolution and geographical distribution of the available proxy archives. Here, we use 106 wood anatomical thin sections from 23 forest sites and 20 tree species in both hemispheres to search for cell-level fingerprints of ephemeral summer cooling between 530 and 550 CE. After cross-dating and double-staining, we identified 89 Blue Rings (lack of cell wall lignification), nine Frost Rings (cell deformation and collapse), and 93 Light Rings (reduced cell wall thickening) in the Northern Hemisphere. Our network reveals evidence for the strongest temperature depression between mid-July and early-August 536 CE across North America and Eurasia, whereas more localised cold spells occurred in the summers of 532, 540–43, and 548 CE. The lack of anatomical signatures in the austral trees suggests limited incursion of stratospheric volcanic aerosol into the Southern Hemisphere extra-tropics, that any forcing was mitigated by atmosphere-ocean dynamical responses and/or concentrated outside the growing season, or a combination of factors. Our findings demonstrate the advantage of wood anatomical investigations over traditional dendrochronological measurements, provide a benchmark for Earth system models, support cross-disciplinary studies into the entanglements of climate and history, and question the relevance of global climate averages. © 2022 Science China PressScience Bulletin20959273https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S20959273220047902336-234467Thomson Reuters SCIEcells; climate models; earth system models; forestry; geographical distribution; volcanoes; blue ring; climate extremes; cold phasis; dendrochronology; late antiquity; limited resolution; little ice age; spatial extent; tree rings; volcanic eruptions; cytology, blue rings; climate extremes; dendrochronology; late antiquity; tree rings; volcanic eruptionsDepartment of Geography, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EN, United States; Swiss Federal Research Institute (WSL), Birmensdorf, 8903, Switzerland; Global Change Research Centre (CzechGlobe), Brno, 60300, Czech Republic; Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, 61300, Czech Republic; Forest Biometrics Laboratory, Faculty of Forestry, “Stefan cel Mare” University of Suceava, Suceava, 720229, Romania; Department of Biology, Chemistry and Geography, University of Quebec in Rimouski, Rimouski, G5L 3A1, Qc., Canada; Archaeology & Palaeoecology, School of Natural and Built Environment, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN, United States; Department of Geology, State University of New York at Cortland, Cortland, 13045, NY, United States; CNR-IBE, Institute of BioEconomy, National Research Council, Trento, 38121, Italy; School of Environment, The University of Auckland, Auckland, 1010, New Zealand; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Cambio Global, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, 509000, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR), Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Cape Horn International Center (CHIC), Punta Arenas, 6200000, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Geography, Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russian Federation; Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, 10964, NY, United States; Department of Environmental Science, William Paterson University, Wayne, 07470, N...
Energy poverty effects on policy-based PM2.5 emissions mitigation in southern and central ChileCalvo R.; Álamos N.; Huneeus N.; O'Ryan R.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes202210.1016/j.enpol.2021.112762Residential firewood burning is the main source of PM2.5 emissions in southern and central Chile. In Chile, approximately 4000 premature deaths are observed each year due to air pollution. Mitigation policies aim to reduce dwellings' energy demand and foster cleaner but more expensive energy sources. Pre-existing energy poverty conditions are often overlooked in these policies, even though they can negatively affect the adoption of these measures. This article uses southern and central Chile as a case study to assess quantitatively different policy scenarios of PM2.5 emissions between 2017 and 2050, considering energy poverty-related effects. Results show that PM2.5 emissions will grow 16% over time under a business as usual scenario. If thermal improvement and stove/heater replacements are implemented, PM2.5 reductions depend on the scale of the policy: a 5%–6% reduction of total southern and central Chile PM2.5 emissions if only cities with Atmospheric Decontamination Plans are included; a 54%–56% reduction of PM2.5 emissions if these policies include other growing cities. Our study shows that the energy poverty effect potentially reduces the effectiveness of these measures in 25%. Consequently, if no anticipatory measures are taken, Chile's energy transition goals could be hindered and the effectiveness of mitigation policies to improve air quality significantly reduced. © 2021 Elsevier LtdEnergy Policy03014215https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0301421521006285art112762161Thomson Reuters SCIE, SSCIchile; economic and social effects; housing; particles (particulate matter); % reductions; central chile; energy poverties; firewood consumption; mitigation policies; particulate matter; policy-based; stove replacement; thermal; thermal retrofit; air quality; biomass burning; emission control; energy use; fuel consumption; particulate matter; poverty; temperature effect; air quality, energy poverty; firewood consumption; particulate matter; stove replacement; thermal retrofitDoctorado en Geografía, Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del clima y la Resiliencia (CR2), Santiago, Chile; Red de Pobreza Energética, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibañez, Santiago, Chile
Testing the Model Efficiency of HYDRUS 2D/3D Under Desert Conditions for Water Content and Pore Electrical Conductivity: a Case Study in an Olive OrchardCarlos F.U.; Cristian K.F.; Marco G.S.; Mauricio G.; Humberto A.; de Miranda Jarbas H.; Oscar S.S.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.1007/s42729-022-00777-0The water crisis is a concern for Chilean agriculture. Testing new methods based on computer simulations is urgent to optimize irrigation. This study aimed to assess the model efficiency of HYDRUS 2D/3D simulations of volumetric water content (θ) and pore electrical conductivity (ECp) in an olive tree variety Kalamata under desert conditions. The model efficiency was assessed by comparing model simulations against observations of θ and ECp in five frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) sensors installed in the soil profile. Model simulations were improved by calibration using PEST software. Global sensitivity analysis was performed before calibration, analyzing both θ and ECp model outputs. Outcomes of sensitivity analysis indicate that the surface area associated with transpiration (ST) and the slope of the stress response function (s) are relevant parameters for θ and ECp. Both parameters were calibrated along with the saturated water content (θs) and pore size distribution (n) parameters of the second material. Calibration improved HYDRUS 2D/3D simulations for θ but not substantially for ECp. However, the Nash–Sutcliffe and the root mean square error (RMSE) are comparable with previous research for both variables. Furthermore, the s parameter decreases after calibration, indicating that Kalamata variety is tolerant to salt, which is in line with previous research. HYDRUS 2D/3D represents the θ variation in time and space with acceptable precision for olive trees under desert conditions. Additionally, subsequent studies should focus on the value of s, which is variety dependent, and ST, which requires the actual root volume. © 2022, The Author(s) under exclusive licence to Sociedad Chilena de la Ciencia del Suelo.Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition07189508https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s42729-022-00777-01859-187222Thomson Reuters SCIEarid conditions; eco-hydrology; salinity; stress response parameters; surface area associated with transpiration, nanInstituto de Ciencias Agroalimentarias, Animales y Ambientales, Universidad de O´Higgins, Ruta 90 Kilómetro 3, San Fernando, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Estudios de Zonas Áridas, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Las Cardas s/n, Coquimbo, Chile; Department of Environmental Science and Renewable Natural Resources, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Santiago, Chile; Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz” (ESALQ, USP), Departamento de Engenharia de Biossistemas (LEB), Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Pádua Dias 11, SP, Piracicaba, Brazil
From mobilization to the convention: Dynamics and strategies of socio-environmental organizations in the Chilean constituent process; [DE LA MOVILIZACIÓN A LA CONVENCIÓN: DINÁMICAS Y ESTRATEGIAS DE LAS ORGANIZACIONES SOCIOAMBIENTALES EN EL PROCESO CONSTITUYENTE CHILENO]Carrasco S.; Abad P.; Cuevas C.; Cariaga V.; Mansilla P.; Maillet A.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202210.4067/S0718-23762022000200667The social outburst in Chile generated a relevant milestone in the country's political system, since it catalyzed a process of constitutional change. In this context, the research analyzes the role of socio-territorial actors in the positioning of environmental demands in the constitutional process. In addition, the configuration and strategies of environmental organizations are established. To do this, the article analyzes an intentional sample of socio-environmental organizations deployed throughout the national territory. In the same way, a theoretical perspective is developed on the political strategies of social-environmental organizations and establishes a mixed methodological strategy, combining quantitative and qualitative techniques. The results show that socio-environmental organizations maintain certain common elements regarding the environmental demands they pursue, yet differ in the use of different strategies to influence the constituent process, both insider and outsider. The study contributes to the discussion on environmental mobilization in Chile, moving beyond the case studies, which are the dominant perspectives in this type of research; and at the same time, it portrays an ongoing political process, thus contributing to the current public discussion. © 2022 Universidad de Talca. All rights reserved.Universum0716498Xhttps://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-23762022000200667667-69337Thomson Reuters ESCIconstituent process; demands; mobilization strategies; organizations; socio-environmental mobilization, nanDepartamento de Sociología, Ciencia Política y Administración Pública, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Chile; Universidad Mayor, Colectivo de Estudios Político Ambientales (CEPA), Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Concepción, Colectivo de Estudios Político Ambientales (CEPA), Chile; Facultad de Gobierno, Universidad de Chile, Colectivo de Estudios Político Ambientales (CEPA), Chile; Facultad de Gobierno, Universidad de Chile, Centro de Estudios de Conflicto y Cohesión Social (COES), Centro de Ciencia Del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR2), Colectivo de Estudios Político Ambientales (CEPA), Chile
Worldwide Signature of the 2022 Tonga Volcanic TsunamiCarvajal M.; Sepúlveda I.; Gubler A.; Garreaud R.Agua y Extremos202210.1029/2022GL098153The eruption of the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Volcano in January 2022 in the southwest Pacific islands of Tonga triggered a tsunami that was detected beyond the Pacific basin. Here we show its spatiotemporal signature as revealed by hundreds of publicly available coastal tide gauge records from around the world. The Tonga tsunami was characterized by a uniformly small leading wave that arrived earlier than theoretically expected for a tsunami wave freely propagating away from the volcano. In contrast, the largest waves, of up to +3 m high, were concentrated in the Pacific and their timing agrees well with tsunami propagation times from the volcano. While the leading waves were caused by a previously reported fast-moving atmospheric pressure pulse generated in the volcanic explosion, the large waves observed later in the Pacific were likely originated in the vicinity of the volcano although its generation mechanism(s) cannot be identified by the tide gauge data alone. © 2022. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.Geophysical Research Letters00948276https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2022GL098153arte2022GL09815349Thomson Reuters SCIEatmospheric pressure; hunga tonga-hunga ha'apai volcano; tide gauge records; tonga eruption; volcanic tsunami, pacific islands; atmospheric pressure; tide gages; volcanoes; coastal tide-gauge records; hunga tonga-hunga ha'apai volcano; pacific islands; propagation time; tide gauge record; tide gauges; tonga eruption; tsunami waves; volcanic tsunami; volcanics; atmospheric pressure; tide gauge; tsunami; volcanic eruption; volcano; tsunamisInstituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Geológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, United States; Centro de Investigación Para La Gestión Integrada del Riesgo de Desastres (CIGIDEN), Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Investigación del Clima y la Resiliencia, CR2, Santiago, Chile
PAPILA dataset: A regional emission inventory of reactive gases for South America based on the combination of local and global informationCastesana P.; Diaz Resquin M.; Huneeus N.; Puliafito E.; Darras S.; Gómez D.; Granier C.; Osses Alvarado M.; Rojas N.; Dawidowski L.Ciudades Resilientes202210.5194/essd-14-271-2022The multidisciplinary project Prediction of Air Pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean (PAPILA) is dedicated to the development and implementation of an air quality analysis and forecasting system to assess pollution impacts on human health and economy. In this context, a comprehensive emission inventory for South America was developed on the basis of the existing data on the global dataset CAMS-GLOB-ANT v4.1 (developed by joining CEDS trends and EDGAR v4.3.2 historical data), enriching it with data derived from locally available emission inventories for Argentina, Chile, and Colombia. This work presents the results of the first joint effort of South American researchers and European colleagues to generate regional maps of emissions, together with a methodological approach to continue incorporating information into future versions of the dataset. This version of the PAPILA dataset includes CO, NOx, NMVOCs, NH3, and SO2 annual emissions from anthropogenic sources for the period 2014-2016, with a spatial resolution of 0.1gg×g0.1gover a domain that covers 32-120ggW and 34ggN-58ggS. The PAPILA dataset is presented as netCDF4 files and is available in an open-Access data repository under a CC-BY 4 license: 10.17632/btf2mz4fhf.3 . A comparative assessment of PAPILA-CAMS datasets was carried out for (i) the South American region, (ii) the countries with local data (Argentina, Colombia, and Chile), and (iii) downscaled emission maps for urban domains with different environmental and anthropogenic factors. Relevant differences were found at both country and urban levels for all the compounds analyzed. Among them, we found that when comparing PAPILA total emissions versus CAMS datasets at the national level, higher levels of NOx and considerably lower levels of the other species were obtained for Argentina, higher levels of SO2 and lower levels of CO and NOx for Colombia, and considerably higher levels of CO, NMVOCs, and SO2 for Chile. These discrepancies are mainly related to the representativeness of local practices in the local emission estimates, to the improvements made in the spatial distribution of the locally estimated emissions, or to both. Both datasets were evaluated against surface concentrations of CO and NOx by using them as input data to the WRF-Chem model for one of the analyzed domains, the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, for summer and winter of 2015. PAPILA-based modeling results had a smaller bias for CO and NOx concentrations in winter while CAMS-based results for the same period tended to deliver an underestimation of these concentrations. Both inventories exhibited similar performances for CO in summer, while the PAPILA simulation outperformed CAMS for NOx concentrations. These results highlight the importance of refining global inventories with local data to obtain accurate results with high-resolution air quality models. © 2022 Copernicus. All rights reserved.Earth System Science Data18663508https://essd.copernicus.org/articles/14/271/2022/271-29314Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, latin america; south america; air quality; anthropogenic source; atmospheric pollution; data set; emission inventoryConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Gerencia Química, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Mendoza Regional Faculty-National Technological University (FRM-UTN), Mendoza, Argentina; Laboratoire d'Aérologie, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, France; CIRES, University of Colorado and NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, Boulder, United States; Departamento Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (UTFSM), Santiago, Chile; Air Quality Research Group, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia
The complex Andes region needs improved efforts to face climate extremesCazorla M.; Gallardo L.; Jimenez R.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1525/elementa.2022.00092The steep slopes, highlands, and valleys of the Andes mountain chain are inhabited throughout its formidable length.This unique characteristic does not repeat in any other mountain region.The Andes shape weather and climate in South America. However, proper understanding of atmospheric phenomena influenced by a daunting altitudinal gradient is still behind what is needed to produce detailed and consistent climate projections. Despite significant advances, global models misrepresent key precipitation and circulation processes that are influenced by complex topography. Along with a lack of coordinated observations, the result is limited information to design preparedness measures, particularly to face extreme climate events. Of equal concern is the issue of air quality in densely urbanized countries that face decarbonization challenges and share a legacy of social inequity and political unrest. The complexity of the Andes region magnifies risks within all nations that share their influence. Thus, urgent action is needed to improve climate and air quality assessments with the direct purpose of strengthening policy-making processes. © 2022 The Author(s).Elementa23251026https://online.ucpress.edu/elementa/article/10/1/00092/194534/The-complex-Andes-region-needs-improved-efforts-toart1010Thomson Reuters SCIEandes; climate change; climate extremes; climate policy; south america, andes; altitude; atmospheric circulation; climate change; climate effect; climate modeling; environmental policy; extreme event; mountain regionUniversidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ, Colegio de Ciencias e Ingenierías, Instituto de Investigaciones Atmosféricas, Quito, Ecuador; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Bogota, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Air Quality Research Group, Bogota, Colombia
Modes of access to water for domestic use in rural Chile: a typological proposalChloé N.-A.; Gustavo B.; Carlos B.; Noelia C.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Zonas Costeras; Agua y Extremos202210.2166/wp.2022.026A typology is proposed regarding the modes of access to water for the rural population in Chile as well as four explanatory dimensions of its heterogeneity. The typology emerges from a systematic review of the literature and an analysis of quantitative data based on rural water organizations’ databases. The modes of access are defined by the following five criteria: their socio-technical system, their type of management, their level of spatial action, the source of their financing, and the type of technical assistance they received. The findings dispute the systemic vision of access to water in rural areas and invite us to consider the structural heterogeneity in regulations and public policies to guarantee the human right to water. © 2022 The Authors.Water Policy13667017https://iwaponline.com/wp/article/24/7/1179/89257/Modes-of-access-to-water-for-domestic-use-in-rural1179-119424Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, chile; climate change; drinking water; rural water supply; water law; water securityCentro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Historia y Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Centro de Investigación en Dinámicas de Ecosistemas Marinos de Altas Latitudes, Valdivia, Chile; Department of Agricultural Economics, Universidad de Talca, Av. Lircay S/N, Talca, 3460000, Chile; Departamento de Historia, Universidad de Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 240, Concepción, 4030000, Chile
Callampas of disaster: negotiations and struggles for the commons under forestry hegemony in ChileCid-Aguayo,Beatriz E;Krstulovic-Matus,Josefa E;Carrasco Henríquez,Noelia;Mella-Moraga,Valentina;Oñate Vargas,Diego;Zonas Costeras202210.1093/cdj/bsac030The massive planting of exotic species under the so-called forestry model has dramatically transformed the landscapes of south-central Chile, replacing diverse agricultural, livestock and forest landscapes with forest monocultures, which are highly water-consuming and prone to massive fires. This has meant a productive simplification, and peasant communities have been displaced and stripped of their traditional ways of life. However, in this landscape of disaster, biotic communities of fungi have flourished, and with them human communities of collectors have learned to sustain themselves in a monocultural and privatized scenario. This paper is based on a multi-local ethnographic approach, built upon 26 semi-structured interviews, participant observation, social mapping, creating a calendar and a trend line. The text documents the processes of two communities affected by massive fires which have developed organization, agencies and practices. Mushrooms (callampas in Chilean Spanish) are claimed as a common good derived from the forestry model, claiming access to their use and usufruct of land belonging to forestry companies. They have also developed local governance systems for the care and better use of this new resource for common use. Forestry companies, for their part, try to subsume these practices in their territorial governance processes, disputing these commons’ meaning and purpose. Both cases contribute to empirically address the central thesis of this article, according to which communalization exercises within contexts of capitalist expansion constitute responses of survival, resistance and adaptation in landscapes transformed and devastated by extractivist industries.Community Development Journal0010-3802, 1468-2656https://academic.oup.com/cdj/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cdj/bsac030/6762889bsac030Thomson Reuters SSCI
Central tropical Pacific convection drives extreme high temperatures and surface melt on the Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctic PeninsulaClem K.R.; Bozkurt D.; Kennett D.; King J.C.; Turner J.Agua y Extremos202210.1038/s41467-022-31119-4Northern sections of the Larsen Ice Shelf, eastern Antarctic Peninsula (AP) have experienced dramatic break-up and collapse since the early 1990s due to strong summertime surface melt, linked to strengthened circumpolar westerly winds. Here we show that extreme summertime surface melt and record-high temperature events over the eastern AP and Larsen C Ice Shelf are triggered by deep convection in the central tropical Pacific (CPAC), which produces an elongated cyclonic anomaly across the South Pacific coupled with a strong high pressure anomaly over Drake Passage. Together these atmospheric circulation anomalies transport very warm and moist air to the southwest AP, often in the form of “atmospheric rivers”, producing strong foehn warming and surface melt on the eastern AP and Larsen C Ice Shelf. Therefore, variability in CPAC convection, in addition to the circumpolar westerlies, is a key driver of AP surface mass balance and the occurrence of extreme high temperatures. © 2022, The Author(s).Nature Communications20411723https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-022-31119-4art390613Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, antarctic regions; convection; freezing; ice cover; temperature; antarctic peninsula; antarctica; drake passage; larsen ice shelf; pacific ocean; pacific ocean (south); pacific ocean (tropical); west antarctica; air-sea interaction; atmospheric circulation; circumpolar current; high pressure; westerly; antarctica; article; drake (duck); high temperature; hyperbaric pressure; ice shelf; male; nonhuman; river; thermodynamics; warming; antarctica; freezing; ice cover; temperatureSchool of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand; Department of Meteorology, University of Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Center for Oceanographic Research COPAS COASTAL, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, Cambridge, United Kingdom
High ENSO sensitivity in tree rings from a northern population of Polylepis tarapacana in the Peruvian AndesCrispín-DelaCruz D.B.; Morales M.S.; Andreu-Hayles L.; Christie D.A.; Guerra A.; Requena-Rojas E.J.Agua y Extremos202210.1016/j.dendro.2021.125902Polylepis tarapacana is the highest-elevation tree species worldwide growing between 4000 and 5000 m a.s.l. along the South American Altiplano. P. tarapacana is adapted to live in harsh conditions and has been widely used for drought and precipitation tree-ring based reconstructions. Here, we present a 400-year tree-ring width (TRW) chronology located in southern Peru (17ºS; 69ºW) at the northernmost limit of P. tarapacana tree species distribution. The objectives of this study are to assess tree growth sensitivity of a northern P. tarapacana population to (1) precipitation, temperature and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability; (2) to compare its growth variability and ENSO sensitivity with southern P. tarapacana forests. Our results showed that this TRW record is highly sensitive to the prior summer season (Nov-Jan) precipitation (i.e. positive correlation) when the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) reaches its maximum intensity in this region. We also found a positive relationship with current year temperature that suggests that radial growth may be enhanced by warm, less cloudy, conditions during the year of formation. A strong positive relationship was found between el Niño 3.4 and tree growth variability during the current growing season, but negative during the previous growth period. Growth variability in our northern study site was in agreement with other populations that represent almost the full range of P. tarapacana latitudinal distribution (~ 18ºS to 23ºS). Towards the south of the P. tarapacana TRW network there was a decrease in the strength of the agreement of growth variability with our site,with the exception of higher correlation with the two southeastern sites. Similarly, the TRW chronologies recorded higher sensitivity to ENSO influences in the north and southeastern locations, which are wetter, than the drier southwestern sites. These patterns hold for the entire period, as well as for periods of high and low ENSO activity. Overall, P. tarapacana tree growth at the north of its distribution is mostly influenced by prior year moisture availability and current year temperature that are linked to large-scale climate patterns such as the SASM and ENSO, respectively. © 2021 Elsevier GmbHDendrochronologia11257865https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1125786521000989art12590271Thomson Reuters SCIEaltiplano; andes; peru; polylepis tarapacana; adaptation; chronology; dendrochronology; el nino-southern oscillation; reconstruction; sensitivity analysis; shrub; tree ring, central andes; climate variability; enso proxy record; northwest altiplano; paleoclimate; tree-growth; tropical dendroclimatologyLaboratorio de Dendrocronología, Universidad Continental, Huancayo, Peru; Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales, CONICET, Mendoza, Argentina; Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, New York, NY, United States; CREAF, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallés), Barcelona, Spain; ICREA, Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona, Spain; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Cambio Global, Instituto de Conservación Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Chile; Missouri Botanical Garden, Prolong. Bolognesi Mz.E Lote 6, Pasco, Oxapampa, Peru
Modeling the Ignition Risk: Analysis before and after Megafire on Maule Region, ChileCruz G.A.D.L.; Alfaro G.; Alonso C.; Calvo R.; Orellana P.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202210.3390/app12189353Wildland fires are a phenomenon of broad interest due to their relationship with climate change. The impacts of climate change are related to a greater frequency and intensity of wildland fires. In this context, megafires have become a phenomenon of particular concern. In this study, we develop a model of ignition risk. We use factors such as human activity, geographic, topographic, and land cover variables to develop a bagged decision tree model. The study area corresponds to the Maule region in Chile, a large zone with a Mediterranean climate. This area was affected by a megafire in 2017. After generating the model, we compared three interface zones, analyzing the scar and the occurrences of ignition during and after the megafire. For the construction of georeferenced data, we used the geographic information system QGIS. The results show a model with high fit goodness that can be replicated in other areas. Fewer ignitions are observed after the megafire, a high recovery of urban infrastructure, and a slow recovery of forest plantations. It is feasible to interpret that the lower number of ignitions observed in the 2019–2020 season is a consequence of the megafire scar. It is crucial to remember that the risk of ignition will increase as forest crops recover. Wildland fire management requires integrating this information into decision-making processes if we consider that the impacts of climate change persist in the area. © 2022 by the authors.Applied Sciences (Switzerland)20763417https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/12/18/9353art935312Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, bagged decision tree; climate change; ignition risk; megafire; model; wildfire; wildland urban interfaceDepartment of Social Work, University of Chile, Av. Ignacio Carrera Pinto 1045, Ñuñoa, Santiago, 7800284, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Blanco Encalada 2002, Floor 4, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Nucleus of Transdisciplinary Systemic Studies, University of Chile, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; Industrial Engineering Department, University of Chile, Av. Víctor Jara 3769, Estación Central, Santiago, 9170124, Chile; Institute of Geography, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Campus San Joaquín—Avda. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago, Macul, 7820436, Chile
Well-to-wheel emissions and abatement strategies for passenger vehicles in two Latin American citiesCuéllar-Álvarez Y.; Clappier A.; Osses M.; Thunis P.; Belalcázar-Cerón L.C.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1007/s11356-022-20885-9More stringent standards for engines and fuels are progressively implemented as alternatives to reduce on-road vehicle emissions. While electric vehicles appear as a perfect alternative since their engines do not emit pollutants, wear and dust resuspension (W&R) and indirect emissions associated with electricity production remain significant sources of pollution. This work compares well-to-wheel emissions (WTW) and abatement strategies for various types of passenger vehicles in Bogotá and Santiago for different pollutants (CO, PM2.5, SO2, and NOx) and greenhouse gases like CO2 equivalent (CO2-Eq). Results show that WTW baseline emissions are more extensive in Bogotá than in Santiago (i.e., 58 and 30% for PM2.5 and CO2-Eq), mainly due to the higher vehicle activity and older state of Bogotá’s fleet. We also evaluated extreme scenarios to assess the potential of a given vehicle technology or energy source to reduce emissions. We assessed, in particular, the replacement of all current vehicles by (1) conventional technologies with stricter emission standards and (2) battery electric vehicles powered with different energy resources. Our results indicate that replacing the current fleet with modern combustion technologies has a lower reduction potential than battery electric vehicles, but these reductions largely depend on the energy mix. Substitution by electric vehicles powered with electricity from renewable energies is the most efficient scenario in both cities. Finally, results also stress the importance of the resuspension of deposited road dust and brake and tire wear emissions in both cities as a crucial source of PM2.5, which must be better controlled. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.Environmental Science and Pollution Research09441344https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11356-022-20885-972074-7208529Thomson Reuters SCIEair quality; climate change; electricity mix; emission inventory; life cycle emissions; well-to-wheel, air pollutants; carbon dioxide; cities; dust; greenhouse gases; latin america; motor vehicles; vehicle emissions; santiago; carbon dioxide; alternative energy; combustion; dust; electricity generation; emission control; emission inventory; resuspension; tire; wear; air pollutant; city; dust; exhaust gas; greenhouse gas; motor vehicle; south and central americaDepartamento de Ingeniería Química y Ambiental, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia; Laboratoire Image Ville Environnement, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France; Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Santiago, Chile; Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra, Italy
Impact of biomass burning and stratospheric intrusions in the remote South Pacific Ocean troposphereDaskalakis N.; Gallardo L.; Kanakidou M.; Nüß J.R.; Menares C.; Rondanelli R.; Thompson A.M.; Vrekoussis M.Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes202210.5194/acp-22-4075-2022The ozone mixing ratio spatiotemporal variability in the pristine South Pacific Ocean is studied, for the first time, using 21-year-long ozone (O3) records from the entire southern tropical and subtropical Pacific between 1994 and 2014. The analysis considered regional O3 vertical observations from ozonesondes, surface carbon monoxide (CO) observations from flasks, and three-dimensional chemistry-transport model simulations of the global troposphere. Two 21-year-long numerical simulations, with and without biomass burning emissions, were performed to disentangle the importance of biomass burning relative to stratospheric intrusions for ambient ozone levels in the region. Tagged tracers of O3 from the stratosphere and CO from various biomass burning regions have been used to track the impact of these different regions on the southern tropical Pacific O3 and CO levels. Patterns have been analyzed based on atmospheric dynamics variability. Considering the interannual variability in the observations, the model can capture the observed ozone gradients in the troposphere with a positive bias of 7.5 % in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) as well as near the surface. Remarkably, even the most pristine region of the global ocean is affected by distant biomass burning emissions by convective outflow through the mid and high troposphere and subsequent subsidence over the pristine oceanic region. Therefore, the biomass burning contribution to tropospheric CO levels maximizes in the UTLS. The Southeast Asian open fires have been identified as the major contributing source to CO from biomass burning in the tropical South Pacific, contributing on average for the study period about 8.5 and 13 ppbv of CO at Rapa Nui and Samoa, respectively, at an altitude of around 12 km during the burning season in the spring of the Southern Hemisphere. South America is the second-most important biomass burning source region that influences the study area. Its impact maximizes in the lower troposphere (6.5 ppbv for Rapa Nui and 3.8 ppbv for Samoa). All biomass burning sources contribute about 15-23 ppbv of CO at Rapa Nui and Samoa and account for about 25 % of the total CO in the entire troposphere of the tropical and subtropical South Pacific. This impact is also seen on tropospheric O3, to which biomass burning O3 precursor emissions contribute only a few ppbv during the burning period, while the stratosphere-troposphere exchange is the most important source of O3 for the mid troposphere of the South Pacific Ocean, contributing about 15-20 ppbv in the subtropics. © 2022 Nikos Daskalakis et al.Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics16807316https://acp.copernicus.org/articles/22/4075/2022/4075-409922Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, pacific ocean; pacific ocean (south); atmospheric chemistry; biomass burning; carbon monoxide; computer simulation; numerical model; ozone; ozonesonde; spatiotemporal analysis; stratosphere-troposphere interactionLaboratory for Modeling and Observation of the Earth System (LAMOS), Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (ECPL), Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Heraklion, 70013, Greece; Cstacc, ICE-HT, Forth, Patras, Greece; Nasa Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, 20771, MD, United States; Center of Marine Environmental Sciences (MARUM), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Climate and Atmosphere Research Center (CARE-C), Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus
Enhanced nitrogen and carbon removal in natural seawater by electrochemical enrichment in a bioelectrochemical reactorDe La Fuente M.J.; De la Iglesia R.; Farias L.; Glasner B.; Torres-Rojas F.; Muñoz D.; Daims H.; Lukumbuzya M.; Vargas I.T.Zonas Costeras202210.1016/j.jenvman.2022.116294Municipal and industrial wastewater discharges in coastal and marine environments are of major concern due to their high carbon and nitrogen loads and the resulted phenomenon of eutrophication. Bioelectrochemical reactors (BERs) for simultaneous nitrogen and carbon removal have gained attention owing to their cost efficiency and versatility, as well as the possibility of electrochemical enrich specific groups. This study presented a scalable two-chamber BERs using graphite granules as electrode material. BERs were inoculated and operated for 37 days using natural seawater with high concentrations of ammonium and acetate. The BERs demonstrated a maximum current density of 0.9 A m−3 and removal rates of 7.5 mg NH4+-N L−1 d−1 and 99.5 mg L−1 d−1 for total organic carbon (TOC). Removals observed for NH4+-N and TOC were 96.2% and 68.7%, respectively. The results of nutrient removal (i.e., ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and TOC) and microbial characterization (i.e., next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and fluorescence in situ hybridization) showed that BERs operated with a poised cathode at −260 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) significantly enriched nitrifying microorganisms in the anode and denitrifying microorganisms and planctomycetes in the cathode. Interestingly, the electrochemical enrichment did not increase the total number of microorganisms in the formed biofilms but controlled their composition. Thus, this work shows the first successful attempt to electrochemically enrich marine nitrifying and denitrifying microorganisms and presents a technique to accelerate the start-up process of BERs to remove dissolved inorganic nitrogen and total organic carbon from seawater. © 2022 Elsevier LtdJournal of Environmental Management03014797https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0301479722018679art116294323Thomson Reuters SCIEfluorescence; nitrates; nitrification; nitrites; nitrogen; rna, ribosomal, bioelectrochemical reactor; denitrification; microbial electrochemical technologies; microbial enrichment; nitrification; seawater, 16s; seawater; waste water; acetic acid; ammonia; carbon; graphite; nitrate; nitrite; nitrogen; rna 16s; sea water; ammonium derivative; carbon; graphite; nitric acid derivative; nitrogen; rna 16s; sea water; denitrification; electrochemical method; fluorescence; nitrification; seawater; article; controlled study; current density; denitrifyer; electrochemistry; environmental enrichment; fluorescence in situ hybridization; high throughput sequencing; microbial community; nitrifyer; nonhuman; oligonucleotide probe; planctomycetes; total organic carbon; water treatment; bioreactor; chemistry; denitrification; nitrification; wastewater, ammonium compounds; bioreactors; carbon; denitrification; graphite; in situ hybridizationDepartamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Facultad de Ingeniería, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Santiago, Chile; Marine Energy Research & Innovation Center (MERIC). Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Oceanografía, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción. Concepción, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2, piso 4. Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile. Santiago, Blanco Encalada, 2002, Chile; University of Vienna, Centre for Microbiology and Environmental Systems Science, Division of Microbial Ecology, Vienna, Austria; University of Vienna, The Comammox Research Platform, Vienna, Austria; CEDEUS, Centro de Desarrollo Urbano Sustentable, Santiago, Chile
The global spectrum of plant form and function: enhanced species-level trait datasetDíaz S.; Kattge J.; Cornelissen J.H.C.; Wright I.J.; Lavorel S.; Dray S.; Reu B.; Kleyer M.; Wirth C.; Prentice I.C.; Garnier E.; Bönisch G.; Westoby M.; Poorter H.; Reich P.B.; Moles A.T.; Dickie J.; Zanne A.E.; Chave J.; Wright S.J.; Sheremetiev S.N.; Jactel H.; Baraloto C.; Cerabolini B.E.L.; Pierce S.; Shipley B.; Casanoves F.; Joswig J.S.; Günther A.; Falczuk V.; Rüger N.; Mahecha M.D.; Gorné L.D.; Amiaud B.; Atkin O.K.; Bahn M.; Baldocchi D.; Beckmann M.; Blonder B.; Bond W.; Bond-Lamberty...Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.1038/s41597-022-01774-9Here we provide the ‘Global Spectrum of Plant Form and Function Dataset’, containing species mean values for six vascular plant traits. Together, these traits –plant height, stem specific density, leaf area, leaf mass per area, leaf nitrogen content per dry mass, and diaspore (seed or spore) mass – define the primary axes of variation in plant form and function. The dataset is based on ca. 1 million trait records received via the TRY database (representing ca. 2,500 original publications) and additional unpublished data. It provides 92,159 species mean values for the six traits, covering 46,047 species. The data are complemented by higher-level taxonomic classification and six categorical traits (woodiness, growth form, succulence, adaptation to terrestrial or aquatic habitats, nutrition type and leaf type). Data quality management is based on a probabilistic approach combined with comprehensive validation against expert knowledge and external information. Intense data acquisition and thorough quality control produced the largest and, to our knowledge, most accurate compilation of empirically observed vascular plant species mean traits to date. © 2022, The Author(s).Scientific Data20524463https://www.nature.com/articles/s41597-022-01774-9art7559Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, article; bacterial spore; controlled study; data quality; dry mass; habitat; leaf area; leaf nitrogen content; nonhuman; nutrition; plant height; plant leaf; plant seed; plant stem; quality control; vascular plantConsejo Nacional de investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (IMBIV), Córdoba, Argentina; Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Casilla de Correo 495, Córdoba, 5000, Argentina; Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Hans-Knöll Str. 10, Jena, 07745, Germany; German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; A-LIFE, section Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, 2751, NSW, Australia; School of Natural Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109, NSW, Australia; Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Univ. Savoie Mont Blanc, LECA, Grenoble, France; Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, Villeurbanne, F-69100, France; Escuela de Biología, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Cra. 27 Calle 9, Bucaramanga, 680002, Colombia; Landscape Ecology Group, Inst. of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, 26111, Germany; University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; Georgina Mace Centre for the Living Planet, Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Buckhurst Road, Ascot, SL5 7PY, United Kingdom; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modelling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, ...
Forest plantation subsidies: Impact evaluation of the Chilean caseEspaña F.; Arriagada R.; Melo O.; Foster W.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.1016/j.forpol.2022.102696Over the past half century there has been a rapid expansion of the forestry sector in Chile. One hypothesis is that this growth was stimulated in major part by government-supported financial incentives to forestry plantations dating from the mid-1970s. Evaluating the effects of subsidies on plantations is of current policy interest due to the potential importance of forests as carbon sinks. This study evaluates the impact of subsidies on the establishment of forest plantations (under the specific law DL701) for the period between the years 1998 and 2013 using matching techniques in combination with Difference-in-Differences. Results show that government subsidies have had a statistically and economically significant positive impact on plantations, increasing the forested area of subsidy program participants by approximately 13% compared with the counterfactual scenario without such subsidies. © 2022 Elsevier B.V.Forest Policy and Economics13899341https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1389934122000089art102696137Thomson Reuters SCIE, SSCIcomputer programs; evaluation; forestry; impact; incentives; interest; land use; plantations; land use; timber; 'current; financial incentives; forest additionality; forest plantation; forestry plantation; forestry sector; forestry subsidy; impact evaluation; landuse change; rapid expansion; forestry, forest additionality; forestry subsidies; impact evaluation; land use changeDepartment of Agricultural Economics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Millennium Nucleus Center for the Socioeoconomic Impact of Environmental Policies (CESIEP), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Department of Ecosystems and Environment, Center for Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Center for Intercultural and Indigenous Research (CIIR), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Chile
Atmospheric rivers drive exceptional Saharan dust transport towards EuropeFrancis D.; Fonseca R.; Nelli N.; Bozkurt D.; Picard G.; Guan B.Agua y Extremos202210.1016/j.atmosres.2021.105959This study highlights the occurrence of atmospheric rivers (ARs) over northwest Africa towards Europe, which were accompanied by intense episodes of Saharan dust transport all the way to Scandinavia, in the winter season. Using a combination of observational and reanalysis data, we investigate two extreme dusty AR events in February 2021 and assess their impact on snow melt in the Alps. The warm, moist, and dusty air mass (spatially-averaged 2-meter temperature and water vapour mixing ratio anomalies of up to 8 K and 3 g kg−1, and aerosol optical depths and dust loadings of up to 0.85 and 11 g m−2, respectively) led to a 50% and 40% decrease in snow depth and surface albedo, respectively, in less than one month during the winter season. ARs over northwest Africa show increasing trends over the past 4 decades, with 78% of AR events associated with severe dust episodes over Europe. © 2021 The AuthorsAtmospheric Research01698095https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0169809521005159art105959266Thomson Reuters SCIEalps; sahara; atmospheric aerosols; atmospheric movements; digital storage; dust; snow; water vapor; atmospheric river; dust aerosols; dust transport; european alps; sahara desert; saharan dust; scandinavia; snow-melting; water vapour; winter seasons; aerosol; atmospheric circulation; atmospheric transport; dust; snowmelt; water vapor; rivers, atmospheric rivers; dust aerosols; european alps; sahara desert; snow melting; water vapourEnvironmental and Geophysical Sciences (ENGEOS) Lab, Khalifa University, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Department of Meteorology, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, 2340000, Chile; University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Institut des Géosciences de l'Environnement (IGE), UMR 5001, Grenoble, 38041, France; Joint Institute for Regional Earth System Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, Indonesia; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, 91109, CA, United States; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, 8320000, Chile
Declining honey production and beekeeper adaptation to climate change in ChileGajardo-Rojas M.; Muñoz A.A.; Barichivich J.; Klock-Barría K.; Gayo E.M.; Fontúrbel F.E.; Olea M.; Lucas C.M.; Veas C.Ciudades Resilientes; Agua y Extremos202210.1177/03091333221093757Drought severity has pervasive impacts on honey production via direct impacts on water resources and nectar availability. The current mega-drought in Chile has impacts on water resources and forest vigor, particularly in the Mediterranean and Temperate regions where honey production is concentrated. While honey production plays an important role in the local rural economy and providing pollination services to other agricultural activities, studies of the long-term impacts of the mega-drought on honey production are scarce. Here, we evaluate the impact of climate variability on historical changes in honey production in the Mediterranean (32°S–37°S) and Temperate (37°S–41°S) regions of Chile, using annual honey production records of beekeepers together with national records of honey exports. We also used questionnaires and interviews to evaluate beekeeper perceptions regarding the effects of climate change on honey production and adaptation practices in both regions. Results indicated a declining trend in honey production and exports in the last decade, largely related to changes in precipitation and temperature in both regions. Declines in honey production affected 82% of beekeepers, 80% of whom had employed adaptive measures, and 74% considered that these measures were effective. The drier, warmer Mediterranean region showed more severe declines in precipitation and honey production, which beekeepers reported as a main contributing factor to transhumance from the Mediterranean to the Temperate region. This is the first study to show the effects of drought on honey production in Chile, providing a foundation for future climate change adaptation strategies within apiculture. © The Author(s) 2022.Progress in Physical Geography03091333http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/03091333221093757737-75646Thomson Reuters SCIEadaptation; apiculture; beekeeping; climate change; drought; forest vigor; honey; honey bee; transhumance, chile; adaptive management; apiculture; climate change; climate effect; drought; environmental stress; forest dynamics; honeyInstituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Acción Climática, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Brasil, Valparaíso, 2241, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement (LSCE), Paris, France; Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad (IEB), Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Biología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Polo Ecologia Fluvial, Departamento del Agua, CENUR Litoral Norte, Universidad de La República, Paysandu, Uruguay; Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios de Territorios Litorales y Rurales, Valparaíso, Chile
Tree-ring distinctness, dating potential and climatic sensitivity of laurel forest tree species in Tenerife IslandGarcía-López M.A.; Rozas V.; Olano J.M.; Sangüesa-Barreda G.; García-Hidalgo M.; Gómez-González S.; López-Rubio R.; Fernández-Palacios J.M.; García-González I.; García-Cervigón A.I.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.1016/j.dendro.2022.126011Macaronesian laurel forests are the only remnants of a subtropical palaeoecosystem dominant during the Tertiary in Europe and northern Africa. These biodiverse ecosystems are restricted to cloudy and temperate insular environments in the North Atlantic Ocean. Due to their reduced distribution area, these forests are particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbances and changes in climatic conditions. The assessment of laurel forest trees’ response to climate variation by dendrochronological methods is limited because it was assumed that the lack of marked seasonality would prevent the formation of distinct annual tree rings. The aims of this study were to identify the presence of annual growth rings and to assess the dendrochronological potential of the most representative tree species from laurel forests in Tenerife, Canary Islands. We sampled increment cores from 498 trees of 12 species in two well-preserved forests in Tenerife Island. We evaluated tree-ring boundary distinctness, dating potential, and sensitivity of tree-ring growth to climate and, particularly, to drought occurrence. Eight species showed clear tree-ring boundaries, but synchronic annual tree rings and robust tree-ring chronologies were only obtained for Laurus novocanariensis, Ilex perado subsp. platyphylla, Persea indica and Picconia excelsa, a third of the studied species. Tree-ring width depended on water balance and drought occurrence, showing sharp reductions in growth in the face of decreased water availability, a response that was consistent among species and sites. Inter-annual tree-ring width variation was directly dependent on rainfall input in the humid period, from previous October to current April. The four negative pointer years 1995, 1999, 2008 and 2012 corresponded to severe drought events in the study area. This study gives the first assessment of dendrochronological potential and tree-ring climate sensitivity of tree species from the Tenerife laurel forest, which opens new research avenues for dendroecological studies in Macaronesian laurel forests. © 2022 The AuthorsDendrochronologia11257865https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1125786522000911art12601176Thomson Reuters SCIEcanary islands; canary islands; santa cruz de tenerife [(prv) canary islands]; spain; tenerife; climate change; dendrochronology; drought; evergreen tree; tree ring; water budget, climate extremes; cloud forest; drought; macaronesia; pointer yearsEiFAB-iuFOR, Universidad de Valladolid, Campus Duques de Soria, Soria, E-42004, Spain; Departamento de Biología-IVAGRO, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro, Puerto Real, E-11510, Spain; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Área de Biodiversidad y Conservación, Universidad Rey Juan C arlos, c/Tulipán s/n, Móstoles, E-28933, Spain; Departamento de Botánica, Ecología y Fisiología Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Laguna, Campus de Anchieta, Tenerife, La Laguna, E-38206, Spain; Departamento de Botánica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Escola Politécnica Superior de Enxeñaría, Campus Terra, Lugo, E-27002, Spain
Running a Scientific Conference During Pandemic TimesGarreaud R.; Ralph M.; Wilson A.; Ramos A.M.; Eiras-Barca J.; Steen-Larsen H.C.; Rutz J.; Albano C.; Tilinina N.; Warner M.; Viale M.; Rondanelli R.; McPhee J.; Valenzuela R.; Gorodetskaya I.Zonas Costeras; Agua y Extremos202210.1175/BAMS-D-22-0023.1[No abstract available]Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society00030007https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/journals/bams/aop/BAMS-D-22-0023.1/BAMS-D-22-0023.1.xmlE1650-E1657103Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, atmospheric river; flood events; mountain meteorology; precipitation; rainfall; runoffDepartamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, Chile; Center for Western Weather and Water Extremes, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States; Instituto Dom Luiz, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Universidade de Vigo, Vigo, Spain; University of Bergen, Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway; NWS Western Region, Salt Lake City, UT, United States; Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV, United States; Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Moscow, Russian Federation; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle, WA, United States; Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales, Mendoza, Argentina; Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Cs. de la Ingeniería, Universidad de O’Higgins,, Rancagua, Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, Chile; Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Physics, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
A Cross-Cutting Approach for Relating Anthropocene, Environmental Injustice and Sacrifice ZonesGayo E.M.; Muñoz A.A.; Maldonado A.; Lavergne C.; Francois J.P.; Rodríguez D.; Klock-Barría K.; Sheppard P.R.; Aguilera-Betti I.; Alonso-Hernández C.; Mena-Carrasco M.; Urquiza A.; Gallardo L.Agua y Extremos; Ciudades Resilientes202210.1029/2021EF002217The Anthropocene is an uneven phenomenon. Accelerated shifts in the functioning of the Earth System are mainly driven by the production and consumption of wealthy economies. Social, environmental and health costs of such industrialization, however, bear on low-income communities inhabiting severely degraded territories by polluting activities (i.e., sacrifice zones). How global, national and local socio-economic and governance processes have interacted in perpetuating socio-environmental inequalities in these territories has been rarely explored. Here, we develop an historical quantitative approach integrating a novel chemostratigraphic record, data on policy making, and socio-economic trends to evaluate the feedback relationship between environmental injustice and Anthropocene in sacrifice zones. We specifically outline a case study for the Puchuncaví valley -one of the most emblematic sacrifice zones from Chile-. We verify an ever-growing burden of heavy metals and metalloids over the past five decades paced by the staggering expansion of local industrial activities, which has ultimately been spurred by national and transnational market forces. Local poverty levels have declined concomitantly, but this path toward social equality is marginal as costs of pollution have grown through time. Indeed, national and international pollution control actions appear insufficient in mitigating the cumulative impact brought by highly toxic elements. Thus, our sub-decadal reconstruction for pollution trends over the past 136 years from a sediment record, emerges as a science-based tool for informing the discussion on Anthropocene governance. Furthermore, it helps to advance in the assessment of environmental inequality in societal models that prioritize economic growth to the detriment of socio-environmental security. © 2022 The Authors. Earth's Future published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Geophysical Union.Earth's Future23284277https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2021EF002217arte2021EF00221710Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; anthropocene; economic growth; environmental justice; paleoenvironment; pollution control; socioeconomic impact; trace element; trend analysis, anthropocene risks; paleopollution records; puchuncaví; socio-economic trends; socio-environmental inequalities; trace elementsCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Institue of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), Santiago, Chile; Núcleo Milenio UPWELL, Concepción, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Center for Climate Action, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), La Serena, Chile; Departamento de Biología Marina, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile; HUB AMBIENTAL UPLA, Universidad de Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile; Laboratory of Aquatic Environmental Research, Centro de Estudios Avanzados (CEA), Universidad de Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias y Geografía, Universidad de Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Investigación en Tecnología para La Sociedad (C+), Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States; Centro Transdisciplinario de Estudios Ambientales y Desarrollo Humano Sostenible (CEAM), Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; International Atomic Energy Agency—Marine Environment Laboratories (IAEA-EL), Principality of Monaco, Monte Carlo, Monaco; Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
A coupled modeling approach to assess the effect of forest policies in water provision: A biophysical evaluation of a drought-prone rural catchment in south-central ChileGimeno F.; Galleguillos M.; Manuschevich D.; Zambrano-Bigiarini M.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Agua y Extremos202210.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.154608The effect of different forest conservation policies on water provision has been poorly investigated due to a lack of an integrative methodological framework that enables its quantification. We developed a method for assessing the effects of forest conservation policies on water provision for rural inhabitants, based on a land-use model coupled with an eco-hydrological model. We used as a case study the Lumaco catchment, Chile, a territory dominated by native forests (NF) and non-native tree farms, with an extended dry period where nearly 12,600 people of rural communities get drinking water through water trucks. We analyzed three land-use policy scenarios: i) a baseline scenario based on historical land-cover maps; ii) a NF Recovery and Protection (NFRP) scenario, based on an earlier implementation of the first NF Recovery and Forestry Development bill; and iii) a Pristine (PR) scenario, based on potential vegetation belts; the latter two based on Dyna CLUE, and simulated between 1990 and 2015. Impacts on water provision from each scenario were computed with SWAT. The NFRP scenario resulted in an increase of 6974 ha of NF regarding the baseline situation, and the PR scenario showed an increase of 26,939 ha of NF. Despite large differences in NF areas, slight increases in inflows (Q) were found between the NFRP and the PR scenarios, with relative differences with respect to the baseline of 0.3% and 2.5% for NFRP and PR, respectively. Notwithstanding, these small differences in the NFRP scenario, they become larger if we analyze the cumulative values during the dry season only (December, January, and February), where they reach 1.1% in a normal year and 3.1% in a dry year. Flows increases were transformed into water truck costs resulting in up to 441,876 USD (monthly) of fiscal spending that could be avoided during a dry period. © 2022 Elsevier B.V.Science of the Total Environment00489697https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969722017016art154608830Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; conservation of natural resources; drinking water; droughts; forests; humans; policy; rural population; chile; catchments; climate models; forestry; land use; potable water; rain; remote sensing; runoff; rural areas; trucks; drinking water; water; drinking water; conservation policy; environmental assessment; forest conservation; hydrological models; land use modelling; native forests; policy environmental assessment; remote-sensing; scenario-based; water provision; biophysics; catchment; drought; environmental assessment; forest management; forestry policy; hydrological modeling; land use; modeling; remote sensing; water management; agricultural land; article; biophysics; catchment area (hydrology); chile; drought; dry season; environmental policy; environmental protection; forest; hydrological model; implementation science; land use; nonhuman; remote sensing; rural area; simulation; tree; vegetation; water flow; forest; human; policy; rural population; drought, hydrological model; land-use model; policy environmental assessment; remote sensingDoctorado en Ciencias de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibañez, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile
Carbon stocks across different environments, disturbance regimes, and stand age in Fitzroya cupressoides forests, the longest-lived species of the southern hemisphereGonzález M.E.; Lara A.; Urrutia-Jalabert R.; Bustos-Salazar A.; Ruiz-Gómez C.; Aravena J.C.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.3389/ffgc.2022.960429Forest disturbances influence Fitzroya cupressoides forest structure and carbon stocks at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Natural disturbances such as landslides and volcanism affect and give rise to the mostly pristine Fitzroya stands present in the Andean cordillera. On the other hand, mostly human-caused fires and logging have been the main processes shaping the structure of Fitzroya stands in the Coastal range and of Fitzroya small remnants in the Central depression. The main goal of this study was to assess the carbon stocks and accumulation rates of Fitzroya forest stands according to their development stage under different disturbance regimes and environmental conditions given by the three physiographic units where the species grows (Coastal range, Central depression, and Andean range). The site selection included an age sequence of stands, known as a chronosequence approach. We identified Fitzroya post-disturbance stands in three different stages of development: young forest stage (mean stand age of the main cohort ≤ 200 years old), mature forest stage (200–800 years old), and old growth forest stage (800–1,500 years old). The following biomass components were considered: living standing trees, dead standing trees (snags), and logs from dead trees laying on the ground (coarse woody debris). Old-growth Fitzroya forests reached a mean total carbon stock (standing live trees, snags, and coarse woody debris) of 507, 279, and 331 Mg C ha−1 in the Andean and Coastal ranges, and Central depression, respectively. Fitzroya cupressoides contributes, in average, more than 80% to the total carbon stock in the Andean and Coastal ranges, and 63% in the Central depression. The remainder corresponds mainly to Nothofagus spp. The high carbon stocks in old-growth stands in the Andean range are explained by Fitzroya longevity, larger size, wood decay resistance, and the low recurrence of volcanic events. Carbon accumulation rates differ between the forests in the three physiographic units (Central depression>Andean range>Coastal range), mainly due to the different growth rates and environmental conditions present in each unit. In the context of climate change, conserving old-growth stands with large biomass and carbon stocks and restoring Fitzroya forests should be recognized as a key contribution toward national and global goals to mitigate global warming. Copyright © 2022 González, Lara, Urrutia-Jalabert, Bustos-Salazar, Ruiz-Gómez and Aravena.Frontiers in Forests and Global Change2624893Xhttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/ffgc.2022.960429/fullart9604295Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, carbon stocks; disturbances; endangered species; fitzroya cupressoides; old-growth forests; southern south americaLaboratorio de Ecología de Bosques and Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Cambio Global, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Center for Fire and Socioecosystem Resilience (FireSES), Valdivia, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Tecnología, Universidad de Aysén, Coyhaique, Chile; Centro de Investigación Gaia Antártica and Cape Horn International Center (CHIC), Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile
The Gill Microbiota of Argopecten purpuratus Scallop Is Dominated by Symbiotic Campylobacterota and Upwelling Intensification Differentially Affects Their AbundanceGonzález R.; Henríquez-Castillo C.; Lohrmann K.B.; Romero M.S.; Ramajo L.; Schmitt P.; Brokordt K.Zonas Costeras202210.3390/microorganisms10122330Despite the great importance of gills for bivalve mollusks (respiration, feeding, immunity), the microbiota associated with this tissue has barely been characterized in scallops. The scallop Argopecten purpuratus is an important economic resource that is cultivated in areas where coastal upwelling is intensifying by climate change, potentially affecting host-microbiota interactions. Thus, we first characterized the bacterial community present in gills from cultivated scallops (by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing) and assessed their stability and functional potential in animals under farm and laboratory conditions. Results showed that under both conditions the gill bacterial community is dominated by the phylum Campylobacterota (57%), which displays a chemoautotrophic potential that could contribute to scallop nutrition. Within this phylum, two phylotypes, namely symbionts A and B, were the most abundant; being, respectively, taxonomically affiliated to symbionts with nutritional functions in mussel gills, and to uncultured bacteria present in coral mucus. Additionally, in situ hybridization and scanning electron microscopy analyses allowed us to detect these symbionts in the gills of A. purpuratus. Given that shifts in upwelling phenology can cause disturbances to ecosystems, affecting bacteria that provide beneficial functions to the host, we further assessed the changes in the abundance of the two symbionts (via qPCR) in response to a simulated upwelling intensification. The exposure to combined decreasing values in the temperature, pH, and oxygen levels (upwelling conditions) favored the dominance of symbiont B over symbiont A; suggesting that symbiont abundances are modulated by these environmental changes. Overall, results showed that changes in the main Campylobacterota phylotypes in response to upwelling intensification could affect its symbiotic function in A. purpuratus under future climate change scenarios. These results provide the first insight into understanding how scallop gill-microbial systems adapt and respond to climate change stressors, which could be critical for managing health, nutrition, and scallop aquaculture productivity. © 2022 by the authors.Microorganisms20762607https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2607/10/12/2330art233010Thomson Reuters SCIEcampylobacterota; climate change; microbiota; mollusks; scallop aquaculture; symbiont; upwelling, nanLaboratorio de Fisiología y Genética Marina (FIGEMA), Departamento de Acuicultura, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo, 1781421, Chile; Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo, 1781421, Chile; Departamento de Biología Marina, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte (UCN), Coquimbo, 1781421, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Grupo de Marcadores Inmunológicos, Laboratorio de Genética e Inmunología Molecular, Instituto de Biología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, 2340000, Chile; Centro de Innovación Acuícola (AquaPacífico), Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo, 1781421, Chile
Drivers of Flammability of Eucalyptus globulus Labill Leaves: Terpenes, Essential Oils, and Moisture ContentGuerrero F.; Carmona C.; Hernández C.; Toledo M.; Arriagada A.; Espinoza L.; Bergmann J.; Taborga L.; Yáñez K.; Carrasco Y.; Muñoz A.A.Agua y Extremos202210.3390/f13060908Mediterranean climate regions have become more vulnerable to fire due to the extreme weather conditions and numerous Eucalyptus globulus plantation areas. The aim of this study is to analyze the fire hazard related to E. globulus in a forest fire scenario, based on the contrast of thermochemical parameters and their relationship with chemical properties, considering the predominant exotic forest species (E. globulus, Pinus radiata, Acacia dealbata, and Acacia melanoxylon) present in the Valparaiso region, Chile. The results revealed that although all of the studied species were highly flammable, E. globulus was extremely flammable, as its leaves contain high concentrations of essential oils, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes, which can generate a flammable atmosphere due to their low flashpoint and the strong negative influence shown between the essential oils, volatile terpenes, and limonene concentration. Moreover, the heat of combustion of E. globulus was positively correlated with its high essential oil contents. Finally, all of the studied species had low flashpoints and high heating values; therefore, they are predisposed to ignite in the presence of a heat source, releasing high amounts of energy during combustion, which contributes to the risk of the formation and spread of canopy fires among these tree formations. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Forests19994907https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/13/6/908art90813Thomson Reuters SCIEchemical analysis; combustion; deforestation; fires; flammability; monoterpenes; chile; valparaiso [chile]; chemical analysis; combustion; deforestation; fire hazards; fires; flammability; monoterpenes; climate regions; eucalyptus globulus; eucalyptus globulus labill; extreme weather conditions; fire scenarios; flash points; forest fires; globulus; mediterranean climates; scenario-based; angiosperm; canopy architecture; essential oil; forest fire; moisture content; species diversity; terpene; essential oils, essential oils; eucalyptus globulus; flammability; forest fires; terpenesDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, Valparaíso, 2340000, Chile; Institute of Chemistry, Science Faculty, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Universidad 330, Valparaíso, 2373223, Chile; Natural Products Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, Valparaíso, 2340000, Chile; Centro de Biotecnología “Dr. Daniel Alkalay Lowitt”, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, Valparaíso, 2340000, Chile; Center for Research and Environmental Services (ECOVIDA), Environment Agency (AMA), Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (CITMA), Km 2.5 Carretera a Luis Lazo, Pinar del Río, 20300, Cuba; Institute of Geography, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Brasil 2241, Valparaíso, 2362807, Chile; Centro de Acción Climática, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Antonio Bellet 314, Providencia, Santiago, 7500494, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2, Av. Almirante Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, 8370449, Chile
Moving towards the ecological intensification of tree plantationsGómez-González S.; Paniw M.; Blanco-Pastor J.L.; García-Cervigón A.I.; Godoy O.; Herrera J.M.; Lara A.; Miranda A.; Ojeda F.; Ochoa-Hueso R.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.1016/j.tplants.2021.12.009The growing demand for timber and the boom in massive tree-planting programs could mean the spreading of mismanaged tree plantations worldwide. Here, we apply the concept of ecological intensification to forestry systems as a viable biodiversity-focused strategy that could be critical to develop productive, yet sustainable, tree plantations. Tree plantations can be highly productive if tree species are properly combined to complement their ecological functions. Simultaneously considering soil biodiversity and animal-mediated biocontrol will be critical to minimize the reliance on external inputs. Integrating genetic, functional, and demographic diversity across heterogeneous landscapes should improve resilience under climate change. Designing ecologically intensified plantations will mean breaking the timber productivity versus conservation dichotomy and assuring the maintenance of key ecosystem services at safe levels. © 2021 Elsevier LtdTrends in Plant Science13601385https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1360138521003526637-64527Thomson Reuters SCIEbiodiversity conservation; ecological intensification; ecosystem services; resilience; sustainable forest management; timber yield, animals; biodiversity; conservation of natural resources; ecosystem; forestry; forests; trees; animal; biodiversity; ecosystem; environmental protection; forest; forestry; treeDepartamento de Biología-IVAGRO, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro, Puerto Real, 11510, Spain; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Center for Fire and Socioecological Systems (FireSES), Universidad Austral de Chile, Campus Isla Teja, Valdivia, 5090000, Chile; Department of Conservation Biology and Global Change, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Avenida Americo Vespucio 26, Sevilla, 41092, Spain; Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of Seville, Avenida Reina Mercedes 6, Seville, 41012, Spain; Biodiversity and Conservation Area, Rey Juan Carlos University, c/ Tulipán s/n, Móstoles, 28933, Spain; Instituto Universitario de Investigación Marina (INMAR), Departamento de Biología, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro, Puerto Real, 11510, Spain; Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development and University of Évora, Casa Cordovil, 2nd Floor, R. Dom Augusto Eduardo Nunes 7, Évora, 7000 – 651, Portugal; Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Campus Isla Teja, Valdivia, 5090000, Chile; Fundación Centro de los Bosques Nativos Forecos, Valdivia, Chile; Laboratorio de Ecología del Paisaje y Conservación, Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de La Frontera, P.O. Box 54-D, Temuco, 4780000, Chile; Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), P.O. Box 50, Wageningen, 6700, AB, Net...
Climate change-related risks and adaptation potential in Central and South America during the 21st centuryHagen I.; Huggel C.; Ramajo L.; Chacón N.; Ometto J.P.; Postigo J.C.; Castellanos E.J.Zonas Costeras202210.1088/1748-9326/ac5271Climate-related risks in Central and South America have received increased attention and concern in science and policy, but an up-to-date comprehensive review and synthesis of risks and adaptation potential is currently missing. For this paper we evaluated over 200 peer-reviewed articles and grey literature documents published since 2012. We found that climate change in Central and South America during the 21st century may increase the risk to severe levels for the following topical risk clusters: (a) Food insecurity; (b) Floods and landslides; (c) Water scarcity; (d) Epidemics of vector-borne diseases; (e) Amazon Forest biome shift; (f). Coral bleaching; (g) Coastal risks of sea level rise, storm surges and erosion; (h) Systemic failure due to cascading impacts of hazards and epidemics. Our synthesis also identified feasible adaptation measures for each risk. The impacts of the risks will be heterogeneous throughout the region, with rural communities, Indigenous peoples, Afro-Latin Americans, women, disabled people, and migrants identified as being the most severely affected. We refer to a number of adaptation options for each risk. However, unabated climate change together with low adaptive capacity will strictly limit adaptation options. Immediate strengthening of policies for building adaptive capacity and increase of research on the risk-adaptation nexus in Central and South America are paramount. Our findings might contribute to guide the adjustment and emphasis of adaptation policies and climate risk management strategies from local to national level. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.Environmental Research Letters17489318https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/ac5271art03300217Thomson Reuters SCIEsouth america; climate change; floods; risk assessment; risk management; sea level; adaptation; adaptive capacity; central america; climate change impact; climate projection; climate related risks; grey literature; related risk; risk cluster; south america; adaptation; climate change; natural hazard; risk assessment; epidemiology, adaptation; central and south america; climate change impacts; climate projection; risksUniversity of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Coquimbo, Chile; Departamento de Biologia Marina, Facultad de Ciencias Del Mar, Universidad Católica Del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile; Centro de Ciencia Del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR2), Santiago, Chile; Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research, Caracas, Venezuela; National Institute for Space Research (INPE), São José dos Campos, Brazil; Indiana University, Bloomington, United States; Universidad Del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala, Guatemala
Hydrologic Sensitivities and ENSO Variability Across Hydrological Regimes in Central Chile (28°–41°S)Hernandez D.; Mendoza P.A.; Boisier J.P.; Ricchetti F.Agua y Extremos202210.1029/2021WR031860There is strong evidence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections in the South Pacific and related impacts on the precipitation regime in Chile; nonetheless, many aspects of the hydrological propagation and temperature responses to ENSO remain unclear in this region. We examine fluctuations across 59 near-natural catchments in central Chile (28°–41°S) under contrasting ENSO phases during the period 1981–2019. Our results show statistically significant ENSO-related hydroclimatic anomalies in almost all watersheds analyzed, which confirms the major influence of ENSO within this domain. By comparing El Niño phases against La Niña, we observe generally wetter conditions, warmer winters, cooler late springs, lower (higher) runoff ratios in snowmelt-driven (rainfall-driven) basins, and longer storm durations while storm frequencies (i.e., number of events of consecutive days with precipitation) are preserved. Additionally, low (high) elevation catchments are related to positive (negative) streamflow sensitivities to winter temperature, which increase in magnitude with the evaporative index; besides, catchments with sharp warm-and-dry conditions yield largely negative sensitivities to late spring temperature. Further, positive streamflow anomalies in rainfall-driven catchments are explained by temperature and precipitation ENSO-related amplitudes (El Niño minus La Niña) that separately favor streamflow; however, in mixed regimes and snowmelt-driven basins these results are spatially scattered. Hence, this study supports that meteorological, hydrological, and physiographic attributes modulate the translation of climate variability into river hydrology. The results presented here unravel the joint effects of precipitation and seasonal temperature fluctuations through different hydrological regimes, across a region that encloses populated cities and water-intensive activities. © 2022. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.Water Resources Research00431397https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2021WR031860arte2021WR03186058Thomson Reuters SCIEcatchment scale; climate variability; enso; hydrological regimes; streamflow sensitivity, chile; atmospheric pressure; climatology; rain; runoff; snow melting systems; storms; stream flow; catchment scale; central chile; climate variability; el nino; el nino southern oscillation; hydrological regime; la nina; low-high; snow melt; streamflow sensitivities; catchment; climate variation; el nino-southern oscillation; hydrological regime; rainfall; runoff; snowmelt; streamflow; catchmentsDepartment of Civil Engineering, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Advanced Mining Technology Center (AMTC), Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Multiple motion encoding in phase-contrast MRI: A general theory and application to elastography imagingHerthum H.; Carrillo H.; Osses A.; Uribe S.; Sack I.; Bertoglio C.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1016/j.media.2022.102416While MRI allows to encode the motion of tissue in the magnetization's phase, it remains yet a challenge to obtain high fidelity motion images due to wraps in the phase for high encoding efficiencies. Therefore, we propose an optimal multiple motion encoding method (OMME) and exemplify it in Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) data. OMME is formulated as a non-convex least-squares problem for the motion using an arbitrary number of phase-contrast measurements with different motion encoding gradients (MEGs). The mathematical properties of OMME are proved in terms of standard deviation and dynamic range of the motion's estimate for arbitrary MEGs combination which are confirmed using synthetically generated data. OMME's performance is assessed on MRE data from in vivo human brain experiments and compared to dual encoding strategies. The unwrapped images are further used to reconstruct stiffness maps and compared to the ones obtained using conventional unwrapping methods. OMME allowed to successfully combine several MRE phase images with different MEGs, outperforming dual encoding strategies in either motion-to-noise ratio (MNR) or number of successfully reconstructed voxels with good noise stability. This lead to stiffness maps with greater resolution of details than obtained with conventional unwrapping methods. The proposed OMME method allows for a flexible and noise robust increase in the dynamic range and thus provides wrap-free phase images with high MNR. In MRE, the method may be especially suitable when high resolution images with high MNR are needed. © 2022Medical Image Analysis13618415https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1361841522000664art10241678Thomson Reuters SCIEbrain; elasticity imaging techniques; humans; magnetic resonance imaging; motion; phantoms, imaging; encoding (symbols); image reconstruction; magnetic resonance; magnetic resonance imaging; medical imaging; motion estimation; stiffness; dynamic range; encoding methods; encoding strategy; in-phase; magnetic resonance elastography; multiple motion encoding; multiple motions; noise ratio; phase contrast mri; phase image; article; brain; cell cycle s phase; controlled study; human; in vivo study; least square analysis; magnetic resonance elastography; motion; noise; nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; rigidity; diagnostic imaging; elastography; imaging phantom; motion; nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; procedures; signal encoding, magnetic resonance elastography; multiple motion encoding; phase-contrast mriInstitute of Medical Informatics, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universitt zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, 10117, Germany; Center for Mathematical Modeling, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8370456, Chile; Department of Mathematical Engineering, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8370456, Chile; ANID – Millennium Nucleus in Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; ANID – Millenium Nucleus in Applied Control and Inverse Problems ACIP, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; Biomedical Imaging Center, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; Bernoulli Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, 9747AG, Netherlands
Scientists and climate governance: A view from the SouthIbarra C.; Jiménez G.; O'Ryan R.; Blanco G.; Cordero L.; Insunza X.; Moraga P.; Rojas M.; Sapiains R.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202210.1016/j.envsci.2022.09.012The importance of science for climate governance has strengthened over time and the topic inspires prolific academic writing on the influence of scientists and scientific knowledge on policy decisions. One of the streams of research in the field is inspired by Cash´s (2003) seminal work highlighting how the role of scientists depends on perceptions of salience, credibility and legitimacy. Other views call for attention to the politics involved in scientific performance while influencing policy and on the local circumstances, considering the many ways in which societies relate to science and expertise. The role of scientists in climate governance is a contested issue, relevant for many research centres aiming to influence policy decisions given the urgency of the climate crisis. To better understand this role, we reviewed mainstream international literature and identified four main approaches, which we label: scientific usable knowledge, politics of science, critical approaches and hybrid approaches. We contrasted the results with the experience of scientists from a Chilean climate research centre, to provide a view from the South on the role of scientists in climate governance. Our results show that Cash´s approach was a common ground for Chilean climate scientists, upon which they build ideas on the importance of building long-term relationships between scientists and policy makers. However, they also acknowledged the need to take into consideration the role of politics in climate-related decisions and the power relations and actor´s interests. © 2022 Elsevier LtdEnvironmental Science and Policy14629011https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1462901122002908396-405137Thomson Reuters SCIEclimate change; climate governance; global south; literature review; science-policy-interface; scientific knowledge, climate change; decision making; environmental impact; environmental policy; literature review; policy making; power relations; article; climate change; politicsCR2, Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, Blanco, 2002, Chile; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Centro EARTH, Universidad Adolfo Ibañez (UAI), Diagonal Las Torres, Santiago, Peñalolén, 2640, Chile; Instituto de Historia y Ciencias Sociales y Centro IDEAL, Universidad Austral de Chile, Independencia 631, Los Ríos, Valdivia, Chile; Facultad de Gobierno, Universidad de Chile, Santa Lucía 240, Santiago, Chile; Facultad de Derecho, Universidad de Chile, Pio Nono 1, Santiago, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Blanco, 2002, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Chile
Simplified two-dimensional model for global atmospheric dynamicsJacques-Coper M.; Ortiz-Guzmán V.; Zanelli J.Zonas Costeras202210.1063/5.0119855We present a simplified model of the atmosphere of a terrestrial planet as an open two-dimensional system described by an ideal gas with velocity v →, density ρ, and temperature T fields. Starting with the Chern-Simons equations for a free inviscid fluid, the external effects of radiation and the exchange of matter with the strata, as well as diffusion and dissipation, are included. The resulting dynamics is governed by a set of nonlinear differential equations of the first order in time. This defines an initial value problem that can be integrated given the radiation balance of the planet. If the nonlinearities are neglected, the integration can be done in analytic form using standard Green function methods, with small nonlinearities incorporated as perturbative corrections in a consistent way. If the nonlinear approximation is not justified, the problem can be integrated numerically. The analytic expressions as well as the simulations of the linear regime for a continuous range of parameters in the equations are provided, which allows to explore the response of the model to changes of those parameters. In particular, it is observed that a 2.5% reduction in the emissivity of the atmosphere can lead to an increase of 7 °C of the average global temperature. © 2022 Author(s).Physics of Fluids10706631https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/5.0119855art11661034Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, control nonlinearities; nonlinear equations; radiation effects; atmospheric dynamics; first order; ideal gas; initial-value problem; inviscid fluids; nonlinear differential equation; radiation balance; terrestrial planets; two dimensional model; two-dimensional systems; initial value problemsDepartamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Center for Oceanographic Research COPAS Coastal, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia, Chile; Climate Change Research Centre, ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate Extremes, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Universidad San Sebastián, General Lagos 1163, Valdivia, Chile
Effect of tree demography and flexible root water uptake for modeling the carbon and water cycles of AmazoniaJoetzjer E.; Maignan F.; Chave J.; Goll D.; Poulter B.; Barichivich J.; Maréchaux I.; Luyssaert S.; Guimberteau M.; Naudts K.; Bonal D.; Ciais P.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.1016/j.ecolmodel.2022.109969Amazonian forest plays a crucial role in regulating the carbon and water cycles in the global climate system. However, the representation of biogeochemical fluxes and forest structure in dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) remains challenging. This situation has considerable implications to simulate the state and dynamics of Amazonian forest. This study aims at simulating the dynamic of the evapotranspiration (ET), productivity (GPP), biomass (AGB) and forest structure of wet tropical forests in the Amazon basin using the updated ORCHIDEE land surface model. The latter is improved for two processes: stand structure and demography, and plant water uptake by roots. Stand structure is simulated by adapting the CAN version of ORCHIDEE, originally developed for temperate forests. Here, we account for the permanent recruitment of young individual trees, the distribution of stand level growth into 20 different cohorts of variable diameter classes, and mortality due to asymmetric competition for light. Plant water uptake is simulated by including soil-to-root hydraulic resistance (RS). To evaluate the effect of the soil resistance alone, we performed factorial simulations with demography only (CAN) and both demography and resistance (CAN-RS). AGB, ET and GPP outputs of CAN-RS are also compared with the standard version of ORCHIDEE (TRUNK) for which eco-hydrological parameters were tuned globally to fit GPP and evapotranspiration at flux tower sites. All the model versions are benchmarked against in situ and regional datasets. We show that CAN-RS correctly reproduce stand level structural variables (as CAN) like diameter classes and tree densities when validated using in-situ data. Besides offering the key advantage to simulate forest's structure, it also correctly simulates ET and GPP and improves fluxes spatial patterns when compared to TRUNK. With the new formulation of soil water uptake, which is driven by soil water availability rather than root-biomass, the simulated trees preferentially use water in the deepest soil layers during the dry seasons. This improves the seasonality of ET and GPP compared to CAN, especially on clay soils for which the soil moisture potential drops rapidly in the dry season. Nevertheless, since demography parameters in CAN-RS are constant for all evergreen tropical forests, spatial variability of AGB and basal area across the Amazon remains too uniform compared to observations, and are very comparable to the TRUNK. Additional processes such as climate driven mortality and phosphorus limitation on growth leading to the prevalence of species with different functional traits across the Amazon need to be included in the future development of this model. © 2022Ecological Modelling03043800https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2022.109969art109969469Thomson Reuters SCIEamazonia; carbon; climate models; demography; drought; ecology; evapotranspiration; forestry; population dynamics; population statistics; soil moisture; surface measurement; tropics; amazonian forests; biogeochemical cycle; carbon cycles; forest structure; land surface models; root-water uptake; stand structures; tropical forest; water cycle; water uptake; asymmetric competition; basal area; biomass; carbon cycle; demography; evapotranspiration; global climate; land surface; phosphorus; seasonality; soil moisture; stand structure; vegetation index; water availability; water uptake; biogeochemistry, biogeochemical cycles; demography; land surface model; root water uptake; tropical forestLaboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, LSCE-IPSL (CEA-CNRS-UVSQ), Gif-sur-Yvette, 91190, France; Laboratoire Evolution et Diversité Biologique, UMR 5174, université Paul Sabatier, CNRS, IRD, Toulouse, 31400, France; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, Greenbelt, MD, United States; Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile, and Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, Chile; AMAP, Univ Montpellier, INRA, IRD, CIRAD, CNRS, Montpellier, 34000, France; Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculty of Science, 1081, HV, Netherlands; UMR 7619 METIS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC, CNRS, EPHE, 4 place Jussieu, Paris, 75005, France; Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstraβe. 53, Hamburg, 20146, Germany; Université de Lorraine, AgroParisTech, INRA, UMR Silva, Nancy, 54000, France
Forest restoration and hydrologyJones J.; Ellison D.; Ferraz S.; Lara A.; Wei X.; Zhang Z.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.1016/j.foreco.2022.120342Forest restoration aims to increase forest cover, structure, function, and/or species composition, and it influences hydrology through the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and streamflow. This paper provides a conceptual framework for forest restoration and hydrology, reviews the literature on forest hydrology that is relevant to forest restoration, and assesses practical forest restoration approaches, their hydrologic effects, and tradeoffs. The hydrologic effects of three types of forest are assessed: mature and old-growth forests, which often are the reference model for restoration; managed forest plantations, which dominated early efforts for forest restoration; and the early stages of native forest succession, an increasingly popular, ecologically-oriented or nature-based approach to forest restoration. This review indicates that mature and old-growth forests have high evapotranspiration and consistent water yield, provided by moderated peak discharges and sustained low flows, while water yield is low from managed forest plantations, especially during dry periods. The early stages of native forest succession may provide greater water yield and increased low flows compared with managed plantations. Inclusion of native species and natural processes in forest restoration can increase some hydrological benefits relative to other forest restoration approaches. Although forest restoration affects hydrology, few studies examine the hydrologic effects of specific forest restoration practices such as choice of species, silvicultural practices, legacies of past land use, and geographic setting. Forest managers and ecologists can play valuable roles by designing studies that explore the hydrologic effects of forest restoration approaches on time scales relevant to ecological succession and forest management under a changing climate. © 2022 Elsevier B.V.Forest Ecology and Management03781127https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S037811272200336Xart120342520Thomson Reuters SCIEmanaged forest plantations; mature and old-growth forests; native forest restoration; practical forest restoration approaches; tradeoffs among multiple objectives, commerce; conservation; ecology; forestry; hydrology; restoration; commerce; conservation; ecology; evapotranspiration; forestry; hydrology; restoration; forest plantation; forest restoration; managed forest; managed forest plantation; mature and old-growth forest; multiple-objectives; native forest restoration; native forests; old-growth forest; practical forest restoration approach; tradeoff among multiple objective; conceptual framework; evapotranspiration; forest management; land useGeography, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Corvallis, 97331, OR, United States; Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden; Land Systems and Sustainable Land Management Unit (LS-SLM), Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Ellison Consulting, Baar, Switzerland; Department of Forest Sciences, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil; Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Fundación Centro de los Bosques Nativos FORECOS, Valdivia, Chile; Department of Earth, Environmental and Geographic Sciences, University of British Columbia (Okanagan Campus), 1177 Research Road, Kelowna, V1V 1V7, BC, Canada; Jixian National Forest Ecosystem Observation and Research Station, CNERN, School of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, China
The challenge of unprecedented floods and droughts in risk managementKreibich H.; Van Loon A.F.; Schröter K.; Ward P.J.; Mazzoleni M.; Sairam N.; Abeshu G.W.; Agafonova S.; AghaKouchak A.; Aksoy H.; Alvarez-Garreton C.; Aznar B.; Balkhi L.; Barendrecht M.H.; Biancamaria S.; Bos-Burgering L.; Bradley C.; Budiyono Y.; Buytaert W.; Capewell L.; Carlson H.; Cavus Y.; Couasnon A.; Coxon G.; Daliakopoulos I.; de Ruiter M.C.; Delus C.; Erfurt M.; Esposito G.; François D.; Frappart F.; Freer J.; Frolova N.; Gain A.K.; Grillakis M.; Grima J.O.; Guzmán D.A.; Huning L.S.; I...Agua y Extremos202210.1038/s41586-022-04917-5Risk management has reduced vulnerability to floods and droughts globally1,2, yet their impacts are still increasing3. An improved understanding of the causes of changing impacts is therefore needed, but has been hampered by a lack of empirical data4,5. On the basis of a global dataset of 45 pairs of events that occurred within the same area, we show that risk management generally reduces the impacts of floods and droughts but faces difficulties in reducing the impacts of unprecedented events of a magnitude not previously experienced. If the second event was much more hazardous than the first, its impact was almost always higher. This is because management was not designed to deal with such extreme events: for example, they exceeded the design levels of levees and reservoirs. In two success stories, the impact of the second, more hazardous, event was lower, as a result of improved risk management governance and high investment in integrated management. The observed difficulty of managing unprecedented events is alarming, given that more extreme hydrological events are projected owing to climate change3. © 2022, The Author(s).Nature00280836https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-022-04917-580-86608Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, climate change; droughts; floods; hydrology; risk management; climate change; data set; drought; flood damage; investment; vulnerability; article; climate change; drought; flooding; investment; risk management; hydrology; risk managementGFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Section Hydrology, Potsdam, Germany; Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Leichtweiss Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Division of Hydrology and River basin management, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX, United States; Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation; University of California, Irvine, CA, United States; Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, Chile; Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile; Operations Department, Barcelona Cicle de l’Aigua S.A, Barcelona, Spain; Global Institute for Water Security, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; LEGOS, Université de Toulouse, CNES, CNRS, IRD, UPS, Toulouse, France; Department of Groundwater Management, Deltares, Delft, Netherlands; School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom; Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta, Indonesia; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; Department of Civil Engineering, Beykent University, Istanbul, Turkey; Graduate School, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbu...
Pollution and society: The social construction of atmospheric pollution between Chilean press and decontamination planning; [CONTAMINACIÓN Y SOCIEDAD: LA CONSTRUCCIÓN SOCIAL DE LA POLUCIÓN ATMOSFÉRICA ENTRE LA PRENSA CHILENA Y LOS PLANES DE PREVENCIÓN Y DESCONTAMINACIÓN ATMOSFÉRICA]Labraña J.; Billi M.; Ruiz D.A.; Gómez A.U.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes202210.4067/S0718-23762022000200519Air pollution has become a central issue in recent decades. The present research aims to examine how the press media construct the problem of air pollution in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. To this end, news related to air pollution in the Metropolitan Region published in the digital sites of El Mercurio and La Nación between 2003 and 2018 were analyzed, assessing their closeness with respect to the construction of air pollution in science (assessed by analyzing publications on the topic indexed in Web of Science) and in politics (assessed by analyzing the Atmospheric Prevention and Decontamination Plans). The results suggest the existence of four different interpretative frameworks in the period that operate by selectively translating the results of scientific research into inputs for public policy, thus forming an idiosyncratic construction of the causes, consequences, and solutions to pollution. © 2022 Universidad de Talca. All rights reserved.Universum0716498Xhttp://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-23762022000200519&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en519-53837Thomson Reuters ESCInan, atmospheric pollution; communication; press media; public politics; scienceCentro de Ciencia Del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2, Chile; Departamento de Gestión e Innovación Rural, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Núcleo de Estudios Sistémicos Transdisciplinarios, Universidad de Chile, Chile
Extreme indices of temperature and precipitation in South America: trends and intercomparison of regional climate modelsLagos-Zúñiga M.; Balmaceda-Huarte R.; Regoto P.; Torrez L.; Olmo M.; Lyra A.; Pareja-Quispe D.; Bettolli M.L.Zonas Costeras202210.1007/s00382-022-06598-2Regional Climate Models (RCMs) provide climate information required for evaluating vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation at finer scales than their global driving models. As they explicitly resolve the basic conservation and state equations, they solve physics with more detail, conserving teleconnection of larger scales provided by Global Climate Models (GCMs). In South America (SA), the regional simulations have been historically evaluated principally on climatological aspects, but the representativeness of extremes still needs a more profound assessment. This study aims to analyze three RCMs (RegCM4-7, REMO2015, and Eta) driven by different GCMs in SA, focusing on their capacity to reproduce extreme historical indices of daily precipitation and temperature. The indices of maximum consecutive 5 days precipitation (Rx5day), Consecutive Dry Days (CDD), daily maximum and minimum annual temperature (TXx and TNn, respectively) were evaluated regarding the historical spatio-temporal variability and trends. Furthermore, their projections for the 2071–2099 period, under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario, were analyzed. The historical behavior of RCMs (1981–2005) was compared with two gridded products: Climate Prediction Center (CPC) and agrometeorological indicators derived from the fifth generation of global reanalysis produced by the ECMWF (AgERA5), previously compared with records from meteorological stations to evaluate them. The results show that the highest differences within the gridded products and stations were observed in the regions with more scarce surface stations (North and West of SA) and with complex topography (The Andes Cordillera), being more pronounced in the precipitation-based indices. We found that RCMs generally show more agreement in the spatial variability than in the inter-annual variability for all the indices and SA regions. When analyzing the observed trends, all models better reproduced the long-term variability of extreme temperature indices than those of rainfall. More disagreement was observed for Rx5day and CDD indices trends, including substantial spatial heterogeneities in both magnitude and sign of tendency. Climate change projections exhibited significant agreement to warmer conditions in TXx and TNn, but precipitation signals differed between RCMs and the driving GCM within each regional model. Maximum dry spells are expected to increase in almost all SA regions, whereas the climate change signals in extreme precipitation events are more consistent over southeastern SA (northern and southwestern SA), with positive (negative) changes by the end of the century. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.Climate Dynamics09307575https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-022-06598-2Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, climate change; cordex; extreme indices evaluationCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Advanced Mining Technology Center (AMTC), Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Atmospheric and Ocean Sciences, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (DCAO-FCEN-UBA), Buenos Aires, Argentina; National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Institut Franco-Argentin d’Estudes sur le Climat et ses Impacts (IRL 3351 IFAECI/CNRS-CONICET- UBA), Buenos Aires, Argentina; National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, São José dos Campos, Brazil; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Serena, La Serena, Chile; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (UNMSM), Lima, Peru
Disturbance alters relationships between soil carbon pools and aboveground vegetation attributes in an anthropogenic peatland in PatagoniaLopatin J.; Araya-López R.; Galleguillos M.; Perez-Quezada J.F.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.1002/ece3.8694Anthropogenic-based disturbances may alter peatland soil–plant causal associations and their ability to sequester carbon. Likewise, it is unclear how the vegetation attributes are linked with different soil C decomposition-based pools (i.e., live moss, debris, and poorly- to highly-decomposed peat) under grassing and harvesting conditions. Therefore, we aimed to assess the relationships between aboveground vegetation attributes and belowground C pools in a Northern Patagonian peatland of Sphagnum magellanicum with disturbed and undisturbed areas. We used ordination to depict the main C pool and floristic gradients and structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the direct and indirect relationships among these variables. In addition, we evaluated whether attributes derived from plant functional types (PFTs) are better suited to predict soil C pools than attributes derived from species gradients. We found that the floristic composition of the peatland can be classified into three categories that follow the C pool gradient. These categories correspond to (1) woody species, such as Baccharis patagonica, (2) water-logged species like Juncus procerus, and (3) grasslands. We depicted that these classes are reliable indicators of soil C decomposition stages. However, the relationships change between management. We found a clear statistical trend showing a decrease of live moss, debris, and poorly-decomposed C pools in the disturbed area. We also depicted that plant diversity, plant height, and PFT composition were reliable indicators of C decomposition only under undisturbed conditions, while the species-based attributes consistently yielded better overall results predicting soil C pools than PFT-based attributes. Our results imply that managed peatlands of Northern Patagonia with active grassing and harvesting activities, even if small-scaled, will significantly alter their future C sequestration capacities by decreasing their live and poorly-decomposed components. Finally, aboveground vegetation attributes cannot be used as proxies of soil C decomposition in disturbed peatlands as they no longer relate to decomposition stages. © 2022 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Ecology and Evolution20457758https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ece3.8694arte869412Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, growth forms; management; plant functional types; pls path modeling; structural equation modelingFaculty of Engineering and Science, University Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, Chile; Data Observatory Foundation, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate Resilience Research (CR)2, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Department of Environmental Science and Renewable Natural Resources, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, Santiago, Chile
Cross-continental hydroclimate proxies: Tree-rings in Central Chile reconstruct historical streamflow in Southeastern South American riversLucas C.; Aguilera-Betti I.; Muñoz A.A.; Puchi P.; Sapriza G.; Profumo L.; Maxwell R.S.; Venegas-González A.Agua y Extremos202210.1177/03091333211067466Regional teleconnections permit cross-continental modeling of hydroclimate throughout the world. Tree-rings are a good hydroclimatic proxy used to reconstruct drought and streamflow in regions that respond to common global forcings. We used a multi-species dataset of 32 tree-ring width chronologies from Chile and Uruguay as a climate proxy to infer annual streamflow (Q) variability in the Negro River basin, a grassland-dominated watershed of lowland Southeastern South America. A positive linear correlation between tree-ring chronologies from Central Chile and annual Negro River instrumental streamflow from 1957 to 2012 indicated a cross-continental teleconnection between hydroclimate variability in Central Chile and Northeastern Uruguay. This relationship was mediated in part by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), whereby the El Nino 3.4 Index was positively correlated with regional rainfall, annual tree growth, and Q anomalies. Despite the proximity of Uruguayan tree-ring chronologies to Negro River hydrometric stations, the Chilean tree-ring chronologies best predicted annual streamflow. Thus, using tree-ring data from four long-term moisture-sensitive chronologies of the species Cryptocarya alba in Central Chile (32–34°S), we present the first streamflow reconstruction (1890–2009) in the lower La Plata Basin. The reconstruction supports regional evidence for increasing frequency of extreme flood years over the past century in Uruguay. We demonstrate how climate teleconnections that mediate local hydroclimate variability permit the cross-continental reconstruction of streamflow, filling a major geographical gap in historical proxies for flooding and drought in grassland biomes of the southern hemisphere. © The Author(s) 2022.Progress in Physical Geography03091333http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/03091333211067466458-48046Thomson Reuters SCIEdendrohydrology; el niño; la plata river; southeastern south america; teleconnection; uruguay, chile; rio de la plata; rio negro basin; uruguay; dendrochronology; el nino; proxy climate record; river flow; streamflow; teleconnection; tree ring; watershedLaboratorio Ecología Fluvial, Departamento del Agua, Centro Universitario Regional Litoral Norte, Universidad de la República, Paysandú, Uruguay; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Estudios Ambientales, Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Estudios Ambientales, Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agro-Forestali (TESAF), Universitá degli Studi di Padova, Padova, Italy; PDU Sistemas Territoriales Complejos, Centro Universitario de Rivera, Universidad de la República, Uruguay; Department of Geospatial Science, Radford University, Radford, VA, United States; Hémera Centro de Observación de la Tierra, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Mayor, Chile; Centro de Acción Climática, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia CR2, Valparaíso, Santiago, Chile; Centro Transdisciplinario de Estudios Ambientales y Desarrollo Humano Sostenible (CEAM), Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Antárticas y Subantárticas, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile
Atmospheric Blocking Trends and Seasonality around the Antarctic PeninsulaMarín J.C.; Bozkurt D.; Barrett B.S.Agua y Extremos202210.1175/JCLI-D-21-0323.1We analyze the seasonal evolution and trends of atmospheric blocking from 1979 to 2018 using a geopotential-height-based method over two domains, one located to the west (150°-90°W, 50°-70°S) and the other over and to the east (90°-30°W, 50°-70°S) of the Antarctic Peninsula. Spatial patterns of geopotential heights on days with blocking feature well-defined ridge axes over and west of much of South America, and days with the most extreme blocking (above the 99th percentile) showed upper-tropospheric ridge and cutoff low features that have been associated with extreme weather patterns. Blocking days were found to be more frequent in the first half of the period (1979-98) than the second (1999-2018) in all seasons in the west domain, whereas they seem to be more common over the eastern (peninsula) domain in 1999-2018 for austral winter, spring, and autumn, although these differences were not statistically significant. West of the Antarctic Peninsula, blocking days occur most frequently when the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) is negative, whereas they are more frequent over the peninsula when the AAO is positive. We propose that our blocking index can be used to indicate atmospheric blocking affecting the Antarctic Peninsula, similar to how the Greenland blocking index has been used to diagnose blocking, its trends, and impacts over the Arctic. © 2022 American Meteorological SocietyJournal of Climate08948755https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/journals/clim/35/12/JCLI-D-21-0323.1.xml3803-381835Thomson Reuters SCIEantarctic peninsula; antarctica; west antarctica; climatology; antarctic oscillation; antarctic peninsula; antarctica; atmospheric blocking; blockings; geo-potential heights; reanalysis; reanalysis data; seasonal variability; trend; antarctic oscillation; atmospheric blocking; seasonal variation; seasonality; trend analysis; earth atmosphere, antarctica; blocking; reanalysis data; seasonal variability; trendsDepartamento de Meteorología, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Estudios Atmosféricos y Astroestadística, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Investigación Oceanográfica COPAS COASTAL, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Oceanography Department, U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD, United States
Silvopastoralism and the shaping of forest patches in the Atacama Desert during the Formative Period (ca. 3000–1500 years BP)McRostie V.; Babot P.; Calás E.; Gayó E.; Gallardo F.; Godoy-Aguirre C.; Labarca R.; Latorre C.; Núñez L.; Ojeda K.; Santoro C.M.; Valenzuela D.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1177/09596836221122636During the Formative period by the Late-Holocene (ca. 3000–1500 BP), semi-sedentary and sedentary human occupations had emerged in the oases, salares, and riverine systems in the central depression (2400–1000 masl) of the Atacama Desert, northern Chile (19–25°S). This hyperarid core was marginally occupied during the post-Pleistocene and middle Holocene droughts. Settlement on these lower belts was accompanied by a rise in humidity, the introduction of Andean crops, flourishment of Prosopis spp. (algarrobo) forests, and increasing integration of domestic camelid caravans. Here, we explore lowland husbandry within risk-spreading strategies, focusing on silvopastoralism and endozoochory between camelids and algarrobos. Analysis of camelid coprolites from seven archeological sites located in the Pampa del Tamarugal, Loa River, and Salar de Atacama found intense grinding from camelid chewing and indicated a ruminal digestive system. Abundant macro and microremains in the form of tissues, phytoliths, crystals, cell structures, and others, were identified as Prosopis, Atriplex, Schoenoplectus, Distichlis, and Phragmites. We conclude that camelids were foraging for Prosopis, although the rather low number of entire seeds preserved in the coprolites leads us to think that these herbivores might not have been the main vectors for the spread and germination of algarrobos. More samples and interdisciplinary studies are needed to comprehend the complex socioecological web in the shaping of these forests and the management of the Atacama Desert landscapes. © The Author(s) 2022.Holocene09596836http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/095968362211226361492-150232Thomson Reuters SCIEatacama desert; chile; chile; loa river; pampa del tamarugal; archaeology; drought; germination; grinding; holocene, algarobia; atacama; camelids; formative; late-holocene; silvopastoralismEscuela de Antropología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Centro del Desierto de Atacama UC, Chile; Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, CONICET, Argentina; Programa de Doctorado en Arqueología, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Chile; Departamento de Ecología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Chile; Instituto de Investigaciones Arqueológicas, Universidad Católica del Norte, Chile; Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de Tarapacá, Chile
The Landscape Fire Scars Database: Mapping historical burned area and fire severity in ChileMiranda A.; Mentler R.; Moletto-Lobos Í.; Alfaro G.; Aliaga L.; Balbontín D.; Barraza M.; Baumbach S.; Calderón P.; Cárdenas F.; Castillo I.; Contreras G.; De La Barra F.; Galleguillos M.; González M.E.; Hormazábal C.; Lara A.; Mancilla I.; Muñoz F.; Oyarce C.; Pantoja F.; Ramírez R.; Urrutia V.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.5194/essd-14-3599-2022Achieving a local understanding of fire regimes requires high-resolution, systematic and dynamic databases. High-quality information can help to transform evidence into decision-making in the context of rapidly changing landscapes, particularly considering that geographical and temporal patterns of fire regimes and their trends vary locally over time. Global fire scar products at low spatial resolutions are available, but high-resolution wildfire data, especially for developing countries, are still lacking. Taking advantage of the Google Earth Engine (GEE) big-data analysis platform, we developed a flexible workflow to reconstruct individual burned areas and derive fire severity estimates for all reported fires. We tested our approach for historical wildfires in Chile. The result is the Landscape Fire Scars Database, a detailed and dynamic database that reconstructs 8153 fires scars, representing 66.6 % of the country's officially recorded fires between 1985 and 2018. For each fire event, the database contains the following information: (i) the Landsat mosaic of pre- and post-fire images; (ii) the fire scar in binary format; (iii) the remotely sensed estimated fire indexes (the normalized burned ratio, NBR, and the relative delta normalized burn ratio, RdNBR); and two vector files indicating (iv) the fire scar perimeter and (v) the fire scar severity reclassification, respectively. The Landscape Fire Scars Database for Chile and GEE script (JavaScript) are publicly available. The framework developed for the database can be applied anywhere in the world, with the only requirement being its adaptation to local factors such as data availability, fire regimes, land cover or land cover dynamics, vegetation recovery, and cloud cover. The Landscape Fire Scars Database for Chile is publicly available in 10.1594/PANGAEA.941127 (Miranda et al., 2022). © 2022 AuthorsEarth System Science Data18663508https://essd.copernicus.org/articles/14/3599/2022/3599-361314Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, database; fire management; historic building; landscape; mappingCenter for Climate and Resilience Research, (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Laboratorio de Ecología Del Paisaje y Conservación, Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco, Chile; Image Processing Laboratory, Global Change Unit, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; Industrial Engineering Department, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Center for Fire and Socioecosystem Resilience (FireSES), Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Fundación Centro de Los Bosques Nativos FORECOS, Valdivia, Chile
Direct effects of tephra fallout from the Puyehue–Cordón Caulle Volcanic Complex on Nothofagus pumilio ring widths in northern PatagoniaMontiel M.; González M.E.; Christie D.A.; Muñoz A.A.; Crisafulli C.M.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Agua y Extremos202210.1016/j.dendro.2022.125998We evaluated the radial growth response of adult Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. et Endl) Krasser trees affected by tephra deposition following historical volcanic eruptions of the Puyehue–Cordón Caulle Volcanic Complex (PCCVC) in northern Patagonia. Standard tree–ring width chronologies were developed for trees from two sites that were affected by up to 55 cm of tephra during the 2011 eruption, which allowed us to detect the general tree–growth response to eruptions VEI ≥ 3 and VEI ≤ 2. The tree growth trend satisfactorily followed the mean temperature record (r = 0.42); however, the analysis of studentized residuals identified outliers (≥ ± 2 SD) directly related to the volcanic eruptions of the years 1921–1922 and 2011 and the respective post–eruption years, while for the 1960 eruption and following year, they largely exceeded the mean value of the residuals. The large amount of tephra deposited during the 1921–22 and 2011 eruptions caused physical damage to the tree canopy leading to the appearance of white rings and to locally absent rings. The rate of change in radial growth of trees during these eruptions presented significant declines in relation to the growth of five years before the eruption and to the following year. The low amount of tephra deposited during the 1960 eruption did not cause damage to the stands and trees increased their radial growth. In general, trees that had reduced radial growth experienced a remarkable recovery starting in the second or third post–eruption year. The amount of tephra deposited and the time of year of the volcanic eruptions had an important influence on tree rings. Some ecophysiological causes that could explain the growth responses of N. pumilio to tephra fall are discussed herein. Our study may provide useful insights to clarify the uncertain characteristics of some eruptions in the past or to detect the occurrence of large, undocumented volcanic eruptions throughout the Andes. © 2022 Elsevier GmbHDendrochronologia11257865https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1125786522000789art12599875Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, disturbances; tephra–fall; tree rings; volcanism; white ringsEscuela de Graduados, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Laboratorio de Ecología de Bosques, Instituto de Conservación Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Cambio Global, Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Estudios Ambientales, Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2, Chile; Pacific Northwest Research Station, US Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture, Amboy, Washington, United States
A Song of Wind and Ice: Increased Frequency of Marine Cold-Spells in Southwestern Patagonia and Their Possible Effects on Giant Kelp ForestsMora-Soto A.; Aguirre C.; Iriarte J.L.; Palacios M.; Macaya E.C.; Macias-Fauria M.Zonas Costeras202210.1029/2021JC017801In contrast to other coastal regions of the world, the giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) ecosystem in southwestern Patagonia has been persistent in area and associated biodiversity in the last decades. In this ecoregion, sea surface temperature (SST) records have consistently remained below the upper thermal threshold for kelp survival, however, no studies have analyzed the spatiotemporal variability of SSTs and their anomalies across the geographical diversity of the southwestern Patagonian coastline. We explored the geographical distribution of extreme warm and cold events in this region from latitudes 47°–56°S in a range of ∼1,000 km, identifying the dates and spatial distribution of marine heatwaves (MHWs) and marine cold-spells (MCSs) from 1982 to 2020. Results show that a peak in the number of MHWs occurred in the great El Niño year of 1998. Additionally, the 2014–2019 period has had more severe and extreme MCSs than the previous decades. We discuss the origin of these events with a focus on three main processes: (a) geographically constrained cold events caused by glacier melting, (b) regional cold events caused by extreme winds linked to the position of the polar front, and (c) extensive SST anomalies linked to planetary-scale events such as El Niño and La Niña. Overall, those processes were conductive to counteract global warming trends locally/regionally, highlighting southwestern Patagonia as a possible climatic refugium for the giant kelp ecosystem. Despite this, the effects of freshwater inputs and storm turbulence on the exposed coasts facing the Southern Ocean may cause new kinds of stress on this ecosystem. © 2022. The Authors.Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans21699275https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2021JC017801arte2021JC017801127Thomson Reuters SCIEclimatic refugium; giant kelp; marine cold-spells; marine heatwaves; patagonia; sub-antarctic, patagonia; southern ocean; geographical distribution; global warming; sea surface temperatureBiogeosciences Lab, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Spectral Lab, Department of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada; School of Ocean Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Millennium Nucleus Understanding Past Coastal Upwelling Systems and Environmental Local and Lasting Impacts (UPWELL), Coquimbo, Chile; Centro FONDAP de Investigación en Dinámica de Ecosistemas Marinos de Altas Latitudes (IDEAL), Valdivia, Chile; Centro COPAS-Sur Austral, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Instituto de Acuicultura, Universidad Austral de Chile, Puerto Montt, Chile; Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), Marine Conservation Program, Santiago, Chile; Programa de Doctorado en Biología Marina, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Laboratorio de Estudios Algales (ALGALAB), Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
Glacier and terrestrial ecosystem evolution in the Chilotan archipelago sector of northwestern Patagonia since the Last Glacial TerminationMoreno P.I.; Fercovic E.I.; Soteres R.L.; Ugalde P.I.; Sagredo E.A.; Villa-Martínez R.P.Agua y Extremos202210.1016/j.earscirev.2022.104240We examine the glacier, terrestrial ecosystem, and climate evolution since the Last Glacial Termination (T1) based on glacial sediments/landform assemblages and palynological data from the Chilotan archipelago (41°30′S-43°30′S), northwestern Patagonia. Deglacial warming drove recession of the Golfo Corcovado glacier lobe from the Last Glacial Maximum moraines in the interior of Isla Grande de Chiloé (IGC) before ∼17.8 ka, along with a rapid and irreversible trend toward arboreal dominance. Subsequent glacier stabilization led to deposition of the innermost moraines in eastern IGC and adjacent islands sometime between ∼17.5–16.9 ka, followed by an acceleration in glacial retreat that vacated the Chilotan Interior Sea in ∼200 years or less. Early successional cold-tolerant shade-intolerant trees prevailed during the initial stages of T1, followed by temperate rainforests dominated by thermophilous shade-tolerant species between ∼15–14.5 ka. A mixed forest with cold-tolerant hygrophilous conifers established between ∼14.5–12.6 ka, implying cooler climate and stronger Southern Westerly Wind (SWW) influence during the Antarctic Cold Reversal. Stand-replacing fires favored early successional shade-intolerant trees, shrubs, and herbs between ∼12.6–10.8 ka in response to milder temperatures and weaker SWW during Younger Dryas time. The early Holocene (∼10.8–7.5 ka) features a maximum in shade-intolerant thermophilous trees, absence of conifers, and peak fire activity, signaling a warm/dry interval with minimum SWW influence. Cooler/wetter conditions have prevailed over the last ∼7500 years driven by strong SWW influence. We conclude that Patagonian glaciers and terrestrial ecosystems responded simultaneously to climate changes at regional, hemispheric, and global scales multiple times since T1. We adhere to the concept that millennial-scale variations in the SWW linked the response of the hydro- bio and cryosphere across the southern mid- and high southern latitudes, and were teleconnected with northern hemisphere events through the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases, latitudinal shifts in the Intertropical convergence zone, and deep ocean circulation. © 2022 Elsevier B.V.Earth-Science Reviews00128252https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0012825222003245art104240235Thomson Reuters SCIEglacier; holocene; last glacial maximum; last glacial termination; northwestern patagonia; southern westerly; vegetation and fire history; winds, chile; chiloe island; los lagos; climate variation; fire history; glacial deposit; glacier dynamics; holocene; last glacial; paleoclimate; signaling; terrestrial ecosystemDepartamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate Research and Resilience, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Investigación GAIA-Antártica, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile
Using Commercial Aircraft Meteorological Data to Assess the Heat Budget of the Convective Boundary Layer Over the Santiago Valley in Central ChileMuñoz R.C.; Whiteman C.D.; Garreaud R.D.; Rutllant J.A.; Hidalgo J.Agua y Extremos202210.1007/s10546-021-00685-3The World Meteorological Organization Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) programme refers to meteorological data gathered by commercial aircraft and made available to weather services. It has become a major source of upper-air observations whose assimilation into global models has greatly improved their performance. Near busy airports, AMDAR data generate semi-continuous vertical profiles of temperature and winds, which have been utilized to produce climatologies of atmospheric-boundary-layer (ABL) heights and general characterizations of specific cases. We analyze 2017–2019 AMDAR data for Santiago airport, located in the centre of a 40 × 100 km2 subtropical semi-arid valley in central Chile, at the foothills of the Andes. Profiles derived from AMDAR data are characterized and validated against occasional radiosondes launched in the valley and compared with routine operational radiosondes and with reanalysis data. The cold-season climatology of AMDAR temperatures reveals a deep nocturnal inversion reaching up to 700 m above ground level (a.g.l.) and daytime warming extending up to 1000 m a.g.l. Convective-boundary-layer (CBL) heights are estimated based on AMDAR profiles and the daytime heat budget of the CBL is assessed. The CBL warming variability is well explained by the surface sensible heat flux estimated with sonic anemometer measurements at one site, provided advection of the cool coastal ABL existing to the west is included. However, the CBL warming accounts for just half of the mean daytime warming of the lower troposphere, suggesting that rather intense climatological diurnal subsidence affects the dynamics of the daytime valley ABL. Possible sources of this subsidence are discussed. © 2022, The Author(s).Boundary-Layer Meteorology00068314https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10546-021-00685-3295-319183Thomson Reuters SCIEaircraft meteorological data relay (amdar) programme; chile; convective boundary layer; heat budget; santiago; valley boundary layer, chile; metropolitana; aircraft; airports; atmospheric boundary layer; budget control; climatology; heat convection; heat flux; radiosondes; aircraft meteorological data relay program; central chile; chile; commercial aircraft; convective boundary layers; data relays; heat budget; meteorological data; santiago; valley boundary layer; aircraft; anemometer; climatology; convective boundary layer; heat budget; radiosonde; sensible heat flux; subsidence; troposphere; vertical profile; landformsDepartment of Geophysics, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, United States; Department of Geophysics, University of Chile and Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Santiago, Chile; Department of Geophysics, University of Chile and Centre for Advanced Studies in Arid Zones (CEAZA), La Serena, Chile; Dirección Meteorológica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Examining the potential of Austrocedrus chilensis tree rings as indicators of past late-spring frost events in central ChileMuñoz-Salazar T.; LeQuesne C.; Rozas V.; Christie D.A.; Rojas-Badilla M.Agua y Extremos202210.1016/j.dendro.2022.125962Austrocedrus chilensis is a South American conifer broadly distributed across the subtropical and extratropical Andes that is widely utilized in tree-ring studies. This species has clear annual growth rings that are sensitive to the moisture supply and has been extensively used to reconstruct the past hydroclimate during the last millennium. Despite a great number of dendrochronological studies based on tree-ring width, little is known about the potential of the species to record intra-annual anomalies and particularly frost rings. In this study, the main traits of A. chilensis frost rings were studied and the ability of this endemic Cupressaceae to record spring frosts at five sites across a latitudinal gradient between the Mediterranean and Northern Patagonian Andes was evaluated. The average ages of trees in the study sites varied from 168 to 343 years, with minimum and maximum ages of 33 and 919 years. The results indicated that 85% of the frost rings occurred at the beginning of the earlywood and 15% showed a mid intra-ring position. Regarding the portion of the ring circumference affected by frost damage in cross sections, 59% of the injuries partially affected the entire ring, 30% affected the complete ring circumference, and 11% resulted in a ring fracture. Freezing temperatures that generated frost rings in A. chilensis from the upper treeline coincided with events below 0 °C recorded in the agricultural Central Valley of Chile. We estimated the potential time window of the formation of A. chilensis frost rings over a two and a half month period from the end of September to mid-November (early spring). Our results indicated that tree age was a determinant factor affecting the ability of trees to record frost rings. The maximum frequency of frost rings occurred at 12 years and the maximum age at which 95% of the total frost injuries occurred within our network was about 120 years. Both the exceptional longevity and the excellent state of preservation of relict wood demonstrates that A. chilensis frost rings provide a reliable proxy for monitoring and reconstructing late-spring frost events in central Chile. © 2022 Elsevier GmbHDendrochronologia11257865https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S112578652200042Xart12596274Thomson Reuters SCIEanatomical signals; conifer; freezing damage; late-spring frost proxy; treeline populations, andes; central valley [chile]; chile; patagonia; anatomy; bioindicator; coniferous tree; dendrochronology; frost; latitudinal gradient; longevity; tree ring; treelineLaboratorio de Dendrocronología y Cambio Global, Instituto de Conservación Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Escuela de Graduados, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Alimentarias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; iuFOR-EiFAB, Departamento de Ciencias Agroforestales, Campus Duques de Soria, Universidad de Valladolid, Soria, Spain; Santiago, Chile; Cape Horn International Center (CHIC), Punta Arenas, Chile; Escuela de Graduados, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile
Characterization and genomic analysis of two novel psychrotolerant Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strains from polar and subpolar environmentsMuñoz-Villagrán C.; Grossolli-Gálvez J.; Acevedo-Arbunic J.; Valenzuela X.; Ferrer A.; Díez B.; Levicán G.Zonas Costeras202210.3389/fmicb.2022.960324The bioleaching process is carried out by aerobic acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria that are mainly mesophilic or moderately thermophilic. However, many mining sites are located in areas where the mean temperature is lower than the optimal growth temperature of these microorganisms. In this work, we report the obtaining and characterization of two psychrotolerant bioleaching bacterial strains from low-temperature sites that included an abandoned mine site in Chilean Patagonia (PG05) and an acid rock drainage in Marian Cove, King George Island in Antarctic (MC2.2). The PG05 and MC2.2 strains showed significant iron-oxidation activity and grew optimally at 20°C. Genome sequence analyses showed chromosomes of 2.76 and 2.84 Mbp for PG05 and MC2.2, respectively, and an average nucleotide identity estimation indicated that both strains clustered with the acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The Patagonian PG05 strain had a high content of genes coding for tolerance to metals such as lead, zinc, and copper. Concordantly, electron microscopy revealed the intracellular presence of polyphosphate-like granules, likely involved in tolerance to metals and other stress conditions. The Antarctic MC2.2 strain showed a high dosage of genes for mercury resistance and low temperature adaptation. This report of cold-adapted cultures of the At. ferrooxidans species opens novel perspectives to satisfy the current challenges of the metal bioleaching industry. Copyright © 2022 Muñoz-Villagrán, Grossolli-Gálvez, Acevedo-Arbunic, Valenzuela, Ferrer, Díez and Levicán.Frontiers in Microbiology1664302Xhttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2022.960324/fullart96032413Thomson Reuters SCIEcopper; dna 16s; genomic dna; lead; mercury; zinc; acidithiobacillus; acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans; acidophile; adaptation; amino acid sequence; antarctica; article; bacterial strain; bacterium culture; bioleaching; cell growth; cell structure; centrifugation; chromosome 2; dna extraction; dna sequence; electron microscopy; gene sequence; iron oxidizing bacterium; low temperature adaptation; metal tolerance; microbial diversity; nonhuman; nucleotide sequence; optimal growth temperature; oxidation reduction potential; oxidative stress; ph; phylogenetic tree; phylogeny; physical chemistry; salinity; scanning electron microscopy; sequence alignment; sequence analysis; soil; temperature; thermophilic bacterium; transmission electron microscopy, acidithiobacillus; acidophiles; antarctic; chilean patagonia; cold adaptations; iron-oxidizing bacteriaDepartamento de Biología, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Santiago, Chile; Programa de Biorremediación, Universidad Austral de Chile, Campus Patagonia, Valdivia, Chile; Núcleo de Química y Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias, Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Center for Genome Regulation (CRG), Santiago, Chile
Ensuring access to water in an emergency context: Towards an overexploitation and contamination of water resources?Nicolas-Artero C.Agua y Extremos202210.1177/09646639211031626This article shows how geo-legal devices created to deal with environmental crisis situations make access to drinking water precarious and contribute to the overexploitation and contamination of water resources. It relies on qualitative methods (interviews, observations, archive work) to identify and analyse two geo-legal devices applied in the case study of the Elqui Valley in Chile. The first device, generated by the Declaration of Water Scarcity, allows private sanitation companies to concentrate water rights and extend their supply network, thus producing an overexploitation of water resources. In the context of mining pollution, the second device is structured around the implementation of the Rural Drinking Water Programme and the distribution of water by tankers, which has made access to drinking water more precarious for the population and does nothing to prevent pollution. © The Author(s) 2021.Social and Legal Studies09646639http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/09646639211031626459-47631Thomson Reuters SSCInan, chile; emergency; environmental crisis; geo-legal devices; legal geography; waterCenter for Climate and Resilience Research, Chile
Generalised seed mortality driven by heat shock in woody plants from Mediterranean ChileOcampo-Zuleta K.; Gómez-González S.; Paula S.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.1071/WF22027Background: Wildfires have shaped plant traits and ecosystems worldwide. Most research on the relevance of fire on plant evolution comes from Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs), where a great proportion of the studied species have fire-stimulated germination. However, seed fire ecology is widely unknown for the woody flora of the Chilean matorral, the only MTE where natural fires are infrequent owing to the scarcity of non-anthropogenic ignition sources. Aim: The study aimed to evaluate whether seed sensitivity to heat is generalised among the woody species of the matorral. Methods: We performed heat shock experiments on the seeds of 21 woody plant species not previously assessed. These species and those from previous studies were classified according to their response as stimulated, tolerant and inhibited. The preponderance of any of these categories was statistically evaluated. Key results: Exposure to 100°C for 5 min significantly decreased seed survival in all studied species. Conclusions: Seed persistence to fire is less common than previously reported among woody plants from the Chilean MTE. Implications: Increased wildfire events in the future may erode the genetic diversity of the Chilean flora. Germplasm banks may become crucial in post-fire restoration programs in this ecoregion, where the landscape has become increasingly flammable. © 2022 The Author(s) (or their employer(s)). Published by CSIRO Publishing on behalf of IAWF.International Journal of Wildland Fire10498001https://www.publish.csiro.au/WF/WF220271080-108831Thomson Reuters SCIEcentral chile; germination; heat shock; matorral ; mediterranean-type ecosystems; seed viability; wildfires; woody plants, nanInstituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Campus Isla Teja, Valdivia, 5090000, Chile; Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Mencion Ecologia y Evolucion, Escuela de Graduados, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Campus Isla Teja, Valdivia, 5090000, Chile; Center for Fire and Socioecological Systems (FireSES), Universidad Austral de Chile, Campus Isla Teja, Valdivia, 5090000, Chile; Departamento de Biología-IVAGRO, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro, Puerto Real, 11510, Spain; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), Chile, Victoria 631, Barrio Universitario, Concepción, Chile
Water dynamics over a Western Patagonian watershed: Land surface changes and human factorsOlivera-Guerra L.; Quintanilla M.; Moletto-Lobos I.; Pichuante E.; Zamorano-Elgueta C.; Mattar C.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150221Warming trends in Patagonia and severe droughts in recent decades are still poorly understood in terms of their hydrological effects. The effects of climate change on water dynamics in addition to human water management could generate a future water scarcity scenario in one of the regions with the most abundant water resources of Chile. The aim of this work is to focus on assessing the impacts of warming trends on water dynamics in the Patagonian Simpson River watershed during the last two decades. We estimated anomalies in the main components of water balance such as precipitation (P), snow cover (SC), evapotranspiration (ET) and streamflows (Q) as well as surface variables and meteorological forcing (i.e. air temperature - Ta, solar radiation - RS, land surface temperature - LST). The processed data were obtained from remote sensing, reanalysis and in-situ data. We implemented a trend analysis for each variable in the period 2000-2019 at monthly, seasonal and annual scale. Results showed a warming trend in Ta and LST of about 1.2 °C and 2.1 °C, respectively, concentrated mainly in the autumn and winter seasons. Although P showed non-significant trends, Q diminished significantly at rates of more than 9.1 m3/s/decade, representing 36% of its historical mean. However, the decreases in Q are seen only in the maximum (spring) and minimum (summer) seasonal flows. These decreases are explained by significant increases in ET, led by a positive feedback of its drivers (LST, Ta and RS), which is directly linked to the impact of warming and an associated vegetation greenness in the watershed, as well as a decrease in SC during winter that feeds the Simpson River during spring and summer. The decrease in Q is reinforced by the intensification of water withdrawals in recent decades, as shown by an accelerated increase in water rights for agricultural and drinking uses. In a context of water scarcity and increasing and extreme droughts, this work contributes to further understanding water dynamics in western Patagonia, providing support for policy and decision-making when defining sustainable productive practices at watershed scale. © 2021Science of the Total Environment00489697https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969721052980art150221804Thomson Reuters SCIEreanalysis data; remote sensing; trend analysis; vegetation greenness; warming effect; water dynamic, climate change; environmental monitoring; humans; rivers; seasons; water; chile; patagonia; atmospheric temperature; climate change; drought; dynamics; potable water; remote sensing; snow; surface measurement; vegetation; water management; water supply; watersheds; water; water; patagonia; reanalysis; reanalysis data; remote-sensing; simpson; trend analysis; vegetation greenness; warming effect; water dynamics; water scarcity; anthropogenic effect; climate effect; decision making; evapotranspiration; hydrodynamics; hydrological response; land surface; policy approach; remote sensing; resource scarcity; snow cover; streamflow; sustainability; trend analysis; vegetation cover; water availability; water planning; watershed; algal bloom; article; autumn; climate change; decision making; drought; evapotranspiration; greenhouse effect; humidity; isotherm; leaf area; marine environment; nonhuman; particulate matter; photosynthesis; phytoplankton; precipitation; remote sensing; room temperature; snow cover; soil moisture; solar radiation; spring; taxonomy; vapor pressure; vegetation; warming; water availability; water insecurity; water supply; watershed; winter; environmental monitoring; human; river; season; decision makingLaboratory for Analysis of the Biosphere (LAB), University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; CESBIO, Université de Toulouse, CNRS/UPS/IRD/CNES/INRAE, Toulouse, France; Laboratory of Geosciences, University of Aysén, Chile; Department of Natural Science and Technology, University of Aysén, Chile
High-resolution spatial-distribution maps of road transport exhaust emissions in Chile, 1990-2020Osses M.; Rojas N.; Ibarra C.; Valdebenito V.; Laengle I.; Pantoja N.; Osses D.; Basoa K.; Tolvett S.; Huneeus N.; Gallardo L.; Gómez B.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes202210.5194/essd-14-1359-2022This description paper presents a detailed and consistent estimate and analysis of exhaust pollutant emissions generated by Chile's road transport activity for the period 1990-2020. The complete database for the period 1990-2020 is available at the following DOI: 10.17632/z69m8xm843.2 (Osses et al., 2021). Emissions are provided at a high spatial resolution (0.01° × 0.01°) over continental Chile from 18.5 to 53.2° S, including local pollutants (CO; volatile organic compounds, VOCs; NOx; PM2.5), black carbon (BC) and greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4). The methodology considers 70 vehicle types, based on 10 vehicle categories, subdivided into 2 fuel types and 7 emission standards. Vehicle activity was calculated based on official databases of vehicle records and vehicle flow counts. Fuel consumption was calculated based on vehicle activity and contrasted with fuel sales to calibrate the initial dataset. Emission factors come mainly from the Computer programme to calculate emissions from road transport version 5 (COPERT 5), adapted to local conditions in the 15 political regions of Chile, based on emission standards and fuel quality. While vehicle fleet grew 5-fold between 1990 and 2020, CO2 emissions have followed this trend at a lower rate, and emissions of air local pollutants have decreased due to stricter abatement technologies, better fuel quality and enforcement of emission standards. In other words, there has been decoupling between fleet growth and emissions' rate of change. Results were contrasted with global datasets (EDGAR, CAMS, CEDS), showing similarities in CO2 estimations and striking differences in PM, BC and CO; in the case of NOx and CH4 there is coincidence only until 2008. In all cases of divergent results, global datasets estimate higher emissions. Copyright: © 2022 Mauricio Osses et al.Earth System Science Data18663508https://essd.copernicus.org/articles/14/1359/2022/1359-137614Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, chile; data set; database; road transport; spatial resolution; traffic emissionDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (UTFSM), Santiago, Chile; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL), Bogotá, Colombia; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile
Upwelled plankton community modulates surface bloom succession and nutrient availability in a natural plankton assemblagePaul A.J.; Bach L.T.; Arístegui J.; Von Der Esch E.; Hernández-Hernández N.; Piiparinen J.; Ramajo L.; Spilling K.; Riebesell U.Zonas Costeras202210.5194/bg-19-5911-2022Upwelling of nutrient-rich waters into the sunlit surface layer of the ocean supports high primary productivity in eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUSs). However, subsurface waters contain not only macronutrients (N, P, Si) but also micronutrients, organic matter and seed microbial communities that may modify the response to macronutrient inputs via upwelling. These additional factors are often neglected when investigating upwelling impacts on surface ocean productivity. Here, we investigated how different components of upwelled water (macronutrients, organic nutrients and seed communities) drive the response of surface plankton communities to upwelling in the Peruvian coastal zone. Results from our short-term (10d) study show that the most influential drivers in upwelled deep water are (1) the ratio of inorganic nutrients (NOx:PO43-) and (2) the microbial community present that can seed heterogeneity in phytoplankton succession and modify the stoichiometry of residual inorganic nutrients after phytoplankton blooms. Hence, this study suggests that phytoplankton succession after upwelling is modified by factors other than the physical supply of inorganic nutrients. This would likely affect trophic transfer and overall productivity in these highly fertile marine ecosystems. © 2022 Allanah Joy Paul et al.Biogeosciences17264170https://bg.copernicus.org/articles/19/5911/2022/5911-592619Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, peru; algal bloom; coastal zone; community structure; deep water; inorganic compound; microbial activity; microbial community; primary production; succession; upwellingGEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany; Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia; Instituto de Oceanografía y Cambio Global (IOCAG), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), Las Palmas, Spain; Marine Research Centre, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland; Center for Advanced Studies in Arid Zones (CEAZA), Coquimbo, Chile; Departamento de Biología Marina, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte (UCN), Coquimbo, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Centre for Coastal Research, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway
Irrigation management or climate change ? Which is more important to cope with water shortage in the production of table grape in a Mediterranean contextPizarro E.; Galleguillos M.; Barría P.; Callejas R.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.1016/j.agwat.2022.107467Table grape production requires large amount of water, which can be problematic in semi-arid Mediterranean regions, where climate change projections anticipated reductions in water availability associated to decreases in precipitation and increases in temperature. In this context, this study aims to evaluate the effect of contrasting irrigation strategies and climate change scenarios on key water balance variables using a Chilean Table grape crop as case study. A standard and an improved irrigation management treatments were implemented in situ during the 2015/2016 and the 2016/2017–2017/2018 observed growing seasons, respectively. Then, the HYDRUS-1D water transfer model was run to simulate the three observed growing seasons and 27 near future growing seasons (2019/2020–2044/2015) under climate change conditions. Satisfactory calibration and validation results against soil moisture and water storage measurements were obtained within the first and the second observed growing seasons respectively (RRMSE values below 5%). Results during the observed seasons showed that by changing the standard irrigation by the improved irrigation management, the water use efficiency (WUEi) increases from 49.5% to 55.7%. For the near future, the calibrated model shows that under all the tested climate change scenarios, irrigation strategies based on supplying 80% and 50% of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) (deficit irrigation scenarios) have larger efficiencies compared to the standard irrigation management (presenting a higher actual basal crop coefficient and lower percolation). Similar results were obtained under future extreme climate change years, defined as the ratio between model-based projections of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and precipitation, with the deficit irrigation scenarios having larger efficiencies than the standard irrigation management. Based on these results, it is concluded that by mid- century, the irrigation management has more relevance than climate change impacts for tables grapes growing under a Mediterranean climate in central Chile. © 2022Agricultural Water Management03783774https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378377422000142art107467263Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; climate models; crops; efficiency; evapotranspiration; irrigation; soil moisture; solvents; water supply; climate change scenarios; deficit irrigation; global change; growing season; hydrus; irrigation management; irrigation strategy; table grapes; water balance; water shortages; agricultural management; climate change; crop production; hydrological modeling; irrigation; mediterranean environment; vine; water availability; climate change, global change; hydrus; irrigation strategies; table grapes; water balanceFacultad de Ciencias Agronomicas, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Conservación de la Naturaleza, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias de la Ingeniería, Universidad de Los Lagos, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
Assessing the socio-economic and land-cover drivers of wildfire activity and its spatiotemporal distribution in south-central ChilePozo R.A.; Galleguillos M.; González M.E.; Vásquez F.; Arriagada R.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152002Sustained human pressures on the environment have significantly increased the frequency, extent, and severity of wildfires, globally. This is particularly the case in Mediterranean regions, in which human-caused wildfires represent up to 90% of all recorded wildfire ignitions. In Chile, it has been estimated that nearly 90% of wildfires are related to human activities, and that their frequency and distribution have steadily increased over the last decade. Despite this, the role of socio-economic factors in driving wildfire activity and its spatiotemporal distribution remains unclear. In this study, we assess the association between socio-economic drivers and spatiotemporal patterns of wildfires in the Mediterranean region of south-central Chile over the period 2010–2018. Our results show that 98.5% of wildfires are related to human activities, either accidentally (58.2%) or intentionally (36.6%). Wildfires occurred primarily during the summer months and their density at the commune-level was associated with increased road access, as well as with the percentage of land covered by agriculture, exotic tree plantations, and native forest. Wildfire activity at the commune-level was also related to socio-economic variables such as population density, proportion of indigenous population, and unemployment rate, although such associations varied considerably depending on the region and on whether the wildfire was started accidentally or intentionally. Our study provides a comprehensive and interdisciplinary assessment of the complex ways in which land-cover and socio-economic factors drive the distribution of wildfire activity in south-central Chile. It represents an important guide for policy-making, as well a baseline for research into strategies aimed at predicting and mitigating wildfire activity at both local and national levels. © 2021Science of the Total Environment00489697https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969721070789art152002810Thomson Reuters SCIEinterdisciplinary; land-use; mediterranean ecosystem; socio-economic drivers; wildfire, chile; human activities; humans; mediterranean region; socioeconomic factors; wildfires; chile; economic analysis; fires; forestry; population statistics; spatial distribution; central chile; human activities; interdisciplinary; land cover; mediterranean ecosystem; mediterranean region; socio-economic driver; socio-economic factor; socio-economics; spatiotemporal distributions; environmental assessment; human activity; land cover; land use; policy making; socioeconomic impact; spatiotemporal analysis; wildfire; article; chile; forest; human; land use; management; plantation; population density; socioeconomics; southern europe; summer; unemployment; wildfire; chile; human activities; land usePontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Facultad de Agronomía, Quillota, Chile; ), University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Center for Fire and Socioecosystem Resilience (FireSES), Universidad Austral de Chile, Chile; Facultad de Economía y Negocios, Universidad del Desarrollo, Concepción, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Millennium Nucleus Center for the Socio-economic Impact of Environmental Policies (CESIEP), Chile
Chlorine-36 Surface Exposure Dating of Late Holocene Moraines and Glacial Mass Balance Modeling, Monte Sierra Nevada, South-Central Chilean Andes (38°S)Price B.N.; Stansell N.D.; Fernández A.; Licciardi J.M.; Lesnek A.J.; Muñoz A.; Sorensen M.K.; Jaque Castillo E.; Shutkin T.; Ciocca I.; Galilea I.Agua y Extremos202210.3389/feart.2022.848652The development of robust chronologies of Neoglaciation from individual glaciers throughout the high-altitude Andes can provide fundamental knowledge of influences such as regional temperature and precipitation variability, and aid in predicting future changes in the Andean climate system. However, records of Late Holocene glaciation from the Central Chilean Andes are sparse, and often poorly constrained. Here, we present 36Cl surface exposure ages, dendrochronologic constraints, and glacial mass balance modeling simulations of Late Holocene glacier fluctuations in the Central-South Chilean Andes. A series of concentric moraine ridges were identified on Monte Sierra Nevada (38°S), where exposure dating of basaltic boulders was used to establish a chronology of ice recession. We infer that moraine abandonment of the most distal ridge in the valley commenced by ∼4.2 ka, and was followed by glacier margin retreat to an up-valley position. Exposure ages of the oldest Late Holocene boulders (∼2.5–0.8 ka) along the marginal extents of the moraine complex indicate fluctuations of the glacier terminus prior to ∼0.65 ka. A final expansion of the ice margin reoccupied the position of the 4.2 ka moraine, with abatement from the outermost composite moraine occurring by ∼0.70 ka, as constrained by tree-ring data from live Araucaria araucana trees. Finally, a series of nested moraines dating to ∼0.45–0.30 ka, formed from a pulsed ice recession during the latest Holocene when the lower reaches of the glacial snout was most likely debris mantled. A distributed temperature index model combined with a glacier flow model was used to quantify an envelope of possible climatic conditions of Late Holocene glaciation. The glacial modeling results suggest conditions were ∼1.5°C colder and 20% wetter during peak Neoglaciation relative to modern conditions. These records also suggest a near-coeval record of Late Holocene climate variability between the middle and high southern latitudes. Furthermore, this study presents some of the youngest 36Cl exposure ages reported for moraines in the Andes, further supporting this method as a valuable geochronologic tool for assessing Late Holocene landscape development. Copyright © 2022 Price, Stansell, Fernández, Licciardi, Lesnek, Muñoz, Sorensen, Jaque Castillo, Shutkin, Ciocca and Galilea.Frontiers in Earth Science22966463https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feart.2022.848652/fullart84865210Thomson Reuters SCIEandes; chile; boulder; chlorine isotope; cosmogenic radionuclide; dendrochronology; glacier flow; glacier mass balance; glacier retreat; holocene; ice margin; moraine; paleoclimate; tree ring; valley glacier, alpine glaciers; cosmogenic nuclides; dendrochronology; glacial geomorphology; little ice age; moraine chronology; paleoclimate; temperature index modelDepartment of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, IL, United States; Department of Geography, Mountain GeoScience Group, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Department of Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, United States; School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Queens College, City University of New York, Queens, NY, United States; Institute of Geography, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research CR2, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate Action, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Department of Geography, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; The Ohio State University, Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center, Department of Geography, Columbus, OH, United States; The Ohio State University, Department of Geography, Columbus, OH, United States
Coping Strategies and Tactics to Deal With Social Vulnerability in the Flood Disaster of March 25, 2015, in Chañaral and Diego de Almagro, ChilePérez Tello S.; Aldunce Ide P.; Flores-Haverbeck F.; Mena Maldonado D.; Castro Correa C.P.; Wyndham Vásquez K.Agua y Extremos202210.3389/fclim.2022.763413A socio-natural disaster event exacerbates pre-existing socio-economic crises and disrupts the life projects of the people affected, generating the deployment of strategic or tactical actions to deal with it. When societies have populations living in conditions of social vulnerability prior to disasters, such actions are more complex and difficult to manage. On March 25, 2015 (25M), the inhabitants of the towns of Chañaral and Diego de Almagro, in the Atacama Region of Chile, were faced with a flood that produced a crisis of great magnitude. This qualitative research describes the actions the inhabitants used to reduce social vulnerability, before, during and after the emergency. These actions were analyzed to describe the extent of planning, meanings, resources and structures of opportunities present in the actions. Content analysis was carried out on semi-structured interviews with 38 affected people, selected using intentional sampling technique together with snowball sampling. Subjective resources were identified: sense of family, solidarity, autonomy and restitution of rights. The superimposed mobilization of these resources resulted in a complex situation of resilience. It is concluded that the way of learning actions includes family and cultural habits, daily learning and previous experiences, and imitation, among others. Recommendations are made to be considered for the reduction of risks of socio-natural disasters. Specifically, policies that include educational strategies that are based on theways of acting shown by the communities. Copyright © 2022 Pérez Tello, Aldunce Ide, Flores-Haverbeck, Mena Maldonado, Castro Correa and Wyndham Vásquez.Frontiers in Climate26249553https://doi.org/10.3389/fclim.2022.763413art7634134Thomson Reuters ISIassets; chile; floods; march 25 (25m); resilience; social vulnerability; socio-natural disaster; strategies and tactics, nanDepartment of Psychology, Faculty of Social Science, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Disaster Risk Reduction, Centro de Investigación Transdisciplinaria en Riesgo de Desastres (CITRID), University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, Chile; Department of Environmental Science and Renewable Natural Resources, Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Renewable Natural Resources, Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Geography, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
Size matters: Physiological sensitivity of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus to seasonal cooling and deoxygenation upwelling-driven eventsRamajo L.; Sola-Hidalgo C.; Valladares M.; Astudillo O.; Inostroza J.Zonas Costeras202210.3389/fmars.2022.992319Environment imposes physiological constraints which are life-stage specific as growth-maintenance and/or growth-reproduction energetic requirements are size and volume-dependent. The scallop Argopecten purpuratus, one of the most important bivalve species subjected to fishery and aquaculture along the Humboldt Current System, inhabits spaces affected by continuous changes in temperature, pH, oxygen, and food availability driven by remote and local oceanographic processes. Specifically, in Chile, this species is mainly cultured in central-north Chile where is permanently affected by upwelling events of dissimilar intensity and duration which generate local conditions of acidification, deoxygenation, and cooling with different magnitudes. However, to date, it remains unknown how this economic valuable resource is physiologically affected throughout its life cycle by the continuous environmental changes driven by upwelling events of different intensities and duration along the year. Here, for the first time, A. purpuratus life-stage physiological sensitivity was assessed at a seasonal scale through a year-field experiment where growth, calcification, and survivorship were evaluated. Our study shows how seasonal differences in the upwelling phenology (here measured as changes in temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and primary productivity, but also as the number, duration, and intensity of cooling and de-oxygenation events) notably impacted the A. purpuratus physiological performance from juvenile to adult life-stages. This was especially noticeable during the spring season which showed the most intense cooling and deoxygenation events driven by stronger favorable-upwelling winds and the lowest growth and gross calcification rates (the highest decalcification rates) where adult stages showed the lowest performance. On the other hand, A. purpuratus survivorship was not significantly affected by upwelling intensity which would be providing evidence of the high physiological flexibility and well-locally adapted is this species to fluctuating and occasional stressful environmental conditions. Our results are significantly relevant in the climate change context as some upwelling systems are at risk to change shortly (i.e., an upwelling intensification in frequency and intensity) as a consequence of changes in the atmospheric pressures that modulate favourable-upwelling winds. These changes may certainly increase the climate related-risks of the entire socio-ecological systems related to the fishery and aquaculture of A. purpuratus along the Humboldt Current System. Copyright © 2022 Ramajo, Sola-Hidalgo, Valladares, Astudillo and Inostroza.Frontiers in Marine Science22967745https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2022.992319/fullart9923199Thomson Reuters SCIEclimate change; cooling; humboldt current system; ocean acidification; ocean deoxygenation; physiological impacts; shellfish aquaculture; upwelling intensification, nanCentro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Coquimbo, Chile; Departamento de Biología Marina, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte (UCN), Coquimbo, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Santiago, Chile; ONG Jáukén, Santiago, Chile
Microbial Biogeochemical Cycling of Nitrogen in Arid EcosystemsRamond J.-B.; Jordaan K.; Díez B.; Heinzelmann S.M.; Cowan D.A.Zonas Costeras202210.1128/mmbr.00109-21Arid ecosystems cover;40% of the Earth’s terrestrial surface and store a high proportion of the global nitrogen (N) pool. They are low-productivity, low-biomass, and polyextreme ecosystems, i.e., with (hyper)arid and (hyper)oligotrophic conditions and high surface UV irradiation and evapotranspiration. These polyextreme conditions severely limit the presence of macrofauna and -flora and, particularly, the growth and productivity of plant species. Therefore, it is generally recognized that much of the primary production (including N-input processes) and nutrient biogeochemical cycling (particularly N cycling) in these ecosystems are microbially mediated. Consequently, we present a comprehensive survey of the current state of knowledge of biotic and abiotic N-cycling processes of edaphic (i.e., open soil, biological soil crust, or plant-associated rhizosphere and rhizosheath) and hypo/endolithic refuge niches from drylands in general, including hot, cold, and polar desert ecosystems. We particularly focused on the microbially mediated biological nitrogen fixation, N mineralization, assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, and nitrification N-input processes and the denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) N-loss processes. We note that the application of modern meta-omics and related methods has generated comprehensive data sets on the abundance, diversity, and ecology of the different N-cycling microbial guilds. However, it is worth mentioning that microbial N-cycling data from important deserts (e.g., Sahara) and quantitative rate data on N transformation processes from various desert niches are lacking or sparse. Filling this knowledge gap is particularly important, as climate change models often lack data on microbial activity and environmental microbial N-cycling communities can be key actors of climate change by producing or consuming nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. © 2022 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews10922172https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/mmbr.00109-21e00109-2186Thomson Reuters SCIEecosystem; microbiota; nitrification; nitrogen; nitrogen cycle; plants; soil; soil microbiology; ammonia; nitrate; nitrite; nitrogen; nitrogen; abiotic stress; anaerobic ammonium oxidation; biogeochemical cycling; denitrification; desert; ecological niche; ecosystem; nitrification; nitrifyer; nitrogen cycling; nitrogen deposition; nitrogen fixation; nitrogen mineralization; nonhuman; oxidation; plant; prokaryotes by metabolism; review; soil; microbiology; microflora; nitrogen cycle, biogeochemistry; biological soil crusts; desert; diazotrophy; drylands; lithobiont; nitrogen cycling; soilsDepartamento Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centre for Microbial Ecology and Genomics (CMEG), University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Santiago, Chile; Center for Genome Regulation (CRG), Santiago, Chile
Isotopic Characterization of Water Masses in the Southeast Pacific Region: Paleoceanographic ImplicationsReyes-Macaya D.; Hoogakker B.; Martínez-Méndez G.; Llanillo P.J.; Grasse P.; Mohtadi M.; Mix A.; Leng M.J.; Struck U.; McCorkle D.C.; Troncoso M.; Gayo E.M.; Lange C.B.; Farias L.; Carhuapoma W.; Graco M.; Cornejo-D’Ottone M.; De Pol Holz R.; Fernandez C.; Narvaez D.; Vargas C.A.; García-Araya F.; Hebbeln D.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes202210.1029/2021JC017525In this study, we used stable isotopes of oxygen (δ18O), deuterium (δD), and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) in combination with temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nutrient concentrations to characterize the coastal (71°–78°W) and an oceanic (82°–98°W) water masses (SAAW—Subantarctic Surface Water; STW—Subtropical Water; ESSW—Equatorial Subsurface water; AAIW—Antarctic Intermediate Water; PDW—Pacific Deep Water) of the Southeast Pacific (SEP). The results show that δ18O and δD can be used to differentiate between SAAW-STW, SAAW-ESSW, and ESSW-AAIW. δ13CDIC signatures can be used to differentiate between STW-ESSW (oceanic section), SAAW-ESSW, ESSW-AAIW, and AAIW-PDW. Compared with the oceanic section, our new coastal section highlights differences in both the chemistry and geometry of water masses above 1,000 m. Previous paleoceanographic studies using marine sediments from the SEP continental margin used the present-day hydrological oceanic transect to compare against, as the coastal section was not sufficiently characterized. We suggest that our new results of the coastal section should be used for past characterizations of the SEP water masses that are usually based on continental margin sediment samples. © 2021. The Authors.Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans21699275https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2021JC017525arte2021JC017525127Thomson Reuters SCIEpacific ocean; pacific ocean (southeast); continental margin; dissolved inorganic carbon; isotopic analysis; paleoceanography; stable isotope; water mass, carbon stable isotopes in dissolved inorganic carbon; oxygen and deuterium stable isotopes in seawater; paleoceanography proxies; southeast pacific; water mass distributionMARUM-Zentrum für Marine Umweltwissenschaften, Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Lyell Centre, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom; ANID-Millennium Science Initiative Program Nucleo Milenio UPWELL, La Serena, Chile; AWI-Alfred Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany; Deutsches Zentrum für Integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv), Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Germany; GEOMAR-Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung, Kiel, Germany; COAS-College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States; National Environmental Isotope Facility, British Geological Survey, Nottingham, United Kingdom; School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Loughborough, United Kingdom; Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Berlin, Germany; Department of Earth Sciences, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Falmouth, MA, United States; ANID—FONDAP—Centro de Ciencia del Clima y Resiliencia, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Investigación Oceanográfica COPAS Sur-Austral, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; ANID—FONDAP—Centro IDEAL, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA, United States; Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Naples, Italy; ANID-Millennium Science Initi...
Hydroclimate and ENSO Variability Recorded by Oxygen Isotopes From Tree Rings in the South American AltiplanoRodriguez-Caton M.; Andreu-Hayles L.; Daux V.; Vuille M.; Varuolo-Clarke A.M.; Oelkers R.; Christie D.A.; D’Arrigo R.; Morales M.S.; Palat Rao M.; Srur A.M.; Vimeux F.; Villalba R.Agua y Extremos202210.1029/2021GL095883Hydroclimate variability in tropical South America is strongly regulated by the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM). However, past precipitation changes are poorly constrained due to limited observations and high-resolution paleoproxies. We found that summer precipitation and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability are well registered in tree-ring stable oxygen isotopes (δ18OTR) of Polylepis tarapacana in the Chilean and Bolivian Altiplano in the Central Andes (18–22°S, ∼4,500 m a.s.l.) with the northern forests having the strongest climate signal. More enriched δ18OTR values were found at the southern sites likely due to the increasing aridity toward the southwest of the Altiplano. The climate signal of P. tarapacana δ18OTR is the combined result of moisture transported from the Amazon Basin, modulated by the SASM, ENSO, and local evaporation, and emerges as a novel tree-ring climate proxy for the southern tropical Andes. © 2022. The Authors.Geophysical Research Letters00948276https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2021GL095883arte2021GL09588349Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, altiplano; amazon basin; andes; atmospheric pressure; climatology; forestry; isotopes; oxygen; climate signals; high resolution; hydroclimates; limited observations; oxygen isotopes; precipitation change; south america; summer monsoon; summer precipitation; tree rings; climate signal; el nino-southern oscillation; hydrometeorology; oxygen isotope; paleoclimate; proxy climate record; seasonal variation; tree ring; tropicsTree Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY, United States; Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA, United States; CREAF, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallés), Barcelona, Spain; ICREA, Barcelona, Spain; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ/IPSL, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY, United States; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Cambio Global, Instituto de Conservación Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Cs. Ambientales (IANIGLA), CONICET Mendoza, Argentina; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología, Universidad Continental. Huancayo, Peru; Cooperative Programs for the Advancement of Earth System Science, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, United States; Department of Plant Science, University of California, Davis, CA, United States; HydroSciences Montpellier (HSM), UMR 5151 (UM, CNRS, IRD), Montpellier, France; Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), UMR 8212 (CEA, CNRS, UVSQ), Gif-sur-Yvette, France
Soil research, management, and policy priorities in ChileSalazar O.; Casanova M.; Fuentes J.P.; Galleguillos M.; Nájera F.; Perez-Quezada J.F.; Pfeiffer M.; Renwick L.L.R.; Seguel O.; Tapia Y.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.1016/j.geodrs.2022.e00502[No abstract available]Geoderma Regional23520094https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2352009422000220arte0050229Thomson Reuters SCIEandisols; andosols; land use change; soil education; soil information system; soil management; soil policy, nanDepartamento de Ingeniería y Suelos, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Departamento de Silvicultura y Conservación de la Naturaleza, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y de la Conservación de la Naturaleza, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate Resilience Research CR2, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Concepción, Chile
Are Citizens Ready for Active Climate Engagement or Stuck in a Game of Blame? Local Perceptions of Climate Action and Citizen Participation in Chilean PatagoniaSapiains R.; Azócar G.; Moraga P.; Valenzuela C.; Aldunce P.; Cornejo C.; Rojas M.; Pulgar A.; Medina L.; Bozkurt D.Agua y Extremos; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202210.3390/su141912034Deep structural transformations aimed at strengthening climate action and community participation are occurring in Chile, especially after the social unrest of October 2019. The ongoing political crisis has even generated the unprecedented possibility of writing a new constitution through an entirely democratic process. This article explores to what extent these structural transformations are also associated with cognitive and relational changes in the population, especially in terms of community participation. An online survey (n = 1.117) was applied to people over 18 years old in Punta Arenas in November 2020. This is the southernmost city of the American continent, one of the areas most affected by climate change, highly isolated from the rest of the country, and with a strong regional ecological identity. Results show that climate change is perceived as the main environmental problem affecting the city, with multiple negative consequences, but also with some potentially positive impacts. At the same time, environmental and constitutional expectations suggest the state of the environment is deemed to be critical for the future of the city. However, a traditional top-down understanding of community participation still prevails as most participants perceive the citizens’ role in dealing with environmental issues as limited to individual, passive, and reactive actions, or reduced to being responsible consumers. These results show that transforming institutions, rules and regulations alone does not guarantee a broader engagement of local communities in more ambitious, committed, and lasting climate action, even with a high climate change concern in the population. Creating strategies aimed at more profound cognitive and relational changes from a bottom-up perspective will also be necessary to avoid negative transformation trajectories. © 2022 by the authors.Sustainability (Switzerland)20711050https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/14/19/12034art1203414Thomson Reuters SCIE, SSCIchile; magallanes; patagonia; punta arenas; action plan; climate change; democracy; environmental issue; local participation; perception; political conflict; questionnaire survey; regulatory framework; strategic approach, chile; climate change; community participation; constitution; transformationCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, 8320000, Chile; Faculty of Social Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 7750000, Chile; Centro de Investigación GAIA Antártica, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, 6200000, Chile; Faculty of Law, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 7500000, Chile; Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8820000, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8320000, Chile; Independent Researcher, Punta Arenas, 6200000, Chile; Department of Meteorology, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, 2340000, Chile
Socioeconomic inequalities and the surface heat island distribution in Santiago, ChileSarricolea P.; Smith P.; Romero-Aravena H.; Serrano-Notivoli R.; Fuentealba M.; Meseguer-Ruiz O.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155152Surface urban heat islands (SUHIs) are an important socio-environmental problem associated with large cities, such as the Santiago Metropolitan Area (SMA), in Chile. Here, we analyze daytime and nighttime variations of SUHIs for each season of the year during the period 2000–2020. To evaluate socioeconomic inequities in the distribution of SUHIs, we establish statistical relationships with socioeconomic status, land price, and urban vegetation. We use the MODIS satellite images to obtain the land surface temperatures and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) through the Google Earth Engine platform. The results indicate more intense SUHIs during the nighttime in the eastern sector, coinciding with higher socioeconomic status and larger green areas. This area during the day is cooler than the rest of the city. The areas with lower and middle socioeconomic status suffer more intense SUHIs (daytime and nighttime) and match poor environmental and urban qualities. These results show the high segregation of SMA. Urban planning is subordinated to land prices with a structure maintained over the study period. The lack of social-climate justice is unsustainable, and such inequalities may be exacerbated in the context of climate change. Thus, these results can contribute to the planning of the SMA. © 2022 Elsevier B.V.Science of the Total Environment00489697https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969722022458art155152832Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; cities; environmental monitoring; hot temperature; socioeconomic factors; chile; metropolitana; climate change; engines; land surface temperature; landforms; surface measurement; urban planning; vegetation; google earth engine; google earths; land prices; local climate; local climate zone; metropolitan area; socio-economic status; socio-economics; surface urban heat islands; heat island; ndvi; seasonal variation; socioeconomic status; temperature effect; urban area; article; chile; city planning; climate change; controlled study; heat; human; justice; price; satellite imagery; season; social environment; social status; vegetation; chile; city; environmental monitoring; procedures; socioeconomics; atmospheric temperature, google earth engine; local climate zones; socioeconomic status; surface urban heat islandDepartment of Geography, University of Chile, Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Portugal 84, Torre Chica, Santiago, Chile; Department of Geography, University of Chile, Portugal 84, Torre Chica, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049, Spain; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Históricas y Geográficas, Universidad de Tarapacá, Sede Iquique, Luis Emilio Recabarren 2477, Iquique, Chile
Photochemical sensitivity to emissions and local meteorology in Bogotá, Santiago, and São Paulo: An analysis of the initial COVID-19 lockdownsSeguel R.J.; Gallardo L.; Osses M.; Rojas N.Y.; Nogueira T.; Menares C.; De Fatima Andrade M.; Belalcázar L.C.; Carrasco P.; Eskes H.; Fleming Z.L.; Huneeus N.; Ibarra-Espinosa S.; Landulfo E.; Leiva M.; Mangones S.C.; Morais F.G.; Moreira G.A.; Pantoja N.; Parraguez S.; Rojas J.P.; Rondanelli R.; Da Silva Andrade I.; Toro R.; Yoshida A.C.Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes202210.1525/elementa.2021.00044This study delves into the photochemical atmospheric changes reported globally during the pandemic by analyzing the change in emissions from mobile sources and the contribution of local meteorology to ozone (O3) and particle formation in Bogotá (Colombia), Santiago (Chile), and São Paulo (Brazil). The impact of mobility reductions (50%-80%) produced by the early coronavirus-imposed lockdown was assessed through high-resolution vehicular emission inventories, surface measurements, aerosol optical depth and size, and satellite observations of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns. A generalized additive model (GAM) technique was also used to separate the local meteorology and urban patterns from other drivers relevant for O3 and NO2 formation.Volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) decreased significantly due to motorized trip reductions. In situ nitrogen oxide median surface mixing ratios declined by 70%, 67%, and 67% in Bogotá, Santiago, and São Paulo, respectively. NO2 column medians from satellite observations decreased by 40%, 35%, and 47%, respectively, which was consistent with the changes in mobility and surface mixing ratio reductions of 34%, 25%, and 4%. However, the ambient NO2 to NOx ratio increased, denoting a shift of the O3 formation regime that led to a 51%, 36%, and 30% increase in the median O3 surface mixing ratios in the 3 respective cities. O3 showed high sensitivity to slight temperature changes during the pandemic lockdown period analyzed. However, the GAM results indicate that O3 increases were mainly caused by emission changes. The lockdown led to an increase in the median of the maximum daily 8-h average O3 of between 56% and 90% in these cities. © 2022 The Author(s).Elementa23251026https://online.ucpress.edu/elementa/article/10/1/00044/169476/Photochemical-sensitivity-to-emissions-and-localart0004410Thomson Reuters SCIEgeneralized additive model; lockdown; mobile sources; nitrogen oxides; ozone, bogota; brazil; colombia; rio grande do sul; santiago [rio grande do sul]; sao paulo [brazil]; covid-19; emission control; emission inventory; meteorology; nitrogen oxides; numerical model; ozone; photochemistry; pollutant source; satellite altimetry; sensitivity analysisCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (UTFSM), Santiago, Chile; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia; Departamento de Ciências Atmosféricas, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Tmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), De Bilt, Netherlands; Envirohealth Dynamics Lab, C+ Research Center in Technologies for Society, School of Engineering, Universidad Del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile; Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Civil and Agricultural Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia; Federal Institute of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; National Meteorology and Hydrology Service (SENAMHI), Lima, Peru; Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Naturais Do Pontal, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil
The last millennium viewed from a fine-resolution freshwater diatom record from northwestern PatagoniaSepúlveda-Zúñiga E.; Maidana N.I.; Villacís L.A.; Sagredo E.A.; Moreno P.I.Agua y Extremos202210.1016/j.quascirev.2022.107806Little is known about the response of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems to changes in climatic and human influences during the last millennium in northwestern Patagonia (NWP, 40°-44°S). By virtue of their sensitivity and specificity, diatoms are ideal for examining past changes in aquatic ecosystems and deciphering the ranges of variability under natural and human-induced conditions. To date, however, very few fossils diatom studies have examined in detail the environmental evolution during the last millennium throughout Patagonia. Here we present a fine-resolution diatom record from a lake-sediment core collected from Lago Pichilaguna (41°S), a closed-basin and shallow lake with a small catchment area located in the lowlands of the Chilean Lake District in NWP. The record spans the last millennium with a median time resolution of ∼12 years between samples, and shows abundant small Aulacoseira spp. between ∼1000-900 and ∼600-300 cal yr BP, which alternate in dominance with small fragilarioids and small raphid diatoms between ∼900-600 and ∼300-200 cal yr BP. A rapid shift to planktonic diatoms started at ∼200 cal yr BP and led to their modern dominance. We interpret centennial-scale changes in temperature, precipitation, and lake turbulence, with warm/dry/stratified phases between ∼1000-900 and ∼600-300 cal yr BP related to weak westerly winds, and intervals of cold/wet and mixed water column conditions between ∼900-600 and ∼300-200 cal yr BP, favored by stronger winds. The transition from periphytic to planktonic diatoms that started at ∼200 cal yr BP suggests juxtaposition of the warmest/driest phase of the last millennium and the onset of large-scale disturbance by Chilean/European settlers in NWP. Our results reveal that human disturbance during historical time surpassed the natural ranges of variability and resilience of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems over the last millennium, generating abrupt changes in biodiversity, species composition, and community structure. © 2022 Elsevier LtdQuaternary Science Reviews02773791https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0277379122004371art107806296Thomson Reuters SCIEcumbria; england; lake district; patagonia; united kingdom; aquatic ecosystems; biodiversity; catchments; phytoplankton; wind; condition; fine resolution; lake sediment cores; last millenniums; northwestern patagonium; patagonia; periphytons; planktonic diatoms; southern westerly winds; tychoplanktonic diatom; catchment; diatom; lacustrine deposit; periphyton; resilience; westerly; lakes, lake sediment cores; northwestern patagonia; periphyton; planktonic diatoms; southern westerly winds; tychoplanktonic diatomsInstituto de Geografía, Facultad de Historia, Geografía y Ciencia Política, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental y Aplicada, CONICET – UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, C1428EHA, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina; Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas and Center for Climate Research and Resilience, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Estación Patagonia de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Long-term airborne particle pollution assessment in the city of Coyhaique, Patagonia, ChileSolís R.; Toro A. R.; Gomez L.; Vélez-Pereira A.M.; López M.; Fleming Z.L.; Fierro N.; Leiva G. M.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1016/j.uclim.2022.101144An air pollution assessment in a small city located in the heart of Chilean Patagonia is presented. Seven years (2014–2020) of PM concentration levels retrieved from two monitoring stations permits an evaluation of the city's pollution variability, the effect of meteorological variables and long-term trends of air pollution. The highest PM concentration levels observed during the coldest months are mainly related to an increasing emission associated with the intensive use of firewood for residential heating and cooking. The most polluted days are associated with low temperatures, low wind speed and high PM2.5/PM10 ratios, which is consistent with the predominance of local firewood sources over background emissions. A decrease in both PM fractions over time has been estimated (PM10: -4.1, CI99%: −5.7 to −2.9 and PM2.5: -2.2, CI99%: −3.5 to −1.3 μg m−3 year−1). However, the annual average PM mass concentrations in Coyhaique exceeded both national and international air quality thresholds. The city reported a percent of annual exceedances of the daily WHO guidelines of 57% for PM10 and 77% for PM2.5. These numbers highlight the serious air pollution problem of the city of Coyhaique, which exhibits air pollution levels comparable to those of many polluted megacities in the world. © 2022 Elsevier B.V.Urban Climate22120955https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212095522000621art10114443Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, air pollution assessment; domestic wood burning; particulate matterDepartamento of Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Laboratorio Eco-climático, Centro de Investigación de Ecosistemas de la Patagonia (CIEP), Coyhaique, Chile; Campus Patagonia Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh), Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia, (CR)2, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Envirohealth Dynamics lab, C + Research Center in Technologies for Society, Escuela de Ingeniería, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile
Glacier fluctuations in the northern Patagonian Andes (44°S) imply wind-modulated interhemispheric in-phase climate shifts during Termination 1Soteres R.L.; Sagredo E.A.; Kaplan M.R.; Martini M.A.; Moreno P.I.; Reynhout S.A.; Schwartz R.; Schaefer J.M.Agua y Extremos202210.1038/s41598-022-14921-4The Last Glacial Termination (T1) featured major changes in global circulation systems that led to a shift from glacial to interglacial climate. While polar ice cores attest to an antiphased thermal pattern at millennial timescales, recent well-dated moraine records from both hemispheres suggest in-phase fluctuations in glaciers through T1, which is inconsistent with the bipolar see-saw paradigm. Here, we present a glacier chronology based on 30 new 10Be surface exposure ages from well-preserved moraines in the Lago Palena/General Vintter basin in northern Patagonia (~ 44°S). We find that the main glacier lobe underwent profound retreat after 19.7 ± 0.7 ka. This recessional trend led to the individualization of the Cerro Riñón glacier by ~ 16.3 ka, which underwent minor readvances at 15.9 ± 0.5 ka during Heinrich Stadial 1, during the Antarctic Cold Reversal with successive maxima at 13.5 ± 0.4, 13.1 ± 0.4, and 13.1 ± 0.5 ka, and a minor culmination at 12.5 ± 0.4 ka during Younger Dryas time. We conclude that fluctuations of Patagonian glaciers during T1 were controlled primarily by climate anomalies brought by shifts in the Southern Westerly Winds (SWW) locus. We posit that the global covariation of mountain glaciers during T1 was linked to variations in atmospheric CO2 (atmCO2) promoted by the interplay of the SWW-Southern Ocean system at millennial timescales. © 2022, The Author(s).Scientific Reports20452322https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-022-14921-4art1084212Thomson Reuters SCIEantarctic regions; climate; ice cover; wind; antarctica; climate; ice cover; wind, nanInstituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Campus San Joaquín, Avda. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago, Chile; Millennium Nucleus Paleoclimate, ANID-Millennium Science Initiative, Santiago, Chile; Estación Patagonia de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY, United States; Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de La Tierra (CONICET-UNC), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina; Center for Climate Research and Resilience, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geología, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States
Glacial geomorphology of the central and southern Chilotan Archipelago (42.2°S–43.5°S), northwestern PatagoniaSoteres R.L.; Sagredo E.A.; Moreno P.I.; Lowell T.V.; Alloway B.V.Agua y Extremos202210.1080/17445647.2021.2008538We present a geomorphic map of the glacial landforms associated with the Golfo Corcovado ice lobe in northwestern Patagonia. Built upon prior studies, our map elaborates on the central and southern sectors of Isla Grande de Chiloé and neighboring islands. Through a combination of remote sensing techniques and exhaustive fieldwork, we identified a suite of ice-marginal, subglacial, and glaciofluvial features created by the Golfo Corcovado ice lobe during four maxima within the last glacial cycle, in none of which the ice-front reached the Pacific coast of Isla Grande de Chiloé. Our mapping builds a foundation and provides insights for future interdisciplinary research on the Late Quaternary sequence of glacial and paleoclimatic events in this key sector of northwestern Patagonia. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.Journal of Maps17445647https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17445647.2021.2008538151-16718Thomson Reuters SCIE, SSCInan, chilean lake district; glacial geomorphology; isla grande de chiloé; last glacial maximum; last glacial termination; northwestern patagoniaInstituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Millennium Nucleus Paleoclimate, Millennium Science Initiative, Santiago, Chile; Estación Patagonia de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Center for Climate Research and Resilience, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Geology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States; School of Environment, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Out of steam? A social science and humanities research agenda for geothermal energySpijkerboer R.C.; Turhan E.; Roos A.; Billi M.; Vargas-Payera S.; Opazo J.; Armiero M.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202210.1016/j.erss.2022.102801The potential of geothermal energy for energy transition is increasingly recognized by governments around the world. Whether geothermal energy is a sustainable source of heat and/or electricity depends on how it is deployed in specific contexts. Therefore, it is striking that there is only limited attention to geothermal energy from a social science and humanities (SSH) perspective. Geothermal energy is largely conceptualized as a technological and/or geological issue in both science and practice. This perspective article aims to go beyond such conceptualizations by positioning social science research as an important lens to explore the promises and pitfalls of geothermal energy. We first provide an overview of the current state of geothermal energy as a decarbonization strategy. Second, we move on to review the existing literature. This review shows that studies that do address geothermal energy from an SSH perspective tend to be of a descriptive nature and lack analytical diversity. Third, we discuss three complementary theoretical approaches that are used in the social sciences to observe and address other forms of energy and energy transition. We believe that socio-technical assemblages, systems, and imaginaries can provide fruitful analytical lenses to study the promises, pitfalls and spatialization of geothermal energy. We conclude the paper with a research agenda and call for further engagement with this topic in SSH research, with attention to specificities of global South and North contexts. © 2022 The AuthorsEnergy Research and Social Science22146296https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2214629622003048art10280192Thomson Reuters SSCInan, assemblage; geothermal; imaginaries; infrastructures; narratives; socio-technical systemsDepartment of Spatial Planning & Environment, University of Groningen, Landleven 1, AD, Groningen, 9747, Netherlands; Division of History of Science, Technology and Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 74D, Stockholm, 114 28, Sweden; Department of Rural Management & Innovation, Universidad de Chile, La Pintana, Sta. Rosa, 11315, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, Chile; Energy Poverty Network, Universidad de Chile, Av. Diagonal Paraguay 265, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Excelencia en Geotermia de Los Andes (CEGA), Universidad de Chile, Pl. Ercilla 803, Santiago, Chile; Transdisciplinarity Lab, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zurich, 8092, Switzerland; Business School, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Diagonal las Torres, Peñalolén, 2640, Chile; CNR, ISMed – Institute for Studies on the Mediterranean, Naples, 80134, Italy
Short-Interval, Severe Wildfires Alter Saproxylic Beetle Diversity in Andean Araucaria Forests in Northwest Chilean PatagoniaTello F.; González M.E.; Micó E.; Valdivia N.; Torres F.; Lara A.; García-López A.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.3390/f13030441The occurrence of short-interval, severe wildfires are increasing drastically at a global scale, and appear as a novel phenomenon in areas where fire historically returns in large time lapses. In forest ecosystems, these events induce drastic changes in population dynamics, which could dramatically impact species diversity. Here, we studied the effect on diversity of recent short-interval, severe wildfires (SISF), which occurred in rapid succession in the summers of 2002 and 2015 in Chilean Northern Patagonian Araucaria–Nothofagus forests. We analyzed the diversity of deadwood-dependent (i.e., saproxylic) and fire-sensitive beetles as biological indicators across four conditions: 2002-burned areas, 2015-burned areas, SISF areas (i.e., burned in 2002 and again in 2015), and unburned areas. Saproxylic beetles were collected using window traps in 2017 to 2019 summer seasons. To investigate the mechanisms underpinning the fire-related disturbance of the assemblage, we evaluated the effects of post-fire habitat quality (e.g., dead wood decomposition) and quantity (e.g., burned dead wood volume and tree density) on the abundances and species richness of the entire assemblage and also multiple trophic groups. Compared with the unburned condition, SISF drastically reduced species richness, evenness, and Shannon’s diversity and altered the composition of the saproxylic beetle assemblages. The between-condition variation in composition was accounted for by a species replacement (turnover) between SISF and 2015-burned areas, but both species replacement and extinction (nestedness) between SISF and unburned areas. Dead wood decomposition and tree density were the variables with the strongest effects on the abundance and species richness of the entire saproxylic beetle assemblage and most trophic groups. These results suggest that SISF, through degraded habitat quality (dead wood decomposition) and quantity (arboreal density), have detrimental impacts on diversity and population dynamics of saproxylic beetle assemblages. Therefore, habitat loss is a central mechanism underpinning fire-related biodiversity loss in these forest ecosystems. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Forests19994907https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/13/3/441art44113Thomson Reuters SCIEbeetle ecology; fire ecology; post-fire management; reburned forests; wildfires, biodiversity; dead wood; ecosystems; fires; forestry; araucaria; brazil; chile; parana [brazil]; patagonia; biodiversity; ecosystems; forestry; population dynamics; wood; beetle ecology; condition; dead wood; fire ecology; fire management; post-fire; post-fire management; reburned forest; saproxylic beetles; short-interval; beetle; fire management; forest ecosystem; habitat quality; saproxylic organism; species diversity; species evenness; species richness; wildfire; firesCenter for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, 8320000, Chile; Escuela de Graduados, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, 5090000, Chile; Laboratorio de Salud de Bosques, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, 5090000, Chile; Transdisciplinary Center for Quaternary Research (TAQUACH), Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, 5090000, Chile; Fundación para los Estudios Patrimoniales Pleistocénicos de Osorno, Osorno, 5290000, Chile; Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, 5090000, Chile; Centro del Fuego y Resiliencia de Socioecosistemas (FireSES), Valdivia, 5090000, Chile; Instituto de Investigación CIBIO (Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad), Universidad de Alicante, San Vicente del Raspeig, 03690, Spain; Instituto de Ciencias Marinas y Limnológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, 5090000, Chile; Centro FONDAP de Investigación de Dinámicas de Ecosistemas Marinos de Altas Latitudes (IDEAL), Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, 5090000, Chile; Fundación Centro de los Bosques Nativos FORECOS, Valdivia, 5090000, Chile
An operational method for mapping the composition of post-fire litterTolorza V.; Poblete-Caballero D.; Banda D.; Little C.; Leal C.; Galleguillos M.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.1080/2150704X.2022.2040752Recent increase in the frequency and spatial extent of wildfires motivates the quick recognition of the affected soil properties over large areas. Digital Soil Mapping is a valuable approach to map soil attributes based on remote sensing and field observations. We predicted the spatial distribution of post-fire litter composition in a 40,600 ha basin burned on the 2017 wildfire of Chile. Remotely sensed data of topography, vegetation structure and spectral indices (SI) were used as predictors of random forest (RF) models. Litter sampled in 60 hillslopes after the fire provided training and validation data. Predictors selected by the Variable Selection Using Random Forests (VSURF) algorithm resulted in models for litter composition with acceptable accuracy (coefficient of determination, R 2 = 0.51–0.64, Normalized Root Mean Square Error, NRMSE = 16.9–22.1, percentage bias, pbias = −0.35%-0.5%). Modelled litter parameters decrease in concentration respect to the degree of burn severity, and the pre-fire biomass. Because pre-fire vegetation was conditioned by land cover and by a previous (2 years old) wildfire event, our results highlight the cumulative effect of severe wildfires in the depletion of litter composition. © 2022 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.Remote Sensing Letters2150704Xhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/2150704X.2022.2040752511-52113Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, chile; decision trees; mapping; mean square error; remote sensing; soils; topography; vegetation; attribute-based; digital soil mappings; operational methods; post-fire; pre-fires; remote fields; remote-sensing; soil attributes; soil property; spatial extent; mapping; remote sensing; soil property; topography; vegetation structure; wildfire; firesDepartment of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Sciences, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile; Universidad de Chile, Department of Environmental Sciences, School of Agronomic Sciences, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (Cr2), Santiago, Chile; Instituto Forestal (Infor), Fundo Teja Norte S/n, Valdivia, Chile; Universidad Austral de Chile, Campus Isla Teja, Valdivia, Chile; Facultad de Ingeniería Y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Peñalolen, Chile
An extraordinary dry season precipitation event in the subtropical Andes: Drivers, impacts and predictabilityValenzuela R.; Garreaud R.; Vergara I.; Campos D.; Viale M.; Rondanelli R.Zonas Costeras; Agua y Extremos202210.1016/j.wace.2022.100472A major storm impacted the subtropical Andes during 28–31 January 2021 producing 4-days accumulated precipitation up to 100 mm over central-south Chile. These are high accumulations even for winter events but the storm occurred in the middle of the summer when precipitation is virtually absent, conferring it an extraordinary character. Similar storms have occurred only 2–3 times in the past century. The January 2021 event included periods of high rainfall intensity, hail and lighting, causing dozens of landslides and flash floods with the concomitant social impacts and economical losses. Here we examine the meteorological drivers of this storm at multiples scales, its climatological context, the associated surface impacts, and some aspects of its predictability. About a week before the storm development over central Chile, a large-scale perturbation in the central South Pacific set the stage for the formation of a zonal jet aloft and zonal atmospheric river (ZAR) that extended eastward until reaching the west coast of South America. The ZAR landfalled at 39°S and its subsequent northward displacement resulted in copious orographic precipitation over the Andes and adjacent lowlands, concomitant with a relatively warm environment during the first phase of the storm (28–29 January). During the second phase (30–31 January) the ZAR decayed rapidly but left behind significant amount of water vapor and the formation of a cut-off low (COL) in its poleward flank. The COL facilitated both advection of cyclonic vorticity and cold air at mid-levels, setting the environment for deep convection, intense rain showers, significant lightning activity, and hail. An assessment of the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) from the operational Global Forecast System (GFS) indicates that the model captured well the 96-h precipitation accumulation (28–31 January) in terms of timing and spatial extent. However, specific zones with the largest accumulations varied as a function of lead time. The more stable precipitation during the ZAR phase was better predicted than the convective precipitation during the COL phase. Proper dissemination of these forecast and recently established infrastructure contributed to ease the impact of this extraordinary event on the general population. © 2022 The AuthorsWeather and Climate Extremes22120947https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212094722000548art10047237Thomson Reuters SCIEandes; chile; pacific ocean; pacific ocean (south); south america; advection; atmospheric moisture; cold air; dry season; lightning; precipitation (climatology); precipitation intensity; prediction; subtropical region; water vapor, atmospheric rivers; extreme precipitation; landsides; subtropical andesUniversidad de O'Higgins, Rancagua, Chile; Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR2), Santiago, Chile; Instituto Andino Patagónico de Tecnologías Biológicas y Geoambientales (IPATEC), Bariloche, Argentina; Dirección Meteorológica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), Mendoza, Argentina
Sharp Increase of Extreme Turbidity Events Due To Deglaciation in the Subtropical AndesVergara I.; Garreaud R.; Ayala Á.Agua y Extremos202210.1029/2021JF006584Climate change may affect sediment fluvial export from high mountain regions, leading to downstream environmental disruptions and direct impacts on human activities. In this paper, three decades (1990–2020) of turbidity measurements, along with climate and hydro-glaciological variables, were used to investigate the interannual and interdecadal variability in the number of extreme turbidity events (ETE) in the glacierized Maipo River basin, located in the western subtropical Andes. ETE are defined as a sequence of days (most often 1 or 2) during which the daily maximum turbidity was in the 99% quantile of the entire study period. Some of these events compromised the drinking water provision for the city of Santiago, with more than 6 million inhabitants. ETE are more frequent during summer and are mostly associated with melt-favourable conditions. The number of ETE tends to increase in summers with large glacier ice melt and low snowmelt (outside or over glaciers). Most notable, the mean annual number of ETE exhibits a 6-fold increase in the last decade compared with the 1990–2010 period. After 2010, ETE also shifted their seasonal maximum from late spring to mid-summer and their occurrence became strongly coupled with large ice melt rates. We hypothesize that such regime change was caused by an enhanced hydrological connectivity of subglacial sediment pools that increased the sensitivity of the sediment system to glacier melt. The latter is in line with recent research and is consistent with the ongoing glacier retreat due to strong regional warming and drying. © 2022. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface21699003https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2021JF006584arte2021JF006584127Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, chile; maipo basin; climate change; deglaciation; extreme event; fluvial deposit; glacial deposit; glacier retreat; sediment transport; turbidityIPATEC, CONICET-UNCo, Bariloche, Argentina; Department of Geophysics, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research Santiago, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), La Serena, Chile
Exploring the association between landslides and fluvial suspended sediment in a semi-arid basin in central ChileVergara I.; Garreaud R.; Moreiras S.; Araneo D.; Beigt D.Agua y Extremos202210.1016/j.geomorph.2022.108129The systematic monitoring of landslides is an essential input for their characterization and subsequent reduction of their risk. Along the western subtropical Andes, field monitoring is scarce, so alternative methods that can improve the monitoring are valuable. In this work, the capacity of fluvial suspended sediment to detect the occurrence of landslides in a basin was explored, emphasizing how the relationship varies depending on the hydro-sedimentological variable, the triggering causal factor and the landslide type. The values of suspended sediment concentration (SSC), water discharge (Q) and specific suspended sediment yield (SSY) associated with mass movements were collected from a fluviometric station, as well as maxima of these variables that were not associated with landslides. With these data, different General Linear Models were constructed considering possible non-linear effects of the covariates. Flow-type landslides triggered by rain (most of the events) are correctly predicted, especially using the linear effects of SSC and Q. For this mass movement type the prediction is suitable even for events triggered by isolated, short-lived rains, which are difficult to detect in mountainous areas with meteorological devices. © 2022 Elsevier B.V.Geomorphology0169555Xhttps://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0169555X22000228art108129402Thomson Reuters SCIEgeo-climatic hazard; landslides; subtropical andes; suspended sediment, chile; fluvial deposit; landslide; mass movement; semiarid region; suspended sedimentIPATEC, CONICET-UNCo, Bariloche, Argentina; University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, Chile; IANIGLA, CONICET, Mendoza, Argentina; National University of Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina
Compensatory Transcriptional Response of Fischerella thermalis to Thermal Damage of the Photosynthetic Electron Transfer ChainVergara-Barros P.; Alcorta J.; Casanova-Katny A.; Nürnberg D.J.; Díez B.Zonas Costeras202210.3390/molecules27238515Key organisms in the environment, such as oxygenic photosynthetic primary producers (photosynthetic eukaryotes and cyanobacteria), are responsible for fixing most of the carbon globally. However, they are affected by environmental conditions, such as temperature, which in turn affect their distribution. Globally, the cyanobacterium Fischerella thermalis is one of the main primary producers in terrestrial hot springs with thermal gradients up to 60 °C, but the mechanisms by which F. thermalis maintains its photosynthetic activity at these high temperatures are not known. In this study, we used molecular approaches and bioinformatics, in addition to photophysiological analyses, to determine the genetic activity associated with the energy metabolism of F. thermalis both in situ and in high-temperature (40 °C to 65 °C) cultures. Our results show that photosynthesis of F. thermalis decays with temperature, while increased transcriptional activity of genes encoding photosystem II reaction center proteins, such as PsbA (D1), could help overcome thermal damage at up to 60 °C. We observed that F. thermalis tends to lose copies of the standard G4 D1 isoform while maintaining the recently described D1INT isoform, suggesting a preference for photoresistant isoforms in response to the thermal gradient. The transcriptional activity and metabolic characteristics of F. thermalis, as measured by metatranscriptomics, further suggest that carbon metabolism occurs in parallel with photosynthesis, thereby assisting in energy acquisition under high temperatures at which other photosynthetic organisms cannot survive. This study reveals that, to cope with the harsh conditions of hot springs, F. thermalis has several compensatory adaptations, and provides emerging evidence for mixotrophic metabolism as being potentially relevant to the thermotolerance of this species. Ultimately, this work increases our knowledge about thermal adaptation strategies of cyanobacteria. © 2022 by the authors.Molecules14203049https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/27/23/8515art851527Thomson Reuters SCIEcyanobacteria; fischerella thermalis; hot springs; photosynthesis; photosystem ii; thermophiles, carbon; cyanobacteria; electrons; photosynthesis; carbon; cyanobacterium; electron; genetics; metabolism; photosynthesisDepartment of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Biological Sciences Faculty, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, 8331150, Chile; Millennium Institute Center for Genome Regulation (CGR), Santiago, 8370186, Chile; Laboratory of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Natural Resources, Catholic University of Temuco, Campus Luis Rivas del Canto, Temuco, 4780000, Chile; Institute of Experimental Physics, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, 14195, Germany; Dahlem Centre of Plant Sciences, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, 14195, Germany; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, 8370449, Chile
Evolution of Glacial Lake Cochrane During the Last Glacial Termination, Central Chilean Patagonia (∼47°S)Vásquez A.; Flores-Aqueveque V.; Sagredo E.; Hevia R.; Villa-Martínez R.; Moreno P.I.; Antinao J.L.Agua y Extremos202210.3389/feart.2022.817775Large ice-dammed lakes developed along the eastern margin of the Patagonian Ice Sheet (PIS) during the Last Glacial Termination (T1). Their spatial/temporal evolution, however, remains poorly constrained despite their importance for deciphering fluctuations of the shrinking PIS, isostatic adjustments, and climate forcing. Here we examine the distribution and age of shoreline features deposited or sculpted by Glacial Lake Cochrane (GLC) in the Lago Cochrane/Pueyrredón (LCP) basin, Central Patagonia, following recession of the LCP glacier lobe from its final Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) moraines. GLC drained initially toward the Atlantic Ocean and continuing ice shrinking opened new drainage routes allowing the discharge toward the Pacific Ocean. We identify five clusters of lake terraces, shorelines, and deltas between elevations ∼600–500 (N5), ∼470–400 (N4), ∼360–300 (N3), ∼230–220 (N2), and ∼180–170 masl (N1) throughout the LCP basin. The distribution of these clusters and associated glaciolacustrine deposits provide constraints for the evolving position of the damming glacier bodies. Elevation gradients within the landform clusters reveal glacio-isostatic adjustments that enable us to quantify the magnitude of deglacial rebound and construct isostatically corrected surfaces for the different phases in the evolution of GLC. Our chronology, based principally on radiocarbon dates from lake sediment cores and new OSL dating, suggests that these phases developed between ∼20.7–19.3 ka (N5), ∼19.3–14.8 ka (N4), ∼14.8–11.3 ka (N3), and shortly thereafter (N2 and N1). The N3 landforms are the most ubiquitous, well-preserved, and voluminous, attributes that resulted from a ∼3,500-year long period of glacial stability, enhanced sediment supply by peak precipitation regime, and profuse snow and ice melting during the most recent half of T1. This scenario differs from the cold and dry conditions that prevailed during the brief N5 phase and the moderate amount of precipitation during the N4 phase. We interpret the limited development of the N2 and N1 landforms as ephemeral stabilization events following the final and irreversible disappearance of GLC after N3. This event commenced shortly after the onset of an early Holocene westerly minimum at pan-Patagonian scale at ∼11.7 ka, contemporaneous with peak atmospheric and oceanic temperatures in the middle and high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Copyright © 2022 Vásquez, Flores-Aqueveque, Sagredo, Hevia, Villa-Martínez, Moreno and Antinao.Frontiers in Earth Science22966463https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feart.2022.817775/fullart81777510Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; patagonia; glacial lake; glacioeustacy; holocene; last glacial maximum; postglacial rebound; spatial distribution; temporal distribution, central patagonia; glacial lake cochrane; isostatic rebound; last glacial termination; patagonian ice sheetDepartamento de Geología, FCFM, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Millennium Nucleus Paleoclimate, ANID Millennium Science Initiative, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Estación Patagonia de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Investigación Gaia-Antártica, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Centro de Estudios del Clima y la Resiliencia, Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Indiana Geological and Water Survey, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States
Seed dispersal distance, seed morphology, and recruitment in the Chilean sclerophyllous tree Quillaja saponaria: implications for passive restoration in a semiarid ecosystemVásquez I.; Miranda A.; Delpiano C.A.; Becerra P.I.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.1007/s11258-021-01207-4Recolonization of wind-dispersed tree species in degraded areas may decline with distance from remnant forest fragments because seed rain frequently decreases with distance from the seed source. However, regeneration of these species may be even more limited to sites close to the seed source if dispersal distance is negatively affected by seed mass, and germination probability is positively affected by seed mass. We evaluated these hypotheses in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem of central Chile, using the wind-dispersed tree species Quillaja saponaria. We assessed the seed rain curve in a degraded open area adjacent to a remnant forest fragment of this species, and related seed mass with dispersal distance from the seed source. Then, we evaluated the relationship between seed mass, germination, and seedling growth, and if seeds that fall nearer the seed source have greater germination probability. We found a decreasing seed rain with the distance from the seed source. Seed mass was not related to dispersal distance, although seeds with higher wing area dispersed further. Germination probability was significantly and positively related to the seed mass. We observed no significant relationship between distance and germination probability. We conclude that germination probability of this species does not vary along the seed rain curve, and that the recruitment density would be greater near the seed source only due to decreasing seed rain with distance. Our results suggest that this species has the potential to be passively restored in degraded areas, especially within the first 70 m from the remnant forest fragments. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.Plant Ecology13850237https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11258-021-01207-4273-283223Thomson Reuters SCIEgermination; morphology; recolonization; regeneration; seed dispersal, central chile; dispersal capability; mediterranean-type ecosystem; passive restoration; plant recolonization; seed rainInstituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Laboratorio de Ecología del Paisaje y Conservación, Universidad de La Frontera, P.O. Box 54-D, Temuco, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Ñuñoa, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ecosistemas y Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Santiago, Chile
Analysis of Climate-Related Risks for Chile’s Coastal Settlements in the ARClim Web PlatformWinckler P.; Contreras-López M.; Garreaud R.; Meza F.; Larraguibel C.; Esparza C.; Gelcich S.; Falvey M.; Mora J.Agua y Extremos202210.3390/w14223594The web-based tool ARClim provides an atlas of climate change-related risk assessments spanning over 50 environmental and productive sectors in Chile. This paper illustrates the implementation of ARClim on two coastal sectors, operational downtime in fishing coves and flooding in coastal settlements, aiming to provide a tool to visualize comparative estimates of risk, which may enable decision makers and stakeholders to prioritize adaptation measures. The risk is calculated as a function of the hazard, exposure, and sensitivity. Exposure and sensitivity are characterized using present day information. To assess the hazard, wave climate for a historical period (1985–2004) and a projection (2026–2045) were modeled with six general circulation models (GCMs) for an RCP8.5 scenario. Similarly, sea-level rise was computed from 21 GCMs. Results show that the flooding hazard is mostly dependent on sea-level rise, with waves playing a minor role. However, the flooding risk is highly variable along the coast, due to differences in the exposure, which strongly depends on the population of each settlement. The analysis of increased operational downtime in fishing coves also shows risk, which is dependent of the size of each site. Lastly, limitations of the analysis and opportunities for improvement are discussed. © 2022 by the authors.Water (Switzerland)20734441https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/14/22/3594art359414Thomson Reuters SCIEclimate change; coastal flooding; coastal flooding; fishing coves; operational downtime, chile; climate change; climate models; decision making; fisheries; floods; maintenance; risk assessment; sea level; climate related risks; coastal flooding; coastal settlement; fishing cove; general circulation model; operational downtime; related risk; sea level rise; web-based tools; atlas; climate change; coastal zone; fishing; flooding; hazardsEscuela de Ingeniería Civil Oceánica, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 1786, Valparaíso, 2362844, Chile; National Research Center for Integrated Natural Disaster Management (CIGIDEN), Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Macul, 7820436, Chile; Centro de Observación Marino para Estudios de Riesgos del Ambiente Costero (COSTAR), Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 1786, Valparaíso, 2362844, Chile; Uruguay 556, of.304, Valparaíso, 2340145, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Av. Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Universidad de Chile, Av. Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Macul, 7820436, Chile; Centro de Cambio Global UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Libertador Bernardo O’Higgins 340, Santiago, 8331150, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Brasil 2241, Valparaíso, 2362807, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Macul, 7820436, Chile; Instituto Milenio en Socio-Ecología Costera, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Libertador Bernardo O’Higgins 340, Santiago, 8331150, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Libertador Bernardo O’Higgin...
Impact of mining on the metal content of dust in indigenous villages of northern ChileZanetta-Colombo N.C.; Fleming Z.L.; Gayo E.M.; Manzano C.A.; Panagi M.; Valdés J.; Siegmund A.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1016/j.envint.2022.107490Indigenous communities from northern Chile have historically been exposed to the impacts of massive copper industrial activities conducted in the region. Some of the communities belonging to the Alto El Loa Indigenous Development Area are located less than 10 km from the “Talabre'' tailings dam, which contains residues from copper production and other metals that can be toxic to human health (e.g., As, Sb, Cd, Mo, Pb). Given the increasing demand of copper production to achieve net-zero emission scenarios and concomitant expansions of the tailings, the exposure to toxic metals is a latent risk to local communities. Despite the impact that copper production could generate on ancestral communities from northern Chile, studies and monitoring are limited and the results are often not made accessible for local communities. Here, we evaluate such risks by characterizing metal concentrations in dust collected from roofs and windows of houses from the Alto El Loa area. Our results showed that As, Sb, Cd, Cu, Mo, Ag, S, and Pb concentrations in these matrices can be connected to local copper mining activities. Additionally, air transport models indicate that high concentrations of toxic elements (As, Sb, and Cd) can be explained by the atmospheric transport of particles from the tailings in a NE direction up to 50 km away. Pollution indices and Health Risk Assessment suggested a highly contaminated region with a health risk for its inhabitants. Our analysis on a local scale seeks to make visible the case of northern Chile as a critical territory where actions should be taken to mitigate the effects of mining in the face of this new scenario of international demand for the raw materials necessary for the transition to a net-zero carbon global society. © 2022 The AuthorsEnvironment International01604120https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0160412022004172art107490169Thomson Reuters SCIEheavy; soil pollutants; atacama; chile; air pollution; atmospheric movements; copper; dust; health; risk assessment; risk perception; antimony; cadmium; carbon; copper; lead; metal; molybdenum; silver; cadmium; carbon; copper; heavy metal; lead; atacama; copper production; health risk assessments; indigenous community; local community; metal content; mining emission; northern chile; pollution risk; toxic metals; atmospheric pollution; atmospheric transport; concentration (composition); copper; dust; emission inventory; indigenous population; metal; mine waste; mining; pollutant transport; pollution effect; pollution exposure; tailings; village; article; chile; community; dispersion; dust; geoaccumulation index; geographic distribution; geomorphology; health hazard; human; indigenous people; ion exchange chromatography; limit of detection; mining; pollution; principal component analysis; quality control; risk assessment; chile; dust; environmental monitoring; procedures; soil pollutant; health risks, atacama; health risk assessment; mining emissions; pollution risk; toxic metal, cadmium; carbon; chile; copper; dust; environmental monitoring; humans; lead; metalsHeidelberg Center for the Environment (HCE), Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Geography – Research Group for Earth Observation (rgeo), Heidelberg University of Education, Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Geography, SAI, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany; Envirohealth Dynamics Lab, C+ Research Center in Technologies for Society, School of Engineering, Universidad Del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Chile; ANID – Millennium Science Initiative Program– Nucleo Milenio UPWELL, Chile; Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, United States; School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom; Laboratorio de Sedimentología y Paleoambientes (LASPAL), Instituto de Ciencias Naturales Alexander von Humboldt, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y de Recursos Biológicos, Universidad de Antofagasta, Antofagasta, Chile
Fuzzy logic modelling to assess high resolution spatial urban climatic risk impact in Valparaiso, ChileAlamos,Nicolás;Billi,Marco;Amigo,Catalina;Urquiza,Anahí;Winckler,Patricio;Larraguibel,Cristian;Contreras,Manuel;Muñoz,Ariel;Videla,Jose;Vargas,Viviana;Casanova,Jessica;Ugalde,Antonio;Valdebenito,Carlos;Agua y Extremos; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes2022This collection of maps contains a set of 5 layers assessing the risk of the population of the Viña del Mar - Valparaiso conurbation (Chile) in the face of threats of extreme heat, storm surges, floods, forest fires and landslides. The maps have a resolution at the chilean census block level. The layers show as available attributes the overall level of risk and its components: threat (A), exposure (E), sensitivity (S) and response capacity (CR). To estimate the risk, the indices of A, E, S and CR are combined through a fuzzy logic methodology, which considers the use of causality rules co-constructed and validated with local experts and stakeholders. It should be considered that the values ​​presented by each census block on the maps represent an ordering of risk (and of A, E, S and CR), where higher values ​​indicate a greater risk than apples with lower values. The results are ordinal, ranging from mild, through moderately mild, to moderate, high or very high. Moreover, they are not absolute values, but rather relative to the specific case study and should not comparable or extrapolated to other study areas.https://osf.io/2xtvs/Not Indexed
Transformation Action Database / Base de datos acciones de transformaciónAldunce,Paulina;Guevara,Gabriela;Munoz,Francisca;Agua y Extremos202210.17605/OSF.IO/RC94TThis database consists of transformation initiatives, that include detailed metadata and description of processes that lead to profound changes, that translate into fundamentally different ways of thinking, actions, systems, and structures, usually large-scale. The content of the database began to be collected in 2020 and was obtained by reviewing scientific and non-scientific documents that have registered transformative actions in the world, web pages of national and international organizations, and conducting interviews, workshops and other information-gathering activities.https://osf.io/rc94t/Not Indexed
Les mobilisations autour de l’extractivisme. Circulation et potentiel heuristique d’un concept en voie de globalisation:Allain,Mathilde;Maillet,Antoine;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202210.3917/ripc.283.0007Revue internationale de politique comparée1370-0731https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-politique-comparee-2021-3-page-7.htm?ref=doi7-29Vol. 28Scopus
CLSoilMaps: A national soil gridded product for ChileGalleguillos, Mauricio,;Dinamarca, Diego,;Seguel, Oscar,;Faundez, Carlos,;Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.5281/zenodo.7464210CLSOILMAPS presents a newly gridded database of soil physical properties and soil hydraulic parameters based on digital soil mapping (DSM) techniques and a pedotransfer function (Rosetta V3) at close to 100m of spatial resolution covering the continental area of Chile and binational basins shared with Argentina for six standardized depths following GlobalSoilMap project standards. Maps were based on a newly compiled soil profile database covering different land use conditions (e.g. agricultural, forest, peatland, shrubland, and Andean grassland), and several environmental covariates based on the SCORPAN soil forming factors. DSM models showed moderate to good accuracies with R2 ranging from 0.76-0.88 for bulk density, 0.50-0.76 for clay, and 0.67-0.84 for sand. Silt maps were derived from clay and sand predictions taking advantage of the compositional nature of the particle size fraction. Field capacity, permanent wilting point, total available water capacity, and Van Genuchten´s soil hydraulic parameters were derived with Rosetta V3 algorithm.https://zenodo.org/record/7464210Not Indexed
Comité Científico de Cambio Climático: Soluciones basadas en la naturalezaMarquet,P.;Rojas,M.;Stehr,A.;Farias,L.;Gonzalez,H.;Muñoz,J.;Wagemann,E.;Rojas,C.;Rodriguez,I.;Hoyow,J.;Zonas Costeras; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2022https://comitecientifico.minciencia.gob.cl/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/Soluciones-Basadas-en-la-Naturaleza-Marquet_compressed.pdf78Not Indexed
Fire Scars: remotely sensed historical burned area and fire severity in Chile between 1984-2018Miranda,A.;Mentler,R.;Moletto,I.;Alfaro,G.;Aliaga,L.;Balbontín,D.;Barraza,M.;Baumbach, Susanne,;Calderón, Patricio,;Cardenas, Fernando,;Castillo, Ivan,;Gonzalo, Contreras,;de la Barra, Felipe,;Galleguillos, Mauricio,;Gonzalez, Mauro,;Hormazabal, Carlos,;Lara, Antonio,;Mancilla, Ian,;Muñoz, Francisca,;Oyarce, Cristian,;Pantoja, Francisca,;Ramirez, Rocío,;Urrutia, Vicente,;Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.1594/PANGAEA.941127The Landscape Fire Scars Database for Chile makes publicly available for the first time a historical high-resolution (~30 m) burned area and fire severity product for the country. The georeferenced database is a multi-institutional effort containing information on more than 8,000 fires events between July 1984 and June 2018. Using Google Earth Engine (GEE), we reconstructed the fire scar area, perimeter, and severity for each fire. We also provide the Landsat mosaic image of pre- and post-fire events, including the NDVI and NBR indexes. In the related paper, we release the GEE code to reproduce our database or enable the international community to reconstruct another individual burned areas and fire severity data, with minimum input requirements. In the summary file is the list of reconstructed fire events. The identification number (ID) relates the initial information of the wildfires with fire scar and severity data.https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.941127Not Indexed
Water margins in Chile: an integration between geographical space and institutional rules of water control; [Les marges hydriques au Chili : une imbrication entre l’espace et les règles institutionnelles de l’eau]Nicolas-Artero C.Agua y Extremos202210.4000/geocarrefour.19805This paper studies the effects of the spread of monoculture on the irrigated systems of a semiarid valley in Chile. From legal geography, it proposes the notion of a fluvial geo-legal system to analyze the relationships between political economy, institutional rules of water and space. The ethnographic approach adopted reveals water margins, produced by the existence of a plural economy, represented by family or subsistence agriculture, whose water supply is based on preexisting irrigation practices. These margins are crossed by power relationships around the appropriation of space and water which crystallize in the seizure of institutional water rules. Their existence nuances the progress of an extractive frontier, the local effects of the Water Code and the modernization of techniques and conceptions of water. © 2022 Geocarrefour. All rights reserved.Geocarrefour16274873http://journals.openedition.org/geocarrefour/198051-2196Not Indexednan, chile; irrigated systems; legal geography; water; water marginsPostdoctorante au Centro de Ciencia sobre el Clima y la Resiliencia, Santiago du Chili, Chile
De l’usage du droit dans les résistances paysannes au ChiliNicolas-Artero,Chloé;Agua y Extremos202210.4000/com.13654Cahiers d'Outre-Mer0373-5834, 1961-8603http://journals.openedition.org/com/1365453-85LXXVDirectory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
Transporte público eléctrico en Valparaíso y Medellín: Historias de movilidad intermodal sobre las que construir el futuroOsses,Mauricio;Ibarra,Cecilia;Vila,Waldo;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes2022Este trabajo hace un recorrido histórico por las diversas formas de transporte público eléctrico de Valparaíso, que incluye ascensores, tranvías, trolebuses, tren y metro, y que se inició hace más de un siglo. Esta experiencia se compara con la de Medellín, Colombia, que es un ejemplo moderno de transporte público eléctrico multimodal, y que también tiene una historia relevante. Se plantea como hipótesis que una diferencia fundamental entre ambos sistemas está en la gobernanza de la planificación urbana y que la experiencia comparada inspira reflexiones para el futuro de la electromovilidad en Chile. Se establecen relaciones entre el transporte público, los procesos de planificación urbana y la participación de los vehículos eléctricos en la movilidad de Valparaíso y Medellín. Esta comparación muestra que los vehículos eléctricos son parte de la historia de estas ciudades, se adaptan a geografías irregulares y escarpadas, tienen un alto nivel de aceptación por parte de la población y, con procesos de planificación urbana integrales, pueden constituir una solución sustentable para la movilidad del futuro.Estudios de Transporte2735-6299https://estudiosdetransporte.org/sochitran/article/view/2661-1923Latindex
Surface wave mitigation in a copper converter via H∞mixed sensitivity controlSalas F.; Torres P.; Osses A.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1016/j.ifacol.2022.09.260In this paper, a robust control strategy for surface wave mitigation in copper converters is presented. In copper converters, the purification of copper is carried out by injection of air into the molten bath through lateral tuyeres. The constant rate of air injection produces undesirable oscillation and splashing of the bath in the surface diminishing the lifetime of the internal cover. An H∞mixed sensitivity approach is proposed to robustly control the air injection rate in order to eliminate the modes of oscillation in the surface even in the case when uncertainty in the parameters of the model and noise in the measurements are present. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is shown by simulations and by comparison with a non-robust LQG control strategy. © 2022 Elsevier B.V.. All rights reserved.IFAC-PapersOnLine24058963https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2405896322014951156-16155Not Indexedair cleaners; copper; disturbance rejection; robust control; uncertainty analysis; air injection; control strategies; copper converters; h ∞ control; h ∞ mixed sensitivity; molten baths; noise attenuation; robust performance; teniente copper converter; tuyeres; surface waves, disturbance rejection; hcontrol; noise attenuation; robust performance; teniente copper converterDepartment of Mathematical Engineering, University of Chile, Box 170/3, Mailbox 3, Santiago, Chile; Center for Mathematical Modeling, University of Chile, Box 170/3, Mailbox 3, Santiago, Chile
The environmental damage repair jurisprudence contribution of the Environmental Chilean Courts; [EL APORTE JURISPRUDENCIAL DE LOS TRIBUNALES AMBIENTALES CHILENOS EN MATERIA DE REPARACIÓN DEL DAÑO AMBIENTAL]Sariego P.M.; Schneider V.D.Zonas Costeras; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202210.4067/S0718-00122022000200286The Law of General Bases of the Environment introduced environmental liability in Chilean legislation and to two actions (remediation and penalty). In the nineties, the Ordinary Courts of Justice were competent to hear both actions. However, after the environmental reform and the Environmental Courts creation (2012), these Tribunals have been in charge to hear the environmental remediation claims. This change would have meant, in our opinion, a further development of this institution in a more protective sense of the environment, where what the doctrine has attributed to the specialized nature of environmental Courts, made up of lawyers and technical ministers. From now on, the environmental damage concept is amplified, which is contemplated in article 52 of Law 19,300. The legal and jurisprudential evolution greatest access to justice and the effectiveness of the reparation action for environmental damage. © 2022, Ius et Praxis. All Rights Reserved.Ius et Praxis07172877http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-00122022000200286&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en286-30128Not Indexednan, environmental damage; liability; remediationUniversidad de Chile, Chile; Universidad de Concepción, Chile
Land cover in the Purapel fluvial catchmentSotomayor, Benjamín,;Tolorza, Violeta,;Poblete-Caballero, Dagoberto,;Leal, Claudia,;Galleguillos, Mauricio,;Cambio de Uso de Suelo202210.5281/ZENODO.6974312The dataset contains 6 Land Cover maps at a 30m/pixel spatial resolution for the Purapel river catchment located in South-Central Chile. They were generated for the summer periods of 1986, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2017. Maps of 1986-2015 were generated using atmospherically corrected Landsat CDR Scenes (images courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey) including VNIR and SWIR bands from the TM5, ETM+ and OLI sensors and vegetation indices as auxiliary bands to highlight phenological differences among covers. Specifically the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (Rouse et al,. 1974), the Green NDVI (Gitelson et al., 1996) and NDVI winter-summer Difference Index (ΔNDVI). Training and validation points were defined from field trips to the area in 2014-2015, various mid resolution satellite imagery sources and high-resolution Google Earth imagery (Map data ©2015 Google) when available. A topographic correction was applied using the C-Correction method (Teillet et al 1982), as proposed by Hantson and Chuvieco (2011), and the SRTM v3 DEM to account for the effect of local relief in the scene’s lighting. Accuracy assessment resulted in Overall Accuracy (OA), ranging from 82% to 92% (table 1). Table 1. Overall Accuracies for Land Cover maps from 1986 to 2017 Year OA 1986 89.7 2000 92.2 2005 91.5 2010 89.8 2015 82.7 2017 0.98 The 2017 map was generated using Random Forest classifier using several SI from Sentinel 2, Sentinel 1 C-band radar data (imagery from European Space Agency courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey) and hydro-geomorphic indices obtained from 2009 LiDAR DTM data (Tolorza et al., 2022). Ninety polygons were used for training and thirty polygons and the classification of Zhao et al. (2016) were used for validation, obtaining an overall accuracy 0.98 (table 1). The 7 land cover classes defined following these codes and land use / covers: 0 = Unclassified 1 = Others (mainly crops and natural prairies in riverbeds) 2 = Native Forest (mainly secondary-growth deciduous Nothofagus sp. Stands) 3 = Shrubland (highly degraded formation of xerophytic and sclerophyllous shrubs such as Acacia caven, Quillaja saponaria and Lithraea caustica, among others). 4 =Tree Plantations (industrial monocultures of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus spp. of various age and development) 5 = Seasonal grassland (annual pastures which wither in summer and urban areas) 6 = Clear cuts (bare lands within industrial forestry surface) Codes 7 to 9 are specific to 2015 y 2017 because of the occurrence of two large (>5,000 hectares) fire events, and represent different Fire Severity levels based on the dNBR index (López and Caselles, 1991) according to Key and Benson (2006). They represent the following cases: 7= Low Severity fire 8 = Moderate severity fire 9 = High severity fire Sources: Hantson, S. Chuvieco, E. 2011. Evaluation of different topographic correction methods for Landsat imagery. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 13:691-700. Rouse, J., R. Haas, J. Schell, and D. Deering. 1974. Monitoring vegetation systems in the Great Plains with erts. Third Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1 Symposium Volume I: Technical Presentations. NASA SP-351, compiled and edited by S.C. Freden, E.P. Mercanti, and M.A. Becker. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration Gitelson, A., Y. Kaufman, and M. Merzlyak. 1996. Use of a green channel in remote sensing of global vegetation from EOS-MODIS. Remote Sensing of Environment 58(3):289-298. Teillet, P., B. Guindon, and D. Goodenough. 1982. On the slope-aspect correction of multispectral scanner data. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 8:84–106. Key, C. Benson, N. 2006. Landscape Assessment: Ground measure of severity, the Composite Burn Index; and Remote sensing of severity, the Normalized Burn Ratio. FIREMON: Fire Effects Monitoring and Inventory System. Pp: 1-51. López, MJ. Caselles, V. 1991. Mapping burns and natural reforestation using Thematic Mapper data. Geocarto International (1) 1991: 31- 37. Tolorza, V. Poblete-Caballero, D. Banda, D. Little, C. Galleguillos, M. 2022. An operational method for mapping the composition of post-fire litter. Remote Sensing letters (13) 2022: 511-521. 10.1080/2150704X.2022.2040752 Zhao, Y. D. Feng, L. Yu, X. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. Bai, H. Hernández, et al. 2016. Detailed Dynamic Land Cover Mapping of Chile: Accuracy Improvement by Integrating Multi-temporal Data. Remote Sensing of Environment 183: 170–185. 10.1016/j.rse.2016.05.016.https://zenodo.org/record/6974312Not Indexed
Informe a las naciones: Marea roja» y cambio global: Elementos para la construcción de una gobernanza integrada de las Floraciones de Algas Nocivas (FAN)Ugarte,A.;Romero,J.;Farías,L.;Sapiains,R.;Aparicio,P.;Ramajo,L.;Aguirre,C.;Masotti,I.;Jacques,M.;Aldunce,,P.;Alonso,C.;Azócar,G.;Bada,R.;Barrera,F.;Billi,M.;Boisier,J.;Carbonell,P.;de la Maza,L.;de la Torre,M.;Espinoza-González,O.;Faúndez,J.;Garreaud,R.;Guevara,G.;González,M.;Guzman,L.;Ibáñez,J.;Ibarra,C.;Marín,A.;Mitchell,R.;Moraga,P.;Narváez,D.;ORyan,R.;Pérez,C.;Pilgrin,A.;Pinilla,E.;Rondanelli,R.;Salinas,M.;Sánchez,R.;Sanzana,K.;Segura,C.;Valdebenito,P.;Valenzuela,D.;Vásquez,S.;Williams,C.;Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Agua y Extremos; Zonas Costeras; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2022https://www.cr2.cl/fan/88Not Indexed
A distributed resistance inverse method for flow obstacle identification from internal velocity measurementsAguayo J.; Bertoglio C.; Osses A.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1088/1361-6420/abced8We present a penalization parameter method for obstacle identification in an incompressible fluid flow for a modified version of the Oseen equations. The proposed method consists in adding a high resistance potential to the system such that some subset of its boundary support represents the obstacle. This allows to work in a fixed domain and highly simplify the solution of the inverse problem via some suitable cost functional. Existence of minimizers and first and second order optimality conditions are derived through the differentiability of the solutions of the Oseen equation with respect to the potential. Finally, several numerical experiments using Navier–Stokes flow illustrate the applicability of the method, for the localization of a bi-dimensional cardiac valve from MRI and ultrasound flow type imaging data. © 2021 The Author(s).Inverse Problems02665611https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6420/abced8art02501037Thomson Reuters SCIEdistributed resistance; medical imaging; navier–stokes equations; obstacle identification, flow of fluids; magnetic resonance imaging; numerical methods; cost functionals; differentiability; distributed resistance; first and second order optimality conditions; incompressible fluid flow; inverse methods; numerical experiments; parameter methods; inverse problemsMathematical Engineering Department, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Bernoulli Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands; Center for Mathematical Modeling, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Hydrological droughts in the southern Andes (40–45°S) from an ensemble experiment using CMIP5 and CMIP6 modelsAguayo R.; León-Muñoz J.; Garreaud R.; Montecinos A.Agua y Extremos202110.1038/s41598-021-84807-4The decrease in freshwater input to the coastal system of the Southern Andes (40–45°S) during the last decades has altered the physicochemical characteristics of the coastal water column, causing significant environmental, social and economic consequences. Considering these impacts, the objectives were to analyze historical severe droughts and their climate drivers, and to evaluate the hydrological impacts of climate change in the intermediate future (2040–2070). Hydrological modelling was performed in the Puelo River basin (41°S) using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model. The hydrological response and its uncertainty were compared using different combinations of CMIP projects (n = 2), climate models (n = 5), scenarios (n = 3) and univariate statistical downscaling methods (n = 3). The 90 scenarios projected increases in the duration, hydrological deficit and frequency of severe droughts of varying duration (1 to 6 months). The three downscaling methodologies converged to similar results, with no significant differences between them. In contrast, the hydroclimatic projections obtained with the CMIP6 and CMIP5 models found significant climatic (greater trends in summer and autumn) and hydrological (longer droughts) differences. It is recommended that future climate impact assessments adapt the new simulations as more CMIP6 models become available. © 2021, The Author(s).Scientific Reports20452322http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-84807-4art553011Thomson Reuters SCIECentro EULA, Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Departamento de Química Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Centro Interdisciplinario para la Investigación Acuícola (INCAR), Concepción, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR2), Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Centro de Recursos Hídricos para la Agricultura y Minería (CRHIAM), Concepción, Chile
Recent changes in the low-level jet along the subtropical west coast of South AmericaAguirre C.; Flores-Aqueveque V.; Vilches P.; Vásquez A.; Rutllant J.A.; Garreaud R.Zonas Costeras; Agua y Extremos202110.3390/atmos12040465Surface winds along the subtropical west coast of South America are characterized by the quasi-weekly occurrences of low-level jet events. These short lived but intense wind events impact the coastal ocean environment. Hence, identifying long-term trends in the coastal low-level jet (CLLJ) is essential for understanding changes in marine ecosystems. Here we use ERA5 reanalysis (1979–2019) and an objective algorithm to track anticyclones to investigate recent changes in CLLJ events off central Chile (25–43◦ S). Results present evidence that the number of days with intense wind (≥10 ms−1 ), and the number and duration of CLLJ events have significantly changed off central Chile in recent decades. There is an increase in the number of CLLJ events in the whole study area during winter (June-July-August; JJA), while during summer (December–January–February; DJF) a decrease is observed at lower latitudes (29–34◦ S), and an increase is found at the southern boundary of the Humboldt system. We suggest that changes in the central pressures and frequency of extratropical, migratory anticyclones that reach the coast of South America, which force CLLJs, have played an important role in the recent CLLJ changes observed in this region. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Atmosphere20734433https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4433/12/4/465art46512Thomson Reuters SCIEcoastal low-level jet; coastal winds; era5 reanalysis; humboldt up-welling system; upwelling favorable wind events, chile; atmospheric pressure; tropics; central chile; coastal ocean environment; extratropical; long-term trend; low level jet; south america; surface winds; wind events; algorithm; anticyclone; climate modeling; coastal zone; jet; long-term change; surface wind; upwelling; ecosystemsCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, 8320000, Chile; Escuela de Ingeniería Civil Oceánica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, 2340000, Chile; Millennium Nucleus Understanding Past Coastal Upwelling Systems and Environmental Local and Lasting Impacts (UPWELL), Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID) Millennium Science Initiative, Coquimbo, 1780000, Chile; Centro de Observación Marino Para Estudios de Riesgos del Ambiente Costero, COSTAR, Valparaíso, 2340000, Chile; Departamento de Geología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8320000, Chile; Millennium Nucleus Paleoclimate, Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID) Millennium Science Initiative, Ñuñoa, 7750000, Chile; Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Coquimbo, 1780000, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8320000, Chile
High-Frequency Variability of the Surface Ocean Properties Off Central Chile During the Upwelling SeasonAguirre C.; Garreaud R.; Belmar L.; Farías L.; Ramajo L.; Barrera F.Zonas Costeras; Agua y Extremos202110.3389/fmars.2021.702051The ocean off south-central Chile is subject to seasonal upwelling whose intensity is mainly controlled by the latitudinal migration of the southeast Pacific subtropical anticyclone. During austral spring and summer, the mean flow is equatorward favoring coastal upwelling, but periods of strong southerly winds are intermixed with periods of relaxed southerlies or weak northerly winds (downwelling favorable). This sub-seasonal, high-frequency variability of the coastal winds results in pronounced changes in oceanographic conditions and air-sea heat and gas exchanges, whose quantitative description has been limited by the lack of in-situ monitoring. In this study, high frequency fluctuations of meteorological, oceanographic and biogeochemical near surface variables were analyzed during two consecutive upwelling seasons (2016–17 and 2017–18) using observations from a coastal buoy located in the continental shelf off south-central Chile (36.4°S, 73°W), ∼10 km off the coast. The radiative-driven diel cycle is noticeable in meteorological variables but less pronounced for oceanographic and biogeochemical variables [ocean temperature, nitrate (NO3−), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2sea), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO)]. Fluorescence, as a proxy of chlorophyll-a, showed diel variations more controlled by biological processes. In the synoptic scale, 23 active upwelling events (strong southerlies, lasting between 2 and 15 days, 6 days in average) were identified, alternated with periods of relaxed southerlies of shorter duration (4.5 days in average). Upwelling events were related to the development of an atmospheric low-level coastal jet in response to an intense along-shore pressure gradient. Physical and biogeochemical surface seawater properties responded to upwelling favorable wind stress with approximately a 12-h lag. During upwelling events, SST, DO and pH decrease, while NO3−, pCO2sea, and air-sea fluxes increases. During the relaxed southerly wind periods, opposite tendencies were observed. The fluorescence response to wind variations is complex and diverse, but in many cases there was a reduction in the phytoplankton biomass during the upwelling events followed by higher values during wind relaxations. The sub-seasonal variability of the coastal ocean characterized here is important for biogeochemical and productivity studies. © Copyright © 2021 Aguirre, Garreaud, Belmar, Farías, Ramajo and Barrera.Frontiers in Marine Science22967745https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2021.702051/fullart7020518Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, air-sea exchanges; biogeochemical properties; coastal buoy observations; coastal upwelling; coastal winds; eastern boundary conditions; sub-seasonal variabilityCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Escuela de Ingeniería Civil Oceánica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Millennium Nucleus Understanding Past Coastal Upwelling Systems and Environmental Local and Lasting Impacts (UPWELL), Coquimbo, Chile; Centro de Observación Marino para Estudios de Riesgos del Ambiente Costero (COSTAR), Valparaíso, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Instituto Milenio de Socio-Ecología Costera (SECOS), Santiago, Chile; Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Coquimbo, Chile; Departamento de Biología Marina, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile; Departamento de Química Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Centro de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Ambientes Sustentables (CIBAS), Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile
Ecogenomics and adaptation strategies of southern ocean viral communitiesAlarcón-Schumacher T.; Guajardo-Leiva S.; Martinez-Garcia M.; Díez B.Zonas Costeras202110.1128/mSystems.00396-21The Southern Ocean (SO) represents up to one-fifth of the total carbon drawdown worldwide. Intense selective pressures (low temperature, high UV radiation, and strong seasonality) and physical isolation characterize the SO, serving as a "natural"laboratory for the study of ecogenomics and unique adaptations of endemic viral populations. Here, we report 2,416 novel viral genomes from the SO, obtained from newly sequenced viral metagenomes in combination with mining of publicly available data sets, which represents a 25% increase in the SO viral genomes reported to date. They comprised 567 viral clusters (defined as approximately genus-level groups), with 186 genera endemic to the SO, demonstrating that the SO viral community is predominantly constituted by a large pool of genetically divergent viral species from widespread viral families. The predicted proteome from SO viruses revealed that several protein clusters related to cold-shock-event responses and quorum-sensing mechanisms involved in the lysogenic-lytic cycle shift decision were under positive selection, which is ultimately important for fine adaptation of viral populations in response to the strong selective pressures of the SO. Finally, changes in the hydrophobicity patterns and amino acid frequencies suggested marked temperature-driven genetic selection of the SO viral proteome. Our data provide valuable insights into how viruses adapt and remain successful in this extreme polar marine environment. © 2021 Alarcón-Schumacher et al.mSystems23795077https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/mSystems.00396-21arte00396-216Thomson Reuters SCIEdouble stranded dna; proteome; viral protein; amino acid composition; article; bioinformatics; caudovirales; cold shock response; cryosphere; genetic selection; geographic distribution; hydrophobicity; isoelectric point; microbial community; multidimensional scaling; nonhuman; nonmetric multidimensional scaling; physical chemistry; physiological adaptation; quorum sensing; southern ocean; temperature; viral diversity; viral metagenomics; virus genome, molecular and physiological adaptations; southern ocean; stress adaptation; viral diversityDepartment of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany; Department of Physiology Genetics and Microbiology, University of Alicante, Carretera San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante, San Vicente del Raspeig, Spain; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR) 2, Santiago, Chile; Center for Genome Regulation (CGR), Santiago, Chile
Coastal bacterial community response to glacier melting in the western antarctic peninsulaAlcamán-Arias M.E.; Fuentes-Alburquenque S.; Vergara-Barros P.; Cifuentes-Anticevic J.; Verdugo J.; Polz M.; Farías L.; Pedrós-Alió C.; Díez B.Zonas Costeras202110.3390/microorganisms9010088Current warming in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has multiple effects on the marine ecosystem, modifying the trophic web and the nutrient regime. In this study, the effect of decreased surface salinity on the marine microbial community as a consequence of freshening from nearby glaciers was investigated in Chile Bay, Greenwich Island, WAP. In the summer of 2016, samples were collected from glacier ice and transects along the bay for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while in situ dilution experiments were conducted and analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metatranscriptomic analysis. The results reveal that certain common seawater genera, such as Polaribacter, Pseudoalteromonas and HTCC2207, responded positively to decreased salinity in both the bay transect and experiments. The relative abundance of these bacteria slightly decreased, but their functional activity was maintained and increased the over time in the dilution experiments. However, while ice bacteria, such as Flavobacterium and Polaromonas, tolerated the increased salinity after mixing with seawater, their gene expression decreased considerably. We suggest that these bacterial taxa could be defined as sentinels of freshening events in the Antarctic coastal system. Furthermore, these results suggest that a significant portion of the microbial community is resilient and can adapt to disturbances, such as freshening due to the warming effect of climate change in Antarctica. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Microorganisms20762607https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2607/9/1/88art88, 1-189Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, bacterial microbial community; coastal antarctic zone; glacial meltingDepartment of Oceanography, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion, 4030000, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, 8320000, Chile; Escuela de Medicina, Universidad Espíritu Santo, Guayaquil, 0901952, Ecuador; Centro de Investigación en Recursos Naturales y Sustentabilidad, Universidad Bernardo O’Higgins, Santiago, 8370993, Chile; Facultad de Ingeniería, Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Bernardo O’Higgins, Santiago, 8370993, Chile; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 8331150, Chile; Alfred-Wegener-Institute, Helmholtz-Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, 27570, Germany; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 02139, MA, United States; Departamento de Biología de Sistemas, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CSIC), Darwin 3, Madrid, 28049, Spain
Conocimiento técnico-científico en el conflicto hídrico en ChileAllendes,Angel;Silva,Francisca;Fragkou,María Christina;Moraga,Pilar;Urquiza,Anahi;Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.5354/0719-0527.2021.65874El presente artículo propone un análisis del uso del conoRevista Mad0718-0527https://revistas.uchile.cl/index.php/RMAD/article/view/6587499-119Thomson Reuters ESCI
Progressive water deficits during multiyear droughts in basins with long hydrological memory in ChileAlvarez-Garreton C.; Pablo Boisier J.; Garreaud R., Rgarreau@dgf.uchile.cl; Seibert J.; Vis M.Agua y Extremos202110.5194/hess-25-429-2021A decade-long (2010-2020) period with precipitation deficits in central-south Chile (30-41° S), the so-called megadrought (MD), has led to streamflow depletions of larger amplitude than expected from precipitation anomalies, indicating an intensification in drought propagation. We analysed the catchment characteristics and runoff mechanisms modulating such intensification by using the CAMELS-CL dataset and simulations from the HBV hydrological model. We compared annual precipitation-runoff (P-R) relationships before and during the MD across 106 basins with varying snow-/rainfall regimes and identified those catchments where drought propagation was intensified. Our results show that catchments' hydrological memory-modulated by snow and groundwater-is a key control of drought propagation. Snow-dominated catchments (30-35° S) feature larger groundwater contribution to streamflow than pluvial basins, which we relate to the infiltration of snowmelt over the Western Andean Front. This leads to longer memory in these basins, represented by a significative correlation between autumn streamflow (when snow has already melted) and the precipitation from the preceding year. Hence, under persistent drought conditions, snow-dominated catchments accumulate the effects of precipitation deficits and progressively generate less water, compared with their historical behaviour, notably affecting central Chile, a region with limited water supply and which concentrates most of the country's population and water demands. Finally, we addressed a general question: what is worse-an extreme single-year drought or a persistent moderate drought° In snow-dominated basins, where water provision strongly depends on both the current and previous precipitation seasons, an extreme drought induces larger absolute streamflow deficits; however persistent deficits induce a more intensified propagation of the meteorological drought. Hence, the worst scenario would be an extreme meteorological drought following consecutive years of precipitation below average, as occurred in 2019. In pluvial basins of southern Chile (35-41° S), hydrologic memory is still an important factor, but water supply is more strongly dependant on the meteorological conditions of the current year, and therefore an extreme drought would have a higher impact on water supply than a persistent but moderate drought. © 2021 Author(s).Hydrology and Earth System Sciences10275606https://hess.copernicus.org/articles/25/429/2021/429-44625Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, chile; catchments; groundwater; runoff; snow; stream flow; water supply; annual precipitation; catchment characteristics; hydrological modeling; limited water supplies; meteorological condition; meteorological drought; precipitation anomalies; precipitation deficits; catchment; drought; groundwater-surface water interaction; hydrological modeling; meteorology; precipitation (climatology); rainfall; runoff; snowmelt; streamflow; droughtCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2 Fondap 15110009), Santiago, Chile; Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Radiocarbon bomb-peak signal in tree-rings from the tropical Andes register low latitude atmospheric dynamics in the Southern HemisphereAncapichún S.; De Pol-Holz R.; Christie D.A.; Santos G.M.; Collado-Fabbri S.; Garreaud R.; Lambert F.; Orfanoz-Cheuquelaf A.; Rojas M.; Southon J.; Turnbull J.C.; Creasman P.P.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes; Agua y Extremos202110.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145126South American tropical climate is strongly related to the tropical low-pressure belt associated with the South American monsoon system. Despite its central societal role as a modulating agent of rainfall in tropical South America, its long-term dynamical variability is still poorly understood. Here we combine a new (and world's highest) tree-ring 14C record from the Altiplano plateau in the central Andes with other 14C records from the Southern Hemisphere during the second half of the 20th century in order to elucidate the latitudinal gradients associated with the dissemination of the bomb 14C signal. Our tree-ring 14C record faithfully captured the bomb signal of the 1960's with an excellent match to atmospheric 14C measured in New Zealand but with significant differences with a recent record from Southeast Brazil located at almost equal latitude. These results imply that the spreading of the bomb signal throughout the Southern Hemisphere was a complex process that depended on atmospheric dynamics and surface topography generating reversals on the expected north-south gradient in certain years. We applied air-parcel modeling based on climate data to disentangle their different geographical provenances and their preformed (reservoir affected) radiocarbon content. We found that air parcel trajectories arriving at the Altiplano during the bomb period were sourced i) from the boundary layer in contact with the Pacific Ocean (41%), ii) from the upper troposphere (air above the boundary layer, with no contact with oceanic or continental carbon reservoirs) (38%) and iii) from the Amazon basin (21%). Based on these results we estimated the ∆14C endmember values for the different carbon reservoirs affecting our record which suggest that the Amazon basin biospheric 14C isoflux could have been reversed from negative to positive as early as the beginning of the 1970's. This would imply a much faster carbon turnover rate in the Amazon than previously modelled. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.Science of the Total Environment00489697https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969721001923art145126774Thomson Reuters SCIEbombs; brazil; oceans and seas; pacific ocean; trees; amazon basin; andes; brazil; new zealand; pacific ocean; boundary layers; carbon; forestry; topography; tropics; carbon 14; atmospheric dynamics; carbon reservoirs; continental carbons; geographical provenances; latitudinal gradients; southern hemisphere; tropical climates; upper troposphere; atmospheric circulation; atmospheric dynamics; atmospheric modeling; carbon isotope; latitudinal gradient; paleoclimate; radiocarbon dating; southern hemisphere; tree ring; amazonas (brazil); araucaria; araucaria angustifolia; article; atmosphere; atmospheric circulation; bomb; bomb signal; carbon reservoir effect; chile; controlled study; environmental impact; environmental parameters; geographic distribution; latitude; new zealand; nonhuman; pacific ocean; plant structures; polylepis tarapacana; priority journal; rosaceae; southern hemisphere; surface topography; topography; tree ring; troposphere; turnover rate; bomb; brazil; sea; tree; bombs (ordnance), atmospheric circulation; carbon reservoir effect; radiocarbon; southern hemisphere; tree-ringsPostgraduate School in Oceanography, Faculty of Natural and Oceanographic Sciences, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Centro de Investigación GAIA Antártica (CIGA) and Network for Extreme Environment Research (NEXER), Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Cambio Global, Instituto de Conservación Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Chile; Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, United States; Fundación Crono Austral, Concepción, Biobio, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Physical Geography, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; GNS Science, Rafter Radiocarbon Laboratory, Lower Hutt, New Zealand; CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder, United States; American Center for Oriental Research (ACOR), Amman, Jordan
Spatiotemporal Peatland Productivity and Climate Relationships Across the Western South American AltiplanoAnderson T.G.; Christie D.A.; Chávez R.O.; Olea M.; Anchukaitis K.J.Agua y Extremos202110.1029/2020JG005994The South American Altiplano is one of the largest semiarid high-altitude plateaus in the world. Within the Altiplano, peatlands known as “bofedales” are important components of regional hydrology and provide key water resources and ecosystem services to Andean communities. Warming temperatures, changes in hydroclimate, and shifting atmospheric circulation patterns all affect peatland dynamics and hydrology. It is therefore urgent to better understand the relationships between climate variability and the spatiotemporal variations in peatland productivity across the Altiplano. Here, we explore climate influences on peatland vegetation using 31 years of Landsat data. We focus specifically on the bofedal network in the western Altiplano, the driest sector of the plateau, and use the satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as an indicator of productivity. We develop temporally and spatially continuous NDVI products at multiple scales in order to evaluate relationships with climate variables over the past three decades. We demonstrate that cumulative precipitation and snow persistence over the prior 2 years are strongly associated with growing season productivity. A step change in peatland productivity between 2013–2015 drives an increasing trend in NDVI and is likely a response to consecutive years of anomalously high snow accumulation and rainfall. Early summer minimum temperatures emerge as a secondary influence on productivity. Understanding large-scale productivity dynamics and characterizing the response of bofedales to climate variability over the last three decades provides a baseline to monitor the responses of Andean peatlands to climate change. © 2021. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences21698953https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2020JG005994arte2020JG005994126Thomson Reuters SCIEaltiplano; andes; bofedales; ndvi; peatlands, altiplano; indicator indicator; varanidae; atmospheric circulation; climate change; growing season; ndvi; peatland; precipitation (chemistry); precipitation (climatology); rainfall; snow accumulation; spatiotemporal analysisSchool of Geography, Development and Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Cambio Global, Instituto de Conservación Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Laboratorio de Geo-Información y Percepción Remota, Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile
Hidden welfare effects of tree plantationsAnríquez Nilson G.; Toledo Roman G.; Arriagada Cisternas R.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.1017/S1355770X20000303Subsidies to promote tree plantations have been questioned because of negative impacts of the forestry industry. Quantitative evidence on the socioeconomic impacts of afforestation subsidies or of tree plantations is elusive, mainly due to data scarcity. We assess the overall impact of a tree plantation subsidy in Chile, using our original 20-year panel dataset that includes small area estimates of poverty and the subsidy assignment at the census-district scale. We show that forestry subsidies-on average-in fact, do increase poverty. More specifically, using difference in difference with matching techniques, and instrumental variables approaches, we show that there is an increase of about 2 per cent in the poverty rate of treated localities. We identify employment as a causal mechanism explaining this finding, since we found a negative effect of tree plantations on employment, and therefore, on poverty. We suggest reassessment of the distributional effects of the forest subsidy and forestry industry. Copyright © The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press.Environment and Development Economics1355770Xhttps://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/environment-and-development-economics/article/abs/hidden-welfare-effects-of-tree-plantations/4DB425A678F2953DDD70811368899CE4#authors-details151-16826Thomson Reuters SSCInan, afforestation subsidies; impact evaluation; poverty; tree plantationsDepartment of Agricultural Economics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Socioeconomic Impact of Environmental Policies (CESIEP), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Intercultural and Indigenous Research (CIIR), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Ecosystems and Environment, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), CR2, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centre for Climate and Resilience Research, CR2, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
Fire-induced loss of the world’s most biodiverse forests in Latin AmericaArmenteras D.; Dávalos L.M.; Barreto J.S.; Miranda A.; Hernández-Moreno A.; Zamorano-Elgueta C.; González-Delgado T.M.; Meza-Elizalde M.C.; Retana J.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.1126/sciadv.abd3357Fire plays a dominant role in deforestation, particularly in the tropics, but the relative extent of transformations and influence of fire frequency on eventual forest loss remain unclear. Here, we analyze the frequency of fire and its influence on postfire forest trajectories between 2001 and 2018. We account for ~1.1% of Latin American forests burnt in 2002–2003 (8,465,850 ha). Although 40.1% of forests (3,393,250 ha) burned only once, by 2018, ~48% of the evergreen forests converted to other, primarily grass-dominated uses. While greater fire frequency yielded more transformation, our results reveal the staggering impact of even a single fire. Increasing fire frequency imposes greater risks of irreversible forest loss, transforming forests into ecosystems increasingly vulnerable to degradation. Reversing this trend is indispensable to both mitigate and adapt to climate change globally. As climate change transforms fire regimes across the region, key actions are needed to conserve Latin American forests. Copyright © 2021 The Authors, some rights reserved.Science Advances23752548https://advances.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/sciadv.abd3357arteabd33577Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, deforestation; fires; evergreen forests; fire frequencies; fire regimes; forest loss; induced loss; key actions; latin america; latin americans; article; climate change; evergreen; forest; grass; nonhuman; south and central america; climate changeLaboratorio de Ecología del Paisaje y Modelación de Ecosistemas ECOLMOD, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá, Bogotá, Colombia; Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, 630 Life Sciences Building, Stony Brook, 11794, NY, United States; Consortium for Inter-Disciplinary Environmental Research, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, 129 Dana Hall, Stony Brook, 11794, NY, United States; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Santiago, Chile; Laboratorio de Ecología del Paisaje y Conservación, Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de La Frontera, Temco, Chile; Centro de Investigación en Ecosistemas de la Patagonia (CIEP), Camino Baguales s/n Km 4, Coyhaique, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Tecnología, Universidad de Aysén, Coyhaique, Chile; CREAF-Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, 08193, Spain
LIPSCHITZ STABILITY FOR BACKWARD HEAT EQUATION WITH APPLICATION TO FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPYArratia P.; Courdurier M.; Cueva E.; Osses A.; Palacios B.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1137/20M1374183In this work we study a Lipschitz stability result in the reconstruction of a compactly supported initial temperature for the heat equation in Rn, from measurements along a positive time interval and over an open set containing its support. We employ a nonconstructive method which ensures the existence of the stability constant, but it is not explicit in terms of the parameters of the problem. The main ingredients in our method are the compactness of support of the initial condition and the explicit dependency of solutions to the heat equation with respect to it. By means of Carleman estimates we obtain an analogous result for the case when the observation is made along an exterior region ω × (τ, T), such that the unobserved part Rn\ω is bounded. In the latter setting, the method of Carleman estimates gives a general conditional logarithmic stability result when initial temperatures belong to a certain admissible set, without the assumption of compactness of support and allowing an explicit stability constant. Furthermore, we apply these results to deduce similar stability inequalities for the heat equation in R and with measurements available on a curve contained in R ×[0, ∞), leading to the derivation of stability estimates for an inverse problem arising in 2D fluorescence microscopy. In order to further understand this Lipschitz stability, in particular, the magnitude of its stability constant with respect to the parameters of the problem, a numerical reconstruction is presented based on the construction of a linear system for the inverse problem in fluorescence microscopy. We investigate the stability constant by analyzing the condition number of the corresponding matrix. © 2021 Society for Industrial and Applied MathematicsSIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis00361410https://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/20M13741835948-597853Thomson Reuters SCIEbackward heat equation; fluorescence microscopy; inverse problem; lipschitz stability, fluorescence; heat transfer; inverse problems; linear systems; number theory; partial differential equations; stability; backward heat equations; carleman estimate; compactly supported; initial temperatures; inverse problem; lipschitz stability; stability constants; stability results; time interval; fluorescence microscopyDepartment of Mathematical Sciences, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, United Kingdom; Facultad de Matemáticas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Ingeniería Matemática y Computacional, Facultad de Matemáticas y Escuela de Ingeniería, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Departamento de Matemática, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, 170517, Ecuador; Departamento de Ingeniería Matemática, Centro de Modelamiento Matemático, UMI CNRS 2807, FCFM, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Chileans, climate change and the natural environment: An audience segmentation studyArrué R.J.P.S.; de la Cruz G.A.A.; Caviedes A.M.U.; Hernández J.A.R.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.29101/CRCS.V28I0.15794Not much research has been carried out in Latin America on the human dimensions of climate change. An audience segmentation study was conducted in Chile to explore different perspectives about this issue, using data from a national survey (n=2170). Results showed most Chileans express high levels of concern and agree climate change is happening and caused mainly by human actions. On the contrary, differences were found on worldviews, behaviors, perceptions of control among other factors, allowing the identification of three groups: Pragmatics, Neoliberals and Environmentalists. These results can contribute to the design of more effective communication strategies to increase awareness and climate action. © 2021 Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico. All rights reserved.Convergencia14051435https://convergencia.uaemex.mx/article/view/15794arte1579428Thomson Reuters SSCInan, audience segmentation; chile; climate change beliefs; climate change communication; environmental worldviewsUniversidad de Chile, Chile; Universidad Alberto Hurtado, Chile; Universidad de Chile, Chile
The social construction of water markets in chile: An approach from the legal geography; [La construcción social de los mercados de agua en chile: Un enfoque desde la geografía legal]Artero C.N.Agua y Extremos202110.4067/S0718-34022021000200163The article proposes an approach from the legal geography to understand the social construction of water markets in the semi-arid basin of the Elqui river, from the second half of the 20th century. Using qualitative methodologies (ethnography, interviews, archi-ves), it reveals the jointly spatial and legal dimension of the formation of water markets. The technical water objects installed since the second half of the 20th century attract new investors and transform the political economy of the valley. Since then, the users have used technical water objects and have instrumentalized or produced law locally to buy, sell or rent water rights, forming five water markets. © 2021, Revista de Geografia Norte Grande. All rights reserved.Revista de Geografia Norte Grande03798682http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34022021000200163&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en163-1822021Thomson Reuters SCIE, SSCIchile; coquimbo; elqui river; ethnography; market conditions; political economy; qualitative analysis; semiarid region; social construction; water economics, chile; legal geography; semiarid; technical objects; water marketsCenter for Climate and Resilience Research, Chile
Climate change perception, vulnerability, and readiness: inter-country variability and emerging patterns in Latin AmericaAzócar G.; Billi M.; Calvo R.; Huneeus N.; Lagos M.; Sapiains R.; Urquiza A.Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.1007/s13412-020-00639-0In Latin America, there is scarce comparative research on variables associated with the perception of climate change. This hinders the ability of governments to take mitigation and adaptation measures in the face of the phenomenon, as well as the ability of the population to cope with its effects. In order to fill that void, this research studies the relationship between climate change perception, vulnerability, and readiness in 17 countries of the region. To that end, perception indicators included in the Latinobarómetro 2017 survey are analyzed, contrasted with vulnerability and readiness indexes provided by the University of Notre Dame’s Global Adaptation Index. The analytical strategy includes the statistical description of the variables associated with the perception of climate change in countries of the region, clustering together those countries that display similar behavioral patterns in relation to their vulnerability and readiness indicators, as well as crosstabs with climate change indicators. The key findings indicate that it is possible to identify 3 patterns of behavior regarding the countries’ vulnerability and readiness, which account for high, intermediate, and low levels in those variables. These patterns indicate cross-cutting trends concerning variables such as the level of education and affinity for the market economy, as well as particularities differentiating each country from the rest. The main conclusion is the existence of a negative association between the affinity people express for the market economy and their acknowledgment of climate change as a relevant problem. © 2020, AESS.Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences21906483http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13412-020-00639-023-3611Thomson Reuters ESCIlatin america; adaptive management; climate change; perception; questionnaire survey; vulnerability, climate change perceptions; latin america; latinobarómetro; nd-gain; readiness; vulnerabilityDepartment of Social Work, Universidad Alberto Hurtado, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; School of Government, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, Chile; Energy Poverty Network, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Faculty of Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Latinobarómetro Corporation, Santiago, Chile; Faculty of Social Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
On the selection of precipitation products for the regionalisation of hydrological model parametersBaez-Villanueva O.M.; Zambrano-Bigiarini M.; Mendoza P.A.; McNamara I.; Beck H.E.; Thurner J.; Nauditt A.; Ribbe L.; Thinh N.X.Agua y Extremos202110.5194/hess-25-5805-2021Over the past decades, novel parameter regionalisation techniques have been developed to predict streamflow in data-scarce regions. In this paper, we examined how the choice of gridded daily precipitation (P) products affects the relative performance of three well-known parameter regionalisation techniques (spatial proximity, feature similarity, and parameter regression) over 100 near-natural catchments with diverse hydrological regimes across Chile. We set up and calibrated a conceptual semi-distributed HBV-like hydrological model (TUWmodel) for each catchment, using four P products (CR2MET, RF-MEP, ERA5, and MSWEPv2.8). We assessed the ability of these regionalisation techniques to transfer the parameters of a rainfall-runoff model, implementing a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure for each P product. Despite differences in the spatio-Temporal distribution of P, all products provided good performance during calibration (median Kling-Gupta efficiencies (KGE′s) > 0.77), two independent verification periods (median KGE′s >0.70 and 0.61, for near-normal and dry conditions, respectively), and regionalisation (median KGE′s for the best method ranging from 0.56 to 0.63). We show how model calibration is able to compensate, to some extent, differences between P forcings by adjusting model parameters and thus the water balance components. Overall, feature similarity provided the best results, followed by spatial proximity, while parameter regression resulted in the worst performance, reinforcing the importance of transferring complete model parameter sets to ungauged catchments. Our results suggest that (i) merging P products and ground-based measurements does not necessarily translate into an improved hydrologic model performance; (ii) the spatial resolution of P products does not substantially affect the regionalisation performance; (iii) a P product that provides the best individual model performance during calibration and verification does not necessarily yield the best performance in terms of parameter regionalisation; and (iv) the model parameters and the performance of regionalisation methods are affected by the hydrological regime, with the best results for spatial proximity and feature similarity obtained for rain-dominated catchments with a minor snowmelt component. © Copyright: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences10275606https://hess.copernicus.org/articles/25/5805/2021/5805-583725Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, chile; catchments; rain; runoff; statistical methods; hydrological regime; modeling parameters; modeling performance; parameter regionalization; parameter regressions; performance; precipitation products; regionalisation; regionalization techniques; spatial proximity; calibration; catchment; hydrological modeling; precipitation (climatology); rainfall-runoff modeling; regionalization; streamflow; climate modelsInstitute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics (ITT), Th Köln, Cologne, Germany; Faculty of Spatial Planning, Tu Dortmund University, Dortmund, Germany; Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Advanced Mining Technology Center (AMTC), Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; GloH2O, Almere, Netherlands
Niche differentiation of Dinophysis acuta and D. acuminata in a stratified fjordBaldrich Á.M.; Pérez-Santos I.; Álvarez G.; Reguera B.; Fernández-Pena C.; Rodríguez-Villegas C.; Araya M.; Álvarez F.; Barrera F.; Karasiewicz S.; Díaz P.A.Zonas Costeras202110.1016/j.hal.2021.102010Dinophysis acuta and D. acuminata are associated with lipophilic toxins in Southern Chile. Blooms of the two species coincided during summer 2019 in a highly stratified fjord system (Puyuhuapi, Chilean Patagonia). High vertical resolution measurements of physical parameters were carried out during 48 h sampling to i) explore physiological status (e.g., division rates, toxin content) and ii) illustrate the fine scale distribution of D. acuta and D. acuminata populations with a focus on water column structure and co-occurring plastid-bearing ciliates. The species-specific resources and regulators defining the realized niches (sensu Hutchinson) of the two species were identified. Differences in vertical distribution, daily vertical migration and in situ division rates (with record values, 0.76 d−1, in D. acuta), in response to the environmental conditions and potential prey availability, revealed their niche differences. The Outlying Mean Index (OMI) analysis showed that the realized niche of D. acuta (cell maximum 7 × 103 cells L−1 within the pycnocline) was characterized by sub-surface estuarine waters (salinity 23 – 25), lower values of turbulence and PAR, and a narrow niche breath. In contrast, the realized niche of D. acuminata (cell maximum 6.8 × 103 cells L−1 just above the pycnocline) was characterized by fresher (salinity 17 – 20) outflowing surface waters, with higher turbulence and light intensity and a wider niche breadth. Results from OMI and PERMANOVA analyses of co-occurring microplanktonic ciliates were compatible with the hypothesis of species such as those from genera Pseudotontonia and Strombidium constituting an alternative ciliate prey to Mesodinium. The D. acuta cell maximum was associated with DSP (OA and DTX-1) toxins and pectenotoxins; that of D. acuminata only with pectenotoxins. Results presented here contribute to a better understanding of the environmental drivers of species-specific blooms of Dinophysis and management of their distinct effects in Southern Chile. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.Harmful Algae15689883https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1568988321000378art102010103Thomson Reuters SCIEcell differentiation; chile; ciliophora; dinoflagellida; estuaries; cell differentiation; chile; ciliate; dinoflagellate; estuary, chilean fjords; dinophysis acuminata; dinophysis acuta; dsp toxins; in situ division rates; microplanktonic ciliate prey; pectenotoxins; realized nichePrograma de Doctorado en Ciencias, mención Conservación y Manejo de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Los Lagos, Camino Chinquihue km 6, Puerto Montt, Chile; Centro i~mar, Universidad de Los Lagos, Casilla 557, Puerto Montt, Chile; Centro de Investigación Oceanográfica COPAS Sur-Austral, Universidad de Concepción, Chile; Departamento de Acuicultura, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile; Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Algas (CIDTA), Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile; Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo, Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO), Vigo, Spain; Centro Oceanográfico de A Coruña, Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO), A Coruña, Spain; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas Universidad de Concepción & Departamento de Química Ambiental Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Laboratory of Environment Resources, Boulogne- sur- Mer, French Research Institute for the Exploitation of the Sea (IFREMER), Issy-les-Moulineaux, France; CeBiB, Universidad de Los Lagos, Casilla 557, Puerto Montt, Chile
Major atmospheric particulate matter sources for glaciers in Coquimbo Region, ChileBarraza F.; Lambert F.; MacDonell S.; Sinclair K.; Fernandoy F.; Jorquera H.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1007/s11356-021-12933-7Tapado Glacier is a subtropical mountain glacier in the Coquimbo region of Chile that has been continuously retreating during the last 60 years due to diminishing precipitation rates and rising temperatures and likely due to a currently unknown influence from atmospheric pollutant deposition. Climatic and meteorological impacts on this, and other, Andean glacier have been previously studied; however, cryosphere changes driven by aerosols are still largely unknown. To contribute to the understanding of the origin of aerosols and their dispersion, this study aims to identify natural and anthropogenic sources of air pollution deposited on the Tapado Glacier (4500–5536 m a.s.l.) and their transport by using a receptor model (positive matrix factorization) together with the concentration of major ions as proxies of air pollution deposited on this glacier. This model’s outcomes were complemented with daily wind backward trajectories computed for a whole year using the HYSPLYT meteorological model. Four sources were identified as the main contributors to major soluble ions in the Tapado surface snow. These sources are natural Aeolian dust (38%) from the Atacama Desert (including mining sites), natural weathered sulphates (27%), anthropogenic nitrates (25%), and coastal aerosols (10%). Coastal nitrate emissions and coastal aerosols are both sources with an important anthropogenic component, coming from La Serena and Coquimbo’s coastal cities. The crustal components and sulphate profiles are similar to detritus dispersed from the glacier after wind erosion. Although the glacier is located over 4000 m above sea level, anthropogenic pollutants reached this location. However, their contributions were smaller compared to natural contaminants. Our findings can likely be extended to the nearest glaciers in Northern Chile, which have similar potential contaminant sources from cities, ports, and thriving mining activity. However, these findings may not be suitable for southern Chilean glaciers, which are closer to bigger cities and to smoke from residential heating prevalent in winter months and wildfires during the summer. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH, DE part of Springer Nature.Environmental Science and Pollution Research09441344https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11356-021-12933-736817-3682728Thomson Reuters SCIEaeolian dust; air pollution; andes glaciers; glacier pollution; glaciochemistry; snow chemistry; source apportionment, aerosols; air pollutants; chile; cities; environmental monitoring; ice cover; particulate matter; seasons; atacama desert; chile; coquimbo; la serena; tapado glacier; atacama; atmospheric pollution; detritus; glacier; heating; particulate matter; seasonal variation; smoke; urban pollution; aerosol; air pollutant; chile; city; environmental monitoring; ice cover; particulate matter; seasonInstituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; School of Geography, University of Otago, Richardson Building, 85 Albany St., Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), La Serena, Chile; Applied Aquatic Research Ltd, Calgary, Canada; Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Andrés Bello, Laboratorio de Análisis Isotópico, Viña del Mar, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Water management or megadrought: what caused the Chilean Aculeo Lake drying?Barría P.; Chadwick C.; Ocampo-Melgar A.; Galleguillos M.; Garreaud R.; Díaz-Vasconcellos R.; Poblete D.; Rubio-Álvarez E.; Poblete-Caballero D.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Agua y Extremos202110.1007/s10113-021-01750-wThe Aculeo Lake is an important natural reservoir of Central Chile, which provides valuable ecosystem services. This lake has suffered a rapid shrinkage of the water levels from year 2010 to 2018, and since October 2018, it is completely dry. This natural disaster is concurrent with a number of severe and uninterrupted drought years, along with sustained increases in water consumption associated to land use/land cover (LULC) changes. Severe water shortages and socio-environmental impacts were triggered by these changes, emphasizing the need to understand the causes of the lake desiccation to contribute in the design of future adaptation strategies. Thereby, the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) hydrological model was used as a tool to quantify the water balance in the catchment. The model was run under a combination of three land use/land cover and two different climate scenarios that sample the cases with and without megadrought and with or without changes in land use. According to the results, the main triggering factor of the lake shrinkage is the severe megadrought, with annual rainfall deficits of about 38%, which resulted in amplified reductions in river flows (44%) and aquifer recharges (24%). The results indicate that the relative impact of the climate factor is more than 10 times larger than the impact of the observed LULC changes in the lake balance, highlighting the urgent need for adaptation strategies to deal with the projected drier futures. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH, DE part of Springer Nature.Regional Environmental Change14363798http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10113-021-01750-wart1921Thomson Reuters SCIE, SSCIanthropogenic; attribution; decision making; drought; land use/land cover; water budget, nanDepartment of Engineering Science, Universidad de Los Lagos, Puerto Montt, Chile; Faculty of Forestry Science and Nature Conservation, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, La Pintana, Chile; Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Santiago, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; School of Civil Engineering, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Eridanus Ingeniería en Recursos Hídricos, Santiago, Chile
Water allocation under climate change: A diagnosis of the Chilean systemBarría P.; Sandoval I.B.; Guzman C.; Chadwick C.; Alvarez-Garreton C.; Díaz-Vasconcellos R.; Ocampo-Melgar A.; Fuster R.Agua y Extremos202110.1525/elementa.2020.00131Chile is positioned in the 20th rank of water availability per capita. Nonetheless, water security levels vary across the territory. Around 70% of the national population lives in arid and semiarid regions, where a persistent drought has been experienced over the last decade. This has led to water security problems including water shortages. The water allocation and trading system in Chile is based on a water use rights (WURs) market, with limited regulatory and supervisory mechanisms, where the volume to be granted as permanent and eventual WURs is calculated from statistical analyses of historical streamflow records if available, or from empirical estimations if they are not. This computation of WURs does not consider the nonstationarity of hydrological processes nor climatic projections. This study presents the first large sample diagnosis of water allocation system in Chile under climate change scenarios. This is based on novel anthropic intervention indices (IAI), which were computed as the ratio between the total granted water volume to the water availability within 87 basins in north-central and southern Chile (30ºS-42ºS).The IAI were evaluated for the historical period (1979-2019) and under modeled-based climatic projections (2055-2080). According to these IAI levels, to date, there are 20 out of 87 overallocated basins, which under the assumption that no further WURs will be granted in the future, increases up to 25 basins for the 2055-2080 period. The results show that, to date most of north-central Chilean catchments already have a large anthropic intervention degree, and the increases for the future period occurs mostly in the southern region of the country (approximately 38ºS), which has been considered as possible source of water for large water transfer projects (i.e., water roads). These indices and diagnosis are proposed as a tool to help policy makers to address water scarcity under climate change. Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.Elementa23251026https://online.ucpress.edu/elementa/article/9/1/00131/117183/Water-allocation-under-climate-changeA-diagnosisart19Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; climate change; policy making; streamflow; water availability; water storage; water use, climate change; hydrological modeling; water management; water marketDepartamento de Ciencias de la Ingeniería, Universidad de Los Lagos, Puerto Montt, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y de la Conservación de la Naturaleza, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Investigación GAIA Antártica, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Santiago, Chile; Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales y Recursos Naturales Renovables, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Carleman-based reconstruction algorithm for wavesBaudouin L.; Buhan M.D.E.; Ervedoza S.; Osses A.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1137/20M1315798We present a globally convergent numerical algorithm based on global Carleman estimates to reconstruct the speed of wave propagation in a bounded domain with Dirichlet boundary conditions from a single measurement of the boundary flux of the solutions in a finite time interval. The global convergence of the proposed algorithm naturally arises from the proof of the Lipschitz stability of the corresponding inverse problem for both sufficiently large observation time and boundary using global Carleman inequalities. The speed of propagation is supposed to be independent of time but varying in space with a trace and normal derivative known at the boundary and belonging to a certain admissible set that limits the speed fluctuations with respect to a given exterior point x0. In order to recover the speed, we also require a single experiment with null initial velocity and initial deformation having some monotonicity properties in the direction of x - x0. We perform numerical simulations in the discrete setting in order to illustrate and to validate the feasibility of the algorithm in both one and two dimensions in space. As proved theoretically, we verify that the numerical reconstruction is achieved for any admissible initial guess, even in the presence of small random disturbances on the measurements. © 2021 Society for Industrial and Applied MathematicsSIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis00361429https://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/20M1315798998-103959Thomson Reuters SCIEcarleman estimates; hyperbolic equation; inverse problem; reconstruction algorithm, boundary conditions; wave propagation; dirichlet boundary condition; finite time intervals; global carleman inequalities; monotonicity property; numerical algorithms; numerical reconstruction; reconstruction algorithms; speed of propagation; inverse problemsLAAS-CNRS, Universite de Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse, 31031, France; Laboratoire de Math\'ematiques d'Orsay, Universite Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Orsay, 91405, France; Univ. Bordeaux and CNRS, IMB, UMR 5251, Talence, F-33400, France; Departamento de Ingeniera Matematica and Centro de Modelamiento Matematico, UMI 2807 CNRS, FCFM Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Methodology to analyse the impact of an emissions trading system in ChileBenavides C.; Díaz M.; Ryan R.O.; Gwinner S.; Sierra E.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.1080/14693062.2021.1954869In the context of updating the 2015 Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), the government of Chile has updated its estimates of compliance costs for a series of mitigation actions with an emphasis on the energy sector as the main source of its greenhouse gas emissions. Using the information developed in this process, we assess the impact on compliance costs of increasing the flexibility for sources by introducing different emissions trading schemes. For this we develop a detailed optimization model that represents the operational and investment decisions that could be taken by the energy generation, industrial and mining sectors if an Emissions Trading System (ETS) was implemented. An ETS with two cap and trade options is analysed together with an offset mechanism for sources not included in the ETS. Also, two policy goals are considered: a stringent 76% sectoral reduction goal in 2050 similar to Chile’s current strict NDC, and a more lax 46% goal similar to Chile’s initial 2015 NDC proposal. The results show that (i) cost reductions from increased flexibility for Chile’s current strict NDC are significant, and that offsets can play an important role; (ii) the stringency of the reduction goal affects the magnitude of the cost savings related to flexibility and, surprisingly, total abatement costs are negative (i.e. there are benefits) for the 46% reduction goal. In this latter case, the most significant cost reductions result from compelling firms to comply with their allowances in each sector, not increased flexibility. These results highlight the policy relevance of case by case analysis using a modelling approach similar to the one we develop here. Key policy insights ETS implementation can help Chile meet its mitigation commitment for 2050. The compliance costs can vary significantly depending on the flexibility implemented in the emissions trading schemes. Optimization models can help decision-makers define the attributes of an ETS, such as the sectors that should participate, the cap, and the percentage of offsets. The proposed methodology also highlights and quantifies the offsets that can be acquired from sectors that are not part of an ETS, such as forestry, agriculture, and the waste sector. The possibility to acquire of offsets could reduce significantly the cost for industries that participate of an ETS. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.Climate Policy14693062https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14693062.2021.19548691099-111021Thomson Reuters SSCIchile; carbon emission; climate change; emissions trading; energy policy; greenhouse gas; investment; optimization; policy implementation, cap and trade system; climate change; demand model; emissions trading system; energy models; energy policyEnergy Center, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Faculty of Engineering and Sciences, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, Chile
Mapping water ecosystem services: Evaluating InVEST model predictions in data scarce regionsBenra F.; De Frutos A.; Gaglio M.; Álvarez-Garretón C.; Felipe-Lucia M.; Bonn A.Agua y Extremos202110.1016/j.envsoft.2021.104982Sustainable management of water ecosystem services requires reliable information to support decision making. We evaluate the performance of the InVEST Seasonal Water Yield Model (SWYM) against water monitoring records in 224 catchments in southern Chile. We run the SWYM in three years (1998, 2007 and 2013) to account for recent land-use change and climatic variations. We computed squared Pearson correlations between SWYM monthly quickflow predictions and streamflow observations and applied a generalized mixed‐effects model to evaluate annual estimations. Results show relatively low monthly correlations with marked latitudinal and temporal variations while annual estimates show a good match between observed and modeled values, especially for values under 1000 mm/year. Better predictions were observed in regions with high rainfall and in dry years while poorer predictions were found in snow dominated and drier regions. Our results improve SWYM performance and contribute to water supply and regulation decision-making, particularly in data scarce regions. © 2021 Elsevier LtdEnvironmental Modelling and Software13648152https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1364815221000256art104982138Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; ecosystems; forecasting; hydrogeology; land use; water management; water supply; climatic variation; land-use change; model prediction; pearson correlation; sustainable management; temporal variation; water ecosystems; water monitoring; decision support system; ecosystem service; estimation method; least squares method; performance assessment; prediction; streamflow; sustainable development; water supply; decision making, blue ecosystem services; data scarce regions; ecosystem service model; south america; water regulation; water supplyHelmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Ecosystem Services, Permoserstraße 15, Leipzig, 04318, Germany; Institute of Biodiversity, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Dornburger Straße 159, Jena, 07743, Germany; German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Puschstrasse 4, Leipzig, D-04103, Germany; Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 46, Ferrara, 44121, Italy; Center for Climate and Resilience Research CR2, FONDAP, Santiago, 15110009, Chile; Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile
Chemical signals in tree rings from northern patagonia as indicators of calbuco volcano eruptions since the 16th centuryBertin L.J.; Christie D.A.; Sheppard P.R.; Muñoz A.A.; Lara A.; Alvarez C.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Agua y Extremos202110.3390/f12101305The Calbuco volcano ranks third in the specific risk classification of volcanoes in Chile and has a detailed eruption record since 1853. During 2015, Calbuco had a sub-Plinian eruption with negative impacts in Chile and Argentina, highlighting the need to determine the long-term history of its activity at a high-resolution time scale to obtain a better understanding of its eruptive frequency. We developed a continuous eruptive record of Calbuco for the 1514–2016 period by dendrochemical analysis of Fitzroya cupressoides tree rings at a biennium resolution using inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. After comparing the chemical record of 20 elements contained in tree rings with historical eruptions, one group exhibited positive anomalies during (Pb/Sn) and immediately after (Mo/P/Zn/Cu) eruptions, with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) ≥ 3, and so were classified as chemical tracers of past eruptions (TPE). The tree-ring width chronology also exhibited significant decreases in tree growth associated with eruptions of VEI ≥ 3. According to these records, we identified 11 new eruptive events of Calbuco, extending its eruptive chronology back to the 16th century and determining a mean eruptive frequency of ~23 years. Our results show the potential to use dendrochemical analysis to infer past volcanic eruptions in Northern Patagonia. This information provides a long-term perspective for assessing eruptive history in Northern Patagonia, with implications for territorial planning. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Forests19994907https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/12/10/1305art130512Thomson Reuters SCIEchemicals; forestry; frequency; patagonia; records; resolution; rings; trees; argentina; chile; patagonia; fitzroya cupressoides; forestry; indicators (chemical); inductively coupled plasma; mass spectrometry; chemical signals; fitzroya cupressoides; inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry; northern patagonia; risk classification; sub-plinian eruption; tree rings; volcanic eruptions; volcanic explosivity indices; volcano eruptions; chemical analysis; dendrochronology; inductively coupled plasma method; pine; plinian eruption; sixteenth century; territorial planning; tree ring; volcanoes, dendrochronology; fitzroya cupressoides; inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry; volcanic eruptionsChilean Geological and Mining Survey (SERNAGEOMIN), National Volcanic Network, Atacama Regiona Office, Copiapó, 1530000, Chile; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Cambio Global, Instituto de Conservación Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, 5090000, Chile; Santiago, 8320000, Chile; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, 85721, AZ, United States; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Estudios Ambientales, Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, 2340000, Chile; Centro de Acción Climática, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, 2362807, Chile
Tracing social movements' influence beyond agenda-setting: waves of protest, chaining mechanisms and policy outcomes in the Chilean student movement (2006-2018)Bidegain G.; Maillet A.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.1285/i20356609v14i3p1057The literature on social movements' policy outcomes agrees on the need for an intertemporal perspective that goes beyond a short-term action-reaction logic to account for the effects of mobilization on policies. However, little attention has been given to the causal mechanisms that link different waves of mobilization with related policy outcomes over time. To do so, we propose the concept of chaining mechanisms as a means to connect different iterations of protest, electoral cycles and policy responses within a mid-term perspective. We distinguish between two types of chaining mechanisms, strategic and inertial, and apply this conceptual framework to the Chilean student movement in the 2006 and 2018 period. We assert that its success in chaining different waves of protest is a crucial factor in accounting for the recent major education reform that took place under Bachelet's government (2014-2018). Beyond the case, the concept contributes to the understanding of the complex interactions between social mobilization and public policy. © 2021. University of Salento, SIBA:. All Rights Reserved.Partecipazione e Conflitto19727623http://siba-ese.unisalento.it/index.php/paco/article/view/24483/203131057-107514Thomson Reuters ESCIchaining mechanisms; chile; latin america; policy reforms; social movements' outcomes, nanUniversidad de la República, Uruguay; Instituto de Asuntos Públicos de la Universidad de, Chile
Governing sustainability or sustainable governance? Semantic constellations on the sustainability-governance intersection in academic literatureBilli M.; Mascareño A.; Edwards J.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.1016/j.jclepro.2020.123523The concepts of sustainability and governance share an implicit relationship: sustainability has often been asserted to require suitable governance arrangements, which should, in turn, be sustainable. However, this semantic intersection requires more study. To contribute to this gap, this paper aims at: 1) identifying the meanings and interests that are mobilized when the two terms of sustainability and governance intersect within academic communication; and 2) observe semantic structures allowing for the sustainability-governance intersection to translate meanings between different academic communities. To pursue this aim, the study employed a computer-aided algorithm, called Latent Dirichlet Analysis, to produce and examine a topic model of 7.358 Web of Science-indexed papers published between 1992 and 2017. The analysis output 29 topics condensing key themes, concepts, and approaches in academic literature associating sustainability and governance. These were subsequently grouped into four semantic constellations of transversal meanings providing coherence to the heterogeneity of the field: a) governance of State-level sustainable development; b) governance of the sustainable use of natural resources; c) sustainable governance of integration and autonomy in a globalized world; and d) sustainable corporate governance. These results led to the conclusion that the growingly differentiated literature on sustainability and governance has tended to organize in a tightly-knit field, articulating distinct methodological and theoretical perspectives within a shared set of value commitments -the promotion of a sustainable future. Arguably, this has been made possible by the ‘hybrid’ character of the concept of sustainability, as much a description of the world as it is as a prescription of the world-to-be. Additionally, the study unveiled that the implicit relationship linking sustainability and governance has been running both ways, i.e. that governance may be framed as a way to achieve sustainability as much as sustainability can be depicted as a way to achieve governance. © 2020 Elsevier LtdJournal of Cleaner Production09596526https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S095965262033568Xart123523279Thomson Reuters SCIEconcept analysis; governance; semantic constellations; sustainability; topic modelling, computer aided analysis; semantics; academic community; academic literature; computer aided; corporate governance; implicit relationships; semantic structures; sustainable use; topic modeling; sustainable developmentSchool of Government, Adolfo Ibáñez University, Diagonal Las Torres, Peñalolén, 2640, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada, Santiago, 2002, Chile; Centro de Estudios Públicos, Monseñor Sótero Sanz 162, Providencia, Chile
Ecologies of Repair: A Post-human Approach to Other-Than-Human NaturesBlanco-Wells G.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.3389/fpsyg.2021.633737This conceptual paper explores the theoretical possibilities of posthumanism and presents ecologies of repair as a heuristic device to explore the association modes of different entities, which, when confronted with the effects of human-induced destructive events, seek to repair the damage and transform the conditions of coexistence of various life forms. The central idea is that severe socio-environmental crisis caused by an intensification of industrial activity are conducive to observing new sociomaterial configurations and affective dispositions that, through the reorganization of practices of resistance, remediation, and mutual care, are oriented to generating reparative and/or transformative processes from damaged ecologies and communities. Crises constitute true ontological experimentation processes where the presence of other-than-human natures, and of artifacts or devices that participate in reparative actions, become visible. A post-human approach to nature allows us to use languages and methodologies that do not restrict the emergence of assemblages under the assumption of their a priori ontological separation, but rather examine their reparative potential based on the efficacy of situated relationships. Methodologically, transdisciplinarity is relevant, with ethnography and other engaged methods applied over units of observation and experience called socio-geo-ecologies. The relevant attributes of these socio-geo-ecologies, beyond the individual, community, or institutional aspects, are the specific geological characteristics that make possible an entanglement of interdependent relationships between human and non-human agents. The conceptual analysis is illustrated with empirical examples stemming from socio-geo-ecologies researched in Southern Chile. © Copyright © 2021 Blanco-Wells.Frontiers in Psychology16641078https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.633737/fullart63373712Thomson Reuters SSCIenvironmental crises; non-human; posthumanism; relational ontology; transdiscipline, nanInstituto de Historia y Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Centro de Investigación en Dinámicas de Ecosistemas Marinos de Altas Latitudes, Valdivia, Chile; Centro de Ciencias del Clima y la Resiliencia, Santiago, Chile; Núcleo Milenio en Energía y Sociedad, Santiago, Chile
Plagues, past, and futures for the Yagan canoe people of Cape Horn, southern ChileBlanco-Wells G.; Libuy M.; Harambour A.; Rodríguez K.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.1007/s40152-021-00217-2The manner in which the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the indigenous Yagan people of Navarino Island in southern Chile is the topic of this paper. Like other First Nation communities, these nomadic people suffered decimation and disease in successive encounters with Europeans, and then, in the mid-twentieth century, forced sedentarization by the Chilean State. More recently, the Yagan have fought the expansion of salmon aquaculture to the Island. Making use of a sociomaterial approach, we examine how the threat of past and present viruses and diseases, added to the tragic effects of colonization, become part of a broader sociohistorical debate on the right of coastal peoples to their maritories. Paradoxically, our results suggest that COVID-19 has become part of an assemblage of ethnic revitalization, opening possibilities for the Yagan clans to make some of their envisioned futures possible. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH, DE part of Springer Nature.Maritime Studies18727859http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40152-021-00217-2101-11320Thomson Reuters ESCIcanoe people; cape horn archipelago; chile; colonization; covid-19; ethnic revitalization; futurities, nanInstituto de Historia y Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Centro de Investigación en Dinámicas de Ecosistemas Marinos de Altas Latitudes, Valdivia, Chile; Centro de Ciencias del Clima y la Resiliencia, Santiago, Chile; Museo Antropológico Martín Gusinde, Puerto Williams, Chile
Temperature and precipitation projections for the Antarctic Peninsula over the next two decades: contrasting global and regional climate model simulationsBozkurt D.; Bromwich D.H.; Carrasco J.; Rondanelli R.Zonas Costeras; Agua y Extremos202110.1007/s00382-021-05667-2This study presents near future (2020–2044) temperature and precipitation changes over the Antarctic Peninsula under the high-emission scenario (RCP8.5). We make use of historical and projected simulations from 19 global climate models (GCMs) participating in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). We compare and contrast GCMs projections with two groups of regional climate model simulations (RCMs): (1) high resolution (15-km) simulations performed with Polar-WRF model forced with bias-corrected NCAR-CESM1 (NC-CORR) over the Antarctic Peninsula, (2) medium resolution (50-km) simulations of KNMI-RACMO21P forced with EC-EARTH (EC) obtained from the CORDEX-Antarctica. A further comparison of historical simulations (1981–2005) with respect to ERA5 reanalysis is also included for circulation patterns and near-surface temperature climatology. In general, both RCM boundary conditions represent well the main circulation patterns of the historical period. Nonetheless, there are important differences in projections such as a notable deepening and weakening of the Amundsen Sea Low in EC and NC-CORR, respectively. Mean annual near-surface temperatures are projected to increase by about 0.5–1.5 ∘C across the entire peninsula. Temperature increase is more substantial in autumn and winter (∼ 2 ∘C). Following opposite circulation pattern changes, both EC and NC-CORR exhibit different warming rates, indicating a possible continuation of natural decadal variability. Although generally showing similar temperature changes, RCM projections show less warming and a smaller increase in melt days in the Larsen Ice Shelf compared to their respective driving fields. Regarding precipitation, there is a broad agreement among the simulations, indicating an increase in mean annual precipitation (∼ 5 to 10%). However, RCMs show some notable differences over the Larsen Ice Shelf where total precipitation decreases (for RACMO) and shows a small increase in rain frequency. We conclude that it seems still difficult to get consistent projections from GCMs for the Antarctic Peninsula as depicted in both RCM boundary conditions. In addition, dominant and common changes from the boundary conditions are largely evident in the RCM simulations. We argue that added value of RCM projections is driven by processes shaped by finer local details and different physics schemes that are introduced by RCMs, particularly over the Larsen Ice Shelf. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH, DE part of Springer Nature.Climate Dynamics09307575http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00382-021-05667-23853-387456Thomson Reuters SCIEadded value; antarctica; climate change; dynamical downscaling; larsen ice shelf; model evaluation; temperature extremes, antarctic peninsula; antarctica; larsen ice shelf; west antarctica; air temperature; climate change; climate modeling; cmip; downscaling; extreme event; global climate; precipitation assessment; regional climateDepartment of Meteorology, University of Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Estudios Atmosféricos y Astroestadística, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Investigación y Gestión de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Polar Meteorology Group, Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States; Centro de Investigación GAIA Antártica, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Department of Geophysics, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
Influence of African Atmospheric Rivers on Precipitation and Snowmelt in the Near East's HighlandsBozkurt D.; Sen O.L.; Ezber Y.; Guan B.; Viale M.; Caglar F.Agua y Extremos202110.1029/2020JD033646Atmospheric rivers (ARs) traveling thousands of kilometers over arid North Africa could interact with the highlands of the Near East (NE), and thus affect the region's hydrometeorology and water resources. Here, we use a state-of-the-art AR tracking database, and reanalysis and observational datasets to investigate the climatology (1979–2017) and influences of these ARs in snowmelt season (March–April). The Red Sea and northeast Africa are found to be the major source regions of these ARs, which are typically associated with the eastern Mediterranean trough positioned over the Balkan Peninsula and a blocking anticyclone over the NE-Caspian region, triggering southwesterly air flow toward the NE's highlands. Approximately 8% of the ARs are relatively strong (integrated water vapor transport >∼275 kg m−1 s−1). AR days exhibit enhanced precipitation over the crescent-shaped orography of the NE region. Mean AR days indicate wetter (up to + 2 mm day−1) and warmer (up to + 1.5°C) conditions than all-day climatology. On AR days, while snowpack tends to decrease (up to 30%) in the Zagros Mountains, it can show decreases or increases in the Taurus Mountains depending largely on elevation. A further analysis with the observations and reanalysis indicates that extreme ARs coinciding with large scale sensible heat transport can significantly increase the daily discharges. These results suggest that ARs can have notable impacts on the hydrometeorology and water resources of the region, particularly of lowland Mesopotamia, a region that is famous with great floods in the ancient narratives. © 2021. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres2169897Xhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2020JD033646arte2020JD033646126Thomson Reuters SCIEeuphrates-tigris basin; extreme precipitation; hydrometeorology; moisture transport; runoff; snow, balkans; indian ocean; mesopotamia; north africa; red sea [indian ocean]; taurides; turkey; zagros; airflow; anticyclone; atmospheric moisture; hydrometeorology; orography; precipitation assessment; snowmelt; trough; water vaporDepartment of Meteorology, University of Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Eurasia Institute of Earth Sciences, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey; Joint Institute for Regional Earth System Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, United States; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, United States; Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mendoza, Argentina
Projected increases in surface melt and ice loss for the Northern and Southern Patagonian IcefieldsBravo C.; Bozkurt D.; Ross A.N.; Quincey D.J.Agua y Extremos202110.1038/s41598-021-95725-wThe Northern Patagonian Icefield (NPI) and the Southern Patagonian Icefield (SPI) have increased their ice mass loss in recent decades. In view of the impacts of glacier shrinkage in Patagonia, an assessment of the potential future surface mass balance (SMB) of the icefields is critical. We seek to provide this assessment by modelling the SMB between 1976 and 2050 for both icefields, using regional climate model data (RegCM4.6) and a range of emission scenarios. For the NPI, reductions between 1.5 m w.e. (RCP2.6) and 1.9 m w.e. (RCP8.5) were estimated in the mean SMB during the period 2005–2050 compared to the historical period (1976–2005). For the SPI, the estimated reductions were between 1.1 m w.e. (RCP2.6) and 1.5 m w.e. (RCP8.5). Recently frontal ablation estimates suggest that mean SMB in the SPI is positively biased by 1.5 m w.e., probably due to accumulation overestimation. If it is assumed that frontal ablation rates of the recent past will continue, ice loss and sea-level rise contribution will increase. The trend towards lower SMB is mostly explained by an increase in surface melt. Positive ice loss feedbacks linked to increasing in meltwater availability are expected for calving glaciers. © 2021, The Author(s).Scientific Reports20452322https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95725-wart1684711Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, article; body weight; climate; glacier; sea level riseCentro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Valdivia, Chile; School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; Department of Meteorology, University of Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
Past abrupt changes, tipping points and cascading impacts in the Earth systemBrovkin V.; Brook E.; Williams J.W.; Bathiany S.; Lenton T.M.; Barton M.; DeConto R.M.; Donges J.F.; Ganopolski A.; McManus J.; Praetorius S.; de Vernal A.; Abe-Ouchi A.; Cheng H.; Claussen M.; Crucifix M.; Gallopín G.; Iglesias V.; Kaufman D.S.; Kleinen T.; Lambert F.; van der Leeuw S.; Liddy H.; Loutre M.-F.; McGee D.; Rehfeld K.; Rhodes R.; Seddon A.W.R.; Trauth M.H.; Vanderveken L.; Yu Z.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1038/s41561-021-00790-5The geological record shows that abrupt changes in the Earth system can occur on timescales short enough to challenge the capacity of human societies to adapt to environmental pressures. In many cases, abrupt changes arise from slow changes in one component of the Earth system that eventually pass a critical threshold, or tipping point, after which impacts cascade through coupled climate–ecological–social systems. The chance of detecting abrupt changes and tipping points increases with the length of observations. The geological record provides the only long-term information we have on the conditions and processes that can drive physical, ecological and social systems into new states or organizational structures that may be irreversible within human time frames. Here, we use well-documented abrupt changes of the past 30 kyr to illustrate how their impacts cascade through the Earth system. We review useful indicators of upcoming abrupt changes, or early warning signals, and provide a perspective on the contributions of palaeoclimate science to the understanding of abrupt changes in the Earth system. © 2021, Springer Nature Limited.Nature Geoscience17520894https://www.nature.com/articles/s41561-021-00790-5550-55814Thomson Reuters SCIEMax Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany; CEN, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States; Department of Geography and Center for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States; Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS), Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, Hamburg, Germany; Global Systems Institute, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom; School of Human Evolution and Social Change and School of Complex Adaptive Systems, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States; Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, United States; Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY, United States; Geology, Minerals, Energy and Geophysics Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA, United States; Geotop Research Center, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montreal, Canada; Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Institute of Global Environmental Change, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi, China; Institute for Meteorology, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; Earth and Life Institute, UCLouvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Independent Researcher, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Earth Lab, University of C...
Energy and water policies in chile, two different endings with implications in the water-energy nexusBórquez R.; Fuster R.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.3390/en14113286Energy and water have faced important levels of conflicts in the last 20–25 years in Chile. However, the way that they have been politically addressed in the last decade differs. These differences emerge from how these fields have been historically configurated, impacting on how the policy problems and policy options have been framed. Using thematic analysis of 93 interviews and documentary analysis, this article analyzes by contrasting two participatory processes which nourish the formulation of the energy and water policies in Chile in 2014–2015. It seeks to understand the factors that may influence why the development, impact and inclusion of new voices in public policies related to water and energy have been different, and how that can impact the water–energy nexus. Five factors emerge as determinants in this difference: structure of use, number of actors, governance and institutional framework, elite conformation, and legal framework. These factors impacted the policy processes and the scope of the policy outcomes, generating two different results: a long-term energy policy, and a water policy that did not survive the presidential period. Thus, the water–energy nexus is under pressure as a result of the tension between power structures, social responses to environmental issues and decision-making, environmental limitations, and climate change stressors, creating greater vulnerability and conflicts. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).Energies19961073https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/14/11/3286art328614Thomson Reuters SCIEelites; energy; participation; policy process; policy-making; unregulated market; water; water–energy nexus, climate change; decision making; energy and water policy; environmental issues; environmental limitations; institutional framework; legal frameworks; participatory process; thematic analysis; water and energies; water managementCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), University of Chile, Blanco Encalada 2002, 4 Piso, DGF, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Department of Geography, King’s College London, 40 Bush House (North East Wing), Aldwych, London, WC2B 4BG, United Kingdom; Department of Environmental Sciences and Renewable Natural Resources, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Chile, Avenida Santa Rosa 11316, La Pintana, Santiago, 8820808, Chile
Northern Chile intermediate-depth earthquakes controlled by plate hydrationCabrera L.; Ruiz S.; Poli P.; Contreras-Reyes E.; Osses A.; Mancini R.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1093/gji/ggaa565We investigate the variations of the seismic source properties and aftershock activity using kinematic inversions and template-matching for six large magnitude intermediate-depth earthquakes occurred in northern Chile. Results show similar rupture geometry and stress drop values between 7 and 30 MPa. Conversely, aftershock productivity systematically decreases for the deeper events within the slab. Particularly, there is a dramatic decrease in aftershock activity below the 400-450 °C isotherm depth, which separates high-and low-hydrated zones. The events exhibit tensional focal mechanisms at unexpected depths within the slab, suggesting a deepening of the neutral plane, where the extensional regimen reaches the 700-800 °C isotherm depth. We interpret the reduction of aftershocks in the lower part of the extensional regime as the absence of a hydrated-slab at those depths. Our finding highlights the role of the thermal structure and fluids in the subducting plate in controlling the intermediated-depth seismic activity and shed new light in their causative mechanism. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society.Geophysical Journal International0956540Xhttps://academic.oup.com/gji/article/226/1/78/599822778-90226Thomson Reuters SCIEcomposition and structure of the oceanic crust; earthquake dynamics; earthquake source observations; numerical modelling; seismicity and tectonics; subduction zone processes, chile; hydration; isotherms; plates (structural components); template matching; composition and structure of the oceanic crust; earthquake dynamics; earthquake source observations; intermediate-depth earthquakes; northern chile; property; seismic source; seismicity and tectonics; subduction zone process; aftershock; depth; earthquake mechanism; focal mechanism; hydration; numerical model; oceanic crust; plate tectonics; rupture; seismic source; seismicity; subduction zone; earthquakesDepartamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; ISTerre Institut des Sciences de la Terre, Cnrs, Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Cedex 9, 38058, France; Departamento de Ingenieria Matematica y Centro de Modelamiento Matematico Umi 2807 Cnrs, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8370449, Chile
Territorial Energy Vulnerability Assessment to Enhance Just Energy Transition of CitiesCalvo R.; Amigo C.; Billi M.; Fleischmann M.; Urquiza A.; Álamos N.; Navea J.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes202110.3389/frsc.2021.635976Energy poverty is a crucial concept in current global energy policy, both for the importance of securing equitable access to high-quality energy services to all human populations and to advance toward a just energy transition to a decarbonized economy. Nonetheless, one of the limitations of this concept due to its focus at the household scale, it has tended to omit relevant energy conditions at a territorial scale, which can also be a dimension of significant deprivation (e.g., transportation, schools, hospitals, public services, industrial uses among others.). On the other hand, energy services are highly dependent on context: on the geographic, ecological, technical, economic, and sociocultural conditions. This context-dependency determines the range of energy and technological alternatives available in a territory. Hence, a conceptual framework is required to better understand the starting point to a just energy transition, capable of integrating the complexity of socio-techno-ecological systems. To fill this gap, we present a framework based on the concept of Territorial Energy Vulnerability (TEV), defined as the propensity of a territory to not guarantee equitable access—in quantity and quality—to resilient energy services that allow the sustainable human and economic development of its population. That is a greater probability of inequity in access to energy services or a significant impacts derived from socio-natural risks that make it incapable of guaranteeing a sustainable and resilient provision of these services. Built on state-of-the-art conceptualizations of risk, we develop an indicator-based framework on vulnerability understood as the combination of sensitivity and resilience characteristics of socio-techno-ecological systems. Sensitivity relates to economic, demographic, infrastructure, technology, culture, and knowledge characteristics of socio-techno-ecological components. Meanwhile, resilience is presented in a three-dimensional framework based on flexibility, register, and self-transformation capacity of socio-techno-ecological systems. An application of this framework is developed using three case studies: Arica, Los Andes and Coyhaique, all Chilean cities with diverse ecological, technical, economic, and sociocultural conditions that shape territorial vulnerability. Using this framework as a diagnostic tool, the development of a just energy transition could adapt existing concepts of energy poverty and decarbonization pathways into context-specific guidelines and policies. Copyright © 2021 Calvo, Amigo, Billi, Fleischmann, Urquiza, Álamos and Navea.Frontiers in Sustainable Cities26249634https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/frsc.2021.635976/fullart6359763Thomson Reuters ESCInan, cities; energy poverty; just energy transition; resilience; territorial; vulnerabilityDoctorado en Geografía, Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Núcleo de Estudios Sistémicos Transdisciplinarios, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Red de Pobreza Energética, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Espacio y Sociedad, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Escuela de Gobierno, Universidad Adolfo Ibañez, Santiago, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Embedding effect and the consequences of advanced disclosure: evidence from the valuation of cultural goodsCarrasco Garcés M.; Vasquez-Lavin F.; Ponce Oliva R.D.; Bustamante Oporto J.L.; Barrientos M.; Cerda A.A.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.1007/s00181-020-01897-1This study revisits the embedding effect, a long-standing problem in the nonmarket valuation literature. The embedding effect was a popular research topic during the 1990s, especially following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska. It has resurfaced after a special issue of The Journal of Economic Perspectives in 2012 in which Jerry Hausmann asserts that among the three long-standing problems with contingent valuation, the embedding effect is the most challenging. In this study, we focus on how information disclosure regarding the nested structure of goods affects both the willingness to pay and the presence of the embedding effect. Our results suggest that the level of embedding can be reduced with a more complete description of the nested structure of the goods under valuation. Therefore, it is highly important for each valuation study to test whether sufficient information is provided on the goods’ nested structure to ensure that the relationships among the goods’ subsets are correctly understood by respondents. We show that by providing respondents with more high-quality information, it is possible to mitigate the embedding effect. © 2020, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.Empirical Economics03777332http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00181-020-01897-11039-106261Thomson Reuters SSCIcontingent valuation; cultural goods; embedding effect; nonmarket valuation, contingent valuation; information; willingness to payDepartamento de Gestión Empresarial, Universidad de Concepción, Juan Antonio Coloma 0201, Los Ángeles, Chile; School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo, Ainavillo 456, Concepcion, Chile; Millennium Nucleus Center for the Socioeconomic Impact of Environmental Policies (CESIEP), Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Santiago, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Economía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Facultad Economía y Negocios, Universidad San Sebastián, Concepción, Chile; Faculty of Economics and Business, Universidad de Talca, Casilla: 721, Campus Lircay, Av. Lircay s/n, Talca, Chile; Water Research Center for Agriculture and Mining, Victoria 1295, Concepción, Chile
Exploring the multidimensional effects of human activity and land cover on fire occurrence for territorial planningCarrasco J.; Acuna M.; Miranda A.; Alfaro G.; Pais C.; Weintraub A.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113428The strong link between climate change and increased wildfire risk suggests a paradigm change on how humans must co-exist with fire and the environment. Different studies have demonstrated that human-induced fire ignitions can account for more than 90 % of forest fires, so human co-existence with wildfires requires informed decision making via preventive policies in order to minimize risk and adapt to new conditions. In this paper, we address the multidimensional effects of three groups of drivers (human activity, geographic and topographic, and land cover) that can be managed to assist in territorial planning under fire risk. We found critical factors of strong interactions with the potential to increase the likelihood of starting a fire. Our solution approach included the application of a Machine Learning method called Random Undersampling and Boosting (RUSBoost) to assess risk (fire occurrence probability), which was subsequently accompanied by a sensitivity analysis that revealed interactions of various levels of risk. The prediction performance of the proposed model was assessed using several statistical measures such as the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC) and the Area Under the Curve (AUC). The results confirmed the high accuracy of our model, with an AUC of 0.967 and an overall accuracy over test data of 93.01 % after applying a Bayesian approach for hyper-parameter optimization. The study area to test our solution approach comprised the entire geographical territory of central Chile. © 2021 Elsevier LtdJournal of Environmental Management03014797https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0301479721014900art113428297Thomson Reuters SCIEfire occurrence probability fire risk; machine learning rusboost; territorial planning under fire risk wildland urban interface, bayes theorem; climate change; human activities; humans; probability; wildfires; chile; accuracy assessment; climate change; decision making; environmental effect; environmental management; exploration; fire; human activity; land cover; optimization; risk assessment; territorial planning; wildfire; area under the curve; article; chile; human; land use; machine learning; prediction; probability; receiver operating characteristic; risk assessment; sensitivity analysis; bayes theorem; climate change; human activities; probability; wildfireUniversity of Chile, Industrial Engineering Department, Santiago, Chile; Forest Research Institute, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, 8 Maroochydore DC, 4558, QLD, Australia; University of Chile, ), Santiago, Chile; Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Laboratorio de Ecología del Paisaje y Conservación, Temuco, Chile; Complex Engineering System Institute - ISCI, Santiago, Chile; University of California Berkeley, IEOR Department, Berkeley, United States
A review of the observed air temperature in the Antarctic Peninsula. Did the warming trend come back after the early 21st hiatus?Carrasco J.F.; Bozkurt D.; Cordero R.R.Agua y Extremos202110.1016/j.polar.2021.100653Recent changes in the near-surface air temperature (nSAT) in the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) suggests that the absence of 21st century warming on Antarctic Peninsula may be coming to end. To examine this, the long-term annual and seasonal variability of the nSAT at eight Antarctic stations located in the AP are analyzed using available data from the SCAR Reader database, complemented with data from the Chilean Weather Service (Frei and O'Higgins). An exponential filter was applied to the original annual and seasonal mean series to obtain a decadal-like variation of the nSAT. A stacked and the standardized anomaly of the nSAT record was constructed to examine the average regional behavior in the AP. Cumulative sum (CUSUM) and changepoint analysis were applied through the stacked nSAT series to highlight significant changes caused by variation in weather and climate. The CUSUM and bootstrapping analysis revealed two statistically significant breaking points during the 1978–2020 period. The first one occurred in the late nineties ending a warming period and making the beginning of a cooling period; the second one may have taken place in the mid-2010s and could mark the end of the warming pause. These trends appear to be consistent with the changes observed in the large-scale climate modes (i.e., the Antarctic Annular Mode – AAO). © 2021 Elsevier B.V. and NIPRPolar Science18739652https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1873965221000189art10065328Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, air temperature; antarctic peninsula; change point; reader database; warming and cooling trendsCentro de Investigación Gaia Antártica, Universidad de Magallanes, Av. Bulnes, Punta Arenas, 01855, Chile; Department of Meteorology, University of Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago, Av. Bernardo O'Higgins, Santiago, 3363, Chile
Estimating the implicit discount rate for new technology adoption of wood-burning stovesCarrasco-Garcés M.; Vásquez-Lavín F.; Ponce Oliva R.D.; Diaz Pincheira F.; Barrientos M.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.1016/j.enpol.2021.112407In the last decade, there have been several initiatives to incentivize Efficient Energy Technologies (EET) to reduce air pollution caused by wood-burning in developing countries. More efficient woodstoves can improve health, reduce family expenditures, CO2 emissions, and forest degradation. Despite these benefits, there is low level of adoption of EETs. This paper contributed to the literature in three ways. First, it estimates the implicit discount rate (IDR) used by individuals to decide whether to adopt EET using exponential and hyperbolic specifications. Second, it includes sociodemographic characteristics in the definition of the IDR. Third, it evaluates how the adoption curve changes by different policy designs. Since the interest rate is part of the policy design, comparing the interest rate and the IDR is relevant to increasing adoption. Our monthly estimated IDR is between 1.7% and 5.4% with a significant overlap with market interest rate. The IDR is affected by the perception of the future economic situation, trust in environmental authorities, happiness, and gender. We found that using an interest rate lower than the IDR increases the probability of adoption significantly. An understanding of the effects of copayments, payment frequencies, and difference between interest rates and IDR is needed to maximize adoption. © 2021 Elsevier LtdEnergy Policy03014215https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0301421521002779art112407156Thomson Reuters SCIE, SSCIdeveloping countries; energy policy; efficient energy technologies; energy regulation; implicit discount rate; interest rates; intertemporal choices; policy design; stated preferences; technology adoption; wood burning; biomass power; cooking appliance; developing world; energy efficiency; energy policy; environmental economics; estimation method; financial system; fuelwood; interest rate; technological development; technology adoption; energy efficiency, efficient energy technologies; energy regulation; implicit discount rate; intertemporal choice; stated preferencesDepartamento de Gestión Empresarial, Universidad de Concepción, Los Ángeles, Chile; School of Economics and Business, Universidad Del Desarrollo, Concepción, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), ANID PIA/BASAL FB0002, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate Change and Resilience (CR2), Chile; Department of Economics, Universidad de Concepción,Chile, Chile
Extreme sea levels at Rapa Nui (Easter Island) during intense atmospheric riversCarvajal M.; Winckler P.; Garreaud R.; Igualt F.; Contreras-López M.; Averil P.; Cisternas M.; Gubler A.; Breuer W.A.Agua y Extremos202110.1007/s11069-020-04462-2In addition to the tsunami hazard posed by distant great earthquakes, Rapa Nui (Easter Island), in the Southeast Pacific Ocean, is exposed to frequent and intense coastal storms. Here, we use sea-level records and field surveys guided by video and photographic footage to show that extreme sea levels at Rapa Nui occur much more frequent than previously thought and thus constitute an unrecognized hazard to the inland’s maritime supply chain. We found that extreme sea-level events, including the two most extreme (March 5th and May 5th, 2020) in our 17-month-long analyzed period (from January 1st, 2019, to May 31st, 2020), resulted from constructive superpositions of seiches on the shelf, storm surges and high tides. By further analyzing time series of atmospheric and wind-generated wave data, we conclude that these extreme sea levels are ultimately driven by the breaking of large waves near the coastline (i.e., wave setup), with lesser contribution of barometric setup and even less of wind setup. We also propose that these large waves were mainly generated from strong, long-lasting, NW winds associated with intense atmospheric rivers (long, narrow regions in the atmosphere that transport abundant water vapor) passing over Rapa Nui. Given that the intensity of atmospheric rivers and sea level are thought to increase as climate changes, a deeper understanding of the relation between meteorological and oceanographic processes at Rapa Nui is strongly needed. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V. part of Springer Nature.Natural Hazards0921030Xhttp://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11069-020-04462-21619-1637106Thomson Reuters SCIEeaster island; pacific ocean; pacific ocean (southeast); atmospheric dynamics; extreme event; field survey; hazard assessment; photography; sea level; sea level change; seiche; storm surge; time series; tsunami; vulnerability; water vapor; wind wave, atmospheric rivers; easter island; integrated water vapor; meteotsunamis; rapa nui; sea level; seiches; shelf resonance; storm surgePrograma de Doctorado en Ciencias Geológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Millennium Nucleus the Seismic Cycle along Subduction Zones (CYCLO), Valparaíso, Chile; Escuela de Ingeniería Civil Oceánica, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Investigación Para La Gestión Integrada del Riesgo de Desastres (CIGIDEN), Santiago, Chile; Centro de Observación Marino Para Estudios de Riesgos del Ambiente Costero (COSTAR-UV), Valparaíso, Chile; Department of Geophysics and Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Escuela de Arquitectura y Diseño, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Facultad de Arquitectura y Diseño, Universidad Andrés Bello, Viña del Mar, Chile
Effect of urban tree diversity and condition on surface temperature at the city block scaleChinchilla J.; Carbonnel A.; Galleguillos M.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.1016/j.ufug.2021.127069Urban forests affect land surface temperature (LST) within a city due to the cooling effect of transpiration. The latter depends on tree health, but it can also be affected by the structure and composition of forest, as a mono-species environment may potentially worsen the health of urban forest. The following hypotheses are therefore proposed: a) greater tree diversity within urban forest results in lower LST at the city block scale; and b) the state of biotic disturbance of urban forest is negatively correlated with LST. The present research explores the relationship between urban forest tree diversity and health based on a survey of 38,950 individuals in the district of Providencia in the city of Santiago, Chile, and compares this information against LST data from the ASTER satellite instrument at the city block scale. The health of the urban forest was determined by expert knowledge means of a field survey that collected data concerning growth stage, phytosanitary state, and state of biotic disturbance. The first hypothesis could not be tested by the lack of urban tree diversity which showed strong domination of three species with more than 52 % of abundance (Robinia pseudoacacia, Platanus orientalis and Acer negundo). The second hypothesis was proved since the results revealed a positive and significant correlation between urban forest diversity and LST, with a Spearman's correlation coefficient of between 0.56 and 0.7. A positive and significant correlation of 0.55 was found between mean biotic disturbance (BDSm) and median LST (Med), indicating a direct relationship between higher LST and poorer urban forest health. A possible explanation is that, among the trees surveyed within the urban forest, the effect of biotic disturbance is greater than that of species diversity. As such, it may be concluded that planting of trees on city streets as a means of temperature moderation is made less effective if specimens are maintained in a poor general condition of health. © 2021 Elsevier GmbHUrban Forestry and Urban Greening16188667https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1618866721000947art12706960Thomson Reuters SCIE, SSCIchile; metropolitana; acer negundo; platanus orientalis; providencia; robinia pseudoacacia; aster; environmental disturbance; field survey; land surface; soil temperature; species diversity; urban ecosystem, biotic disturbance; city thermal patterns; exotic species; species diversity; urban forestUniversity of Chile, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resources, Av. Santa Rosa 11315, Santiago, 8820000, Chile; University of Santiago, School of Architecture, Av. Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins 3363, Santiago, 9160000, Chile; Centre for Climate Resilience Research (CR)2, University of Chile, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, 8370449, Chile
Proteorhodopsin Phototrophy in Antarctic Coastal WatersCifuentes-Anticevic J.; Alcamán-Arias M.E.; Alarcón-Schumacher T.; Tamayo-Leiva J.; Pedrós-Alió C.; Farías L.; Díeza B.Zonas Costeras202110.1128/mSphere.00525-21Microbial proton-pumping rhodopsins are considered the simplest strategy among phototrophs to conserve energy from light. Proteorhodopsins are the most studied rhodopsins thus far because of their ubiquitous presence in the ocean, except in Antarctica, where they remain understudied. We analyzed proteorhodopsin abundance and transcriptional activity in the Western Antarctic coastal seawaters. Combining quantitative PCR (qPCR) and metagenomics, the relative abundance of proteorhodopsin-bearing bacteria accounted on average for 17, 3.5, and 29.7% of the bacterial community in Chile Bay (South Shetland Islands) during 2014, 2016, and 2017 summer-autumn, respectively. The abundance of proteorhodopsin-bearing bacteria changed in relation to environmental conditions such as chlorophyll a and temperature. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Flavobacteriia were the main bacteria that transcribed the proteorhodopsin gene during day and night. Although green light-absorbing proteorhodopsin genes were more abundant than blue-absorbing ones, the latter were transcribed more intensely, resulting in.50% of the proteorhodopsin transcripts during the day and night. Flavobacteriia were the most abundant proteorhodopsin-bearing bacteria in the metagenomes; however, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were more represented in the metatranscriptomes, with qPCR quantification suggesting the dominance of the active SAR11 clade. Our results show that proteorhodopsin-bearing bacteria are prevalent in Antarctic coastal waters in late austral summer and early autumn, and their ecological relevance needs to be elucidated to better understand how sunlight energy is used in this marine ecosystem. © 2021. Cifuentes-Anticevic et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.mSphere23795042https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/mSphere.00525-211-176Thomson Reuters SCIEantarctica; marine microbiology; metagenomics; metatranscriptomes; photoheterotrophy; proteorhodopsin; sunlight, microbial; seawater; chlorophyll a; proteorhodopsin; rhodopsin; unclassified drug; proteorhodopsin; rhodopsin; sea water; alphaproteobacteria; antarctica; article; autumn; coastal waters; flavobacteria; gammaproteobacteria; genetic transcription; metagenome; microbial community; nonhuman; population abundance; proteorhodopsin gene; summer; temperature; antarctica; chemistry; classification; ecosystem; flavobacteriaceae; genetics; metabolism; metagenomics; microbiology; microflora; phototrophy; phylogeny; procedures, alphaproteobacteria; antarctic regions; ecosystem; flavobacteriaceae; metagenomics; microbiota; phototrophic processes; phylogeny; rhodopsin; rhodopsinsDepartment of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Oceanography, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Escuela de Medicina, Universidad Espíritu Santo, Samborondon, Ecuador; Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany; Departamento de Biología de Sistemas, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CSIC), Madrid, Spain; Center for Genome Regulation (CRG), Santiago, Chile
Evaluation of multiple indices of the South American monsoonCorrea I.C.; Arias P.A.; Rojas M.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.1002/joc.6880In this article, multiple methods for estimating the onset and demise of the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) are evaluated during the period 1979–2018. The results obtained from indices based on precipitation, outgoing longwave radiation and combined empirical orthogonal functions (LISAM) show a delay in the SAMS onset while the demise dates do not show marked changes during the considered period. The latter indicates that the observed shortening of the SAMS (and the consistent lengthening of the southern Amazon dry season) mainly depend on variations at the onset stage of the SAMS, as identified in previous studies based on different databases and methodologies. This result is independent on the observational dataset considered. This allows resolving previously inconsistent results on the shortening of the SAMS. Furthermore, the climatological patterns of precipitation and atmospheric circulation at surface and upper levels associated with SAMS are best represented by the precipitation-based index; however, all indices exhibit general difficulties in representing the evolution of the atmospheric circulation at 200 hPa. Finally, our analyses suggest that including northeastern (NE) Brazil in the domain considered to characterize the SAMS tends to alter the estimates of SAMS timing, primarily its onset. In particular, the trend towards late onsets of the SAMS is evidenced by all indices over spatial domains that do not include NE Brazil, while this trend is considerably weakened or not significant when this area is included. This denotes a strong sensitivity of the different indices to the spatial domain considered for SAMS characterization. © 2020 Royal Meteorological SocietyInternational Journal of Climatology08998418https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.6880E2801-E281941Thomson Reuters SCIEdemise; lisam; olr-based indices; onset; precipitation-based indices; south american monsoon; wind-based indices, climatology; orthogonal functions; atmospheric circulation; dry seasons; empirical orthogonal function; monsoon system; multiple index; multiple methods; outgoing longwave radiation; spatial domains; atmospheric thermodynamicsGrupo de Ingeniería y Gestión Ambiental (GIGA), Escuela Ambiental, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia; Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate Resilience Research (CR2), Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Present-Day Patagonian Dust Emissions: Combining Surface Visibility, Mass Flux, and Reanalysis DataCosentino N.J.; Gaiero D.M.; Lambert F.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1029/2020JD034459The magnitude of the climatic forcing associated with mineral dust aerosols remains uncertain due in part to a lack of observations on dust sources. While modeling and satellite studies provide spatially extensive constraints, they must be supported by surface-validating dust monitoring. Southern South America is the main dust source to the southern oceans (>45°S), a region of low biological productivity potentially susceptible to increased micronutrient fertilization through dust deposition, as well as one of the main dust sources to Antarctica, implying long-range transport of dust from Patagonia and potentially affecting snow cover albedo. We present multiyear time series of dust-related visibility reduction (DRVR) and dust mass flux in Patagonia. We find that local DRVR is partly controlled by long-term (i.e., months) water deficit, while same-day conditions play a smaller role, reflective of water retention properties of fine-grained dust-emitting soils in low-moisture conditions. This is supported independently by reanalysis data showing that large-scale dust outbreaks are usually associated with anomalously high long-term water deficit. By combining visibility data, surface dust sampling, and particle dispersion modeling, we derive regional dust emission rates. Our results suggest that the inclusion of long-term soil hydrologic balance parameterizations under low-moisture conditions may improve the performance of dust emission schemes in Earth system models. © 2021. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres2169897Xhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2020JD034459arte2020JD034459126Thomson Reuters SCIEantarctica; patagonia; south america; atmospheric pollution; long range transport; mass transfer; mineral dust; pollutant source; pollution monitoring; visibility, aerosols; aridity; dust; patagoniaInstituto de Geografía, Facultad de Historia, Geografía y Ciencia Política, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Núcleo Milenio Paleoclima, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra (CICTERRA), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas (CONICET), Córdoba, Argentina; Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina
Assessment of cardiovascular risk in women with periodontal diseases according to c-reactive protein levelsDa Venezia C.; Hussein N.; Hernández M.; Contreras J.; Morales A.; Valdés M.; Rojas F.; Matamala L.; Hernández-Ríos P.Ciudades Resilientes202110.3390/biom11081238Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are highly prevalent non-communicable diseases world-wide. Periodontitis may act as a non-traditional cardiovascular risk (CVR) factor, linked by a low-grade systemic inflammation mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP). Patients with periodontitis reported higher serum CRP levels; however, a CRP systemic and periodontal correlation in gingi-val crevicular fluid (GCF) and its CVR impact have been barely studied. We aimed to assess the association between periodontal diseases and CVR in a group of adult women, based on serum high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) levels; and secondly, to determine the association between serum and GCF CRP levels. Gingival crevicular fluid and blood samples were obtained from women with peri-odontitis, gingivitis, and healthy controls. Serum and GCF CRP were determined by turbidimetric method and Luminex technology, respectively. Data were analyzed and adjusted by CVR factors. All women presented moderate CVR, without an evident association between serum hs-CRP levels and periodontal diseases. While serum hs-CRP concentrations did not significantly differ between groups, patients with gingivitis and periodontitis showed higher CRP levels in GCF, which positively correlated to CRP detection in serum. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Biomolecules2218273Xhttps://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/11/8/1238art123811Thomson Reuters SCIEadolescent; adult; c-reactive protein; cardiovascular diseases; cross-sectional studies; female; gingiva; gingival crevicular fluid; gingivitis; humans; nephelometry and turbidimetry; periodontal diseases; periodontitis; risk assessment; risk factors; c reactive protein; cholesterol; hemoglobin a1c; high density lipoprotein cholesterol; lipid; low density lipoprotein cholesterol; triacylglycerol; c reactive protein; adult; article; blood sampling; body mass; cardiovascular risk factor; cephalic vein; cholesterol blood level; confidence interval; controlled study; data analysis; diabetes mellitus; diagnostic test accuracy study; diastolic blood pressure; dyslipidemia; educational status; fasting; female; gingival index; gingivitis; high density lipoprotein cholesterol level; human; hypertension; immunoassay; low density lipoprotein cholesterol level; major clinical study; obesity; periodontal disease; periodontitis; physical examination; protein blood level; retrospective study; smoking; systolic blood pressure; triacylglycerol blood level; adolescent; biosynthesis; blood; cardiovascular disease; complication; cross-sectional study; gingiva; metabolism; periodontal disease; photometry; risk assessment; risk factor, biomediators; c-reactive protein; cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular risk; gingival crevicular fluid; gingivitis; non-communicable diseases; periodontal diseases; periodontitis; womenFaculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago, 8380544, Chile; Laboratory of Periodontal Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago, 8380544, Chile; Department of Pathology and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago, 8380544, Chile; Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago, 8380544, Chile; Center for Epidemiology and Surveillance of Oral Diseases (CESOD), Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago, 8420000, Chile; Faculty of Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Chile, Santiago, 8380453, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research CR2, University of Chile, Santiago, 8370449, Chile
More Money, More Problems: Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Chile (2006–2018)Davila M.; Maillet A.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.1111/blar.13190Since the radical neoliberal reforms to Chilean higher education of the 1980s, the creation of a quality regulatory system has been gradual and unfinished. It was only in 2006 that a law created the National Commission for Accreditation and two instruments: programmes and institutions accreditation. This article analyses the design and implementation of the latter policy instrument using mixed methods, including in-depth interviews with key actors. Our findings show that, although regulations have introduced quality assurance as a key element in higher education policy, the link established between accreditation and financing has generated incentives that dangerously weaken these quality mechanisms. © 2021 Society for Latin American StudiesBulletin of Latin American Research02613050https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/blar.13190534-54840Thomson Reuters SSCIaccreditation; chile; higher education; public policy; regulation; university, chile; education policy; higher education; neoliberalism; policy implementation; regulatory framework; university sectorUniversidad de Chile, Chile
Electrochemical enrichment of marine denitrifying bacteria to enhance nitrate metabolization in seawaterDe La Fuente M.J.; De La Iglesia R.; Farias L.; Daims H.; Lukumbuzya M.; Vargas I.T.Zonas Costeras202110.1016/j.jece.2021.105604High concentrations of nitrate from industrial discharges to coastal marine environments are a matter of concern owing to their ecological consequences. In the last years, Bioelectrochemical Denitrification Systems (BEDS) have emerged as a promising nitrate removal technology. However, they still have limitations, such as the enrichment strategy for specific microbial communities in the electrodes under natural conditions. In this study, three-electrode electrochemical cells were used to test microbial enrichment from natural seawater by applying three reported potentials associated with the dissimilatory denitrification process (-130, -260, and -570 mV vs. Ag/AgCl). The microbial community analysis showed that by applying -260 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) to the working electrode, it was possible to significantly enrich denitrifying microorganisms, specifically Marinobacter, in comparison with the control. Furthermore, -260 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) led to a significantly higher nitrate removal than other conditions, which, combined with cyclic voltammetry analysis, suggested that the polarized electrodes worked as external electron donors for nitrate reduction. Hence, this work demonstrates for the first time that it is possible to enrich marine denitrifying microorganisms by applying an overpotential of -260 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) without the need for a culture medium, the addition of an exogenous electron donor (i.e., organic matter) or a previously enriched inoculum. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd.Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering22133437https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2213343721005819art1056049Thomson Reuters SCIEcyclic voltammetry; denitrification; ecology; electric discharges; electrochemical electrodes; nitrates; seawater; ag/agcl; bioelectrochemical denitrification system; denitrifying bacteria; denitrifying microorganisms; electrochemicals; electron donors; industrial discharges; metabolization; microbial enrichment; nitrates removal; bacteria, bioelectrochemical denitrification system; marine denitrifying bacteria; microbial enrichment; nitrateDepartamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Facultad de Ingenierí_rfaut, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Marine Energy Research and Innovation Center (MERIC), Chile Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Oceanografía, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Centro de Ciencia Del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2, Blanco Encalada 2002, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, piso 4., Santiago, Chile; University of Vienna, Centre for Microbiology and Environmental Systems Science, Division of Microbial Ecology, Vienna, Austria; University of Vienna, Comammox Research Platform, Vienna, Austria; CEDEUS, Centro de Desarrollo Urbano Sustentable, Santiago, Chile
Identifying key driving mechanisms of heat waves in central ChileDemortier A.; Bozkurt D.; Jacques-Coper M.Zonas Costeras; Agua y Extremos202110.1007/s00382-021-05810-zThis study explores the main drivers of heat wave (HW) events in central Chile using state-of-the-art reanalysis data (ERA5) and observations during the extended austral summer season (November to March) for the period 1979–2018. Frequency and intensity aspects of the HW events are considered using the total number of the HW events per season and the amplitude. We first contrast ERA5 with several surface meteorological stations in central Chile to evaluate its ability to capture daily maximum temperature variability and the HW events. We then use synoptic- and large-scale fields and teleconnection patterns to address the most favorable conditions of the HW events from a climatological perspective as well as from the extreme January 2017 HW event that swept central Chile with temperature records and wildfires. ERA5 tends to capture temperature extremes and the HW events at the inland stations; on the contrary, it has difficulties in capturing the maximum temperature variability at the coastal stations, which is plausible given the complex terrain features and confined coastal climate zone (only ∼ 7% of all grid boxes within central Chile). The composite HW days based on ERA5 reveals a mid-level trough-ridge dipole pattern exhibiting a blocking anticyclone on the surface over a large part of southwest South America. Relatively dry and warm easterly flow appears to accompany the anomalous warming in a large part of central Chile. The temporal evolution of the HW events yields a wave-like propagation pattern and enhancement of trough-ridge pattern along the South Pacific. This meridional dipole pattern is found to be largely associated with the Pacific South American pattern. In addition, the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) appears to be a key component of the HW events in central Chile. In particular, while active MJO phases 2 and 7 promote sub-seasonal patterns that favor the South Pacific dipole mode, synoptic anomalies can superimpose on them and favor the formation of a migrating anticyclone over central-southern Chile and coastal lows over central Chile. Agreeing with the climatological findings, the extreme January 2017 HW analysis suggests that an eastward migratory mid-latitude trough-ridge pattern associated with MJO phase 2 was at work. We highlight that in addition to large- and synoptic-scale features, sub-synoptic processes such as coastal lows can have an important role in shaping the HW events and can lead to amplification of temperature extremes during the HW events. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.Climate Dynamics09307575https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00382-021-05810-z2415-243257Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; atmospheric dynamics; easterly wave; extreme event; frequency analysis; heat wave; madden-julian oscillation; seasonal variation; teleconnection; temperature anomaly; wave propagation, atmospheric teleconnections; blocking pattern; central chile; heat waves; mjo; temperature extremesÉcole Nationale de la Météorologie, Toulouse, France; Departamento de Meteorología, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Estudios Atmosféricos y Astroestadística (CEAAS), Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Investigación y Gestión de Recursos Naturales (CIGREN), Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
Multiscale physical background to an exceptional harmful algal bloom of Dinophysis acuta in a fjord systemDíaz P.A.; Peréz-Santos I.; Álvarez G.; Garreaud R.; Pinilla E.; Díaz M.; Sandoval A.; Araya M.; Álvarez F.; Rengel J.; Montero P.; Pizarro G.; López L.; Iriarte L.; Igor G.; Reguera B.Agua y Extremos202110.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145621Dinophysis acuta produces diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins and pectenotoxins (PTX). It blooms in thermally-stratified shelf waters in late summer in temperate to cold temperate latitudes. Despite its major contribution to shellfish harvesting bans, little effort has been devoted to study its population dynamics in Chilean Patagonia. In 2017–2018, mesoscale distribution of harmful algal species (75 monitoring stations) revealed the initiation (late spring) and seasonal growth of a dense D. acuta population in the Aysén region, with maximal values at Puyuhuapi Fjord (PF). Vertical phytoplankton distribution and fine-resolution measurements of physical parameters along a 25-km transect in February 16th identified a 15-km (horizontal extension) subsurface thin layer of D. acuta from 4 to 8 m depth. This layer, disrupted at the confluence of PF with the Magdalena Sound, peaked at the top of the pycnocline (6 m, 15.9 °C, 23.4 psu) where static stability was maximal. By February 22nd, it deepened (8 m, 15.5 °C; 23.62 psu) following the excursions of the pycnocline and reached the highest density ever recorded (664 × 103 cells L−1) for this species. Dinophysis acuta was the dominant Dinophysis species in all microplankton net-tows/bottle samples; they all contained DSP toxins (OA, DTX-1) and PTX-2. Modeled flushing rates showed that Puyuhuapi, the only fjord in the area with 2 connections with the open sea, had the highest water residence time. Long term climate variability in the Southern hemisphere showed the effects of a Southern Annular Mode (SAM) in positive mode (+1.1 hPa) overwhelming a moderate La Niña. These effects included positive spring precipitation anomalies with enhanced salinity gradients and summer drought with positive anomalies in air (+1 °C) and sea surface (+2 °C) temperature. Locally, persistent thermal stratification in PF seemed to provide an optimal physical habitat for initiation and bloom development of D. acuta. Thus, in summer 2018, a favourable combination of meteorological and hydrographic processes of multiple scales created conditions that promoted the development of a widespread bloom of D. acuta with its epicentre at the head of Puyuhuapi fjord. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.Science of the Total Environment00489697https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969721006896art145621773Thomson Reuters SCIEchilean patagonia; climatic anomalies; dinophysis acuta; exceptional blooms; lipophilic toxins; puyuhuapi fjord; thin layers, chile; dinoflagellida; estuaries; harmful algal bloom; humans; shellfish poisoning; chile; patagonia; dinophysis acuta; algae control; oceanography; plankton; plants (botany); population statistics; residence time distribution; shellfish; surface waters; shellfish poisoning; diarrhetic shellfish poisoning; harmful algal blooms; long-term climate variability; mesoscale distribution; phytoplankton distributions; southern annular mode; thermally stratified; water residence time; alga; algal bloom; climate effect; climate variation; flagellate; geographical distribution; growth rate; poisoning; population dynamics; southern hemisphere; toxin; alga; algal bloom; algal growth; article; chile; climate change; dinophysis acuta; environmental monitoring; hydrography; meteorological phenomena; microplankton; nonhuman; physical parameters; priority journal; salinity; sea surface temperature; seasonal variation; southern hemisphere; species distribution; thermoregulation; water residence time; algal bloom; dinoflagellate; estuary; human; protozoaCentro i~mar, Universidad de Los Lagos, Casilla 557, Puerto Montt, Chile; CeBiB, Universidad de Los Lagos, Casilla 557, Puerto Montt, Chile; Centro de Investigación Oceanográfica COPAS Sur-Austral, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Departamento de Acuicultura, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile; Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Algas (CIDTA), Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8370449, Región Metropolitana, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, CR2, Santiago, 8370449, Región Metropolitana, Chile; Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP), Putemun, Castro, Chile; Instituto de Acuicultura & Programa de Investigación Pesquera, Universidad Austral de Chile, Los Pinos s/n, Puerto Montt, Chile; Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas de la Patagonia (CIEP), Coyhaique, Chile; Centro de Estudios de Algas Nocivas (CREAN), Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP), Enrique Abello 0552, Punta Arenas, Chile; Centro de Estudios de Algas Nocivas (CREAN), Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP), Padre Harter 574, Puerto Montt, Chile; Centro de Estudios de Algas Nocivas (CREAN), Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP), Sargento Aldea 431, Puerto Aysén, Chile; Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo, Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO), Subida a Radio Faro 50, Vigo, 36390, Spain
Temporal methane variability in the water column of an area of seasonal coastal upwelling: A study based on a 12 year time seriesFarías L.; Tenorio S.; Sanzana K.; Faundez J.Zonas Costeras202110.1016/j.pocean.2021.102589Temporal distribution of dissolved CH4 was analysed in a zone of strong seasonal coastal upwelling off central Chile (36.5°S,73°W). Observations were taken from a twelve-year time series that included monthly sampling of the water at eight depths. CH4 concentration fluctuated between 1.75 and 100.9 nmol L-1 (or 67.11% and 3965% of saturation), with the highest levels at bottom waters, which increase as upwelling evolved. Three kind of CH4 profiles were identified; a classical diffusion–advection distribution, with bottom/surface CH4 concentration ratio > 2, was predominantly observed in ~ 54% of the all profiles and attributed to high CH4 production in the sediments during coastal upwelling season (austral spring-summer); a period of higher biological productivity, as well as in hypoxic/anoxic condition. In contrast, relatively homogeneous profiles (CH4 level ratio between bottom and surface depth < 2) was observed about ~ 46% of all profiles during periods of extreme vertical mixing (such as winter storms). Furthermore, irregular CH4 profile with superficial peaks occurring between the surface and 15–30 m depth was likely observed. These peaks indicated that local production rates exceed turbulent mixing rates, suggesting a rapid CH4 cycling due to microbial processes on the surface. Despite the fact that strong seasonality was observed in most oceanographic variables, according to favourable and non-favourable upwelling periods, only a weak seasonality was observed in CH4 content and its air-sea flux, the latter ranged from 1.27 to 47.02 µmol m−2 d-1 (mean ± SD: 10.94 ± 7.48). The annual weighted mean CH4 effluxes during upwelling (64%) and non-upwelling (36%) periods fluctuated from 1.66 to 6.22 mmol m−2 (mean ± SD: 3.40 ± 1.43), highlighting the importance of the continental shelf under the influence of coastal upwelling as a significant CH4 source toward the atmosphere. © 2021Progress in Oceanography00796611https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0079661121000768art102589195Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; mixing; storms; time series; biological productivity; coastal upwelling; concentration ratio; continental shelves; local production; microbial process; temporal distribution; turbulent mixing; bottom water; continental shelf; methane; microbial activity; pollutant source; seasonality; temporal variation; time series; upwelling; water column; coastal engineering, nanDepartmento de Oceanografía, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR2), Chile; Instituto Milenio en Socio-ecología Costera (SECOS), Chile; Programa de Graduados en Oceanografía, Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad of Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Facultad de Biología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile; Estación Costera de Investigaciones Marinas (ECIM), Chile
Spatial Distribution of Dissolved Methane Over Extreme Oceanographic Gradients in the Subtropical Eastern South Pacific (17° to 37°S)Farías L.; Troncoso M.; Sanzana K.; Verdugo J.; Masotti I.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Zonas Costeras202110.1029/2020JC016925Methane (CH4) is one of the most powerful greenhouse gases with the capacity to influence the Earth's radiative budget as well as contribute to atmospheric chemistry. Natural oceanic production makes up to ∼4% of the overall global CH4 emissions, however, there is uncertainty around the accuracy of this value due to a lack of accurate measurements. Such is the case in the Subtropical Eastern South Pacific Ocean (SESP), a region with pronounced chlorophyll-a and oxygen gradients, which in turn affect the microbial CH4 cycling. This study was conducted during spring-summer (2014–2016) in the SESP. The region (∼17°–37°S/71°–110°W) is separated into (i) eutrophic, (ii) mesotrophic, and (iii) oligotrophic areas, according to oceanographic and biogeochemical criteria. The SESP presents high CH4 zonal variability with levels ranging from 0.63 to 33.4 nmol L−1, corresponding to 29% and 1,423% saturation, respectively. High CH4 concentrations (>1,000% saturation) are observed in the narrow eutrophic area subjected to coastal upwelling. These conditions clearly differ to those observed in the extended oligotrophic subtropical gyre (∼100% saturation). Furthermore, CH4 also tends to accumulate in the mesotrophic area (with upto 1,423% saturation), where oceanographic conditions as stratification, mesoscale eddies and island mass effect could trigger the presence of a microbial biomass that may be able to induce CH4 regeneration. The CH4 efflux is estimated to be between 0.13 and 19.1 µmol m−2 d−1 (mean ± SD = 4.72 ± 4.67) and the SESP has an emission rate of ∼87.9 Gg CH4 yr−1. © 2021. The Authors.Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans21699275https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2020JC016925arte2020JC016925126Thomson Reuters SCIEch4 exchange acros air-sea interface; dissolved methane; mesoscale processes; spatial ch4 distribution; subtropical eastern south pacific, pacific ocean; pacific ocean (south); accuracy assessment; atmospheric chemistry; biogeochemistry; biomass; chlorophyll a; concentration (composition); greenhouse gas; gyre; mesoscale eddy; methane; nutrient cycling; radiative transfer; saturation; spatial distribution; upwellingDepartment of Oceanography, Faculty of Natural and Oceanographic Sciences, University of Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, Chile; Instituto Milenio en Socio-Ecología Costera, Santiago, Chile; Alfred-Wegener-Institute, Helmholtz-Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany; Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile
Using Sentinel-2 and canopy height models to derive a landscape-level biomass map covering multiple vegetation typesFassnacht F.E.; Poblete-Olivares J.; Rivero L.; Lopatin J.; Ceballos-Comisso A.; Galleguillos M.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.1016/j.jag.2020.102236Vegetation biomass is a globally important climate-relevant terrestrial carbon pool and also drives local hydrological systems via evapotranspiration. Vegetation biomass of individual vegetation types has been successfully estimated from active and passive remote sensing data. However, for many tasks, landscape-level biomass maps across several vegetation types are more suitable than biomass maps of individual vegetation types. For example, the validation of ecohydrological models and carbon budgeting typically requires spatially continuous biomass estimates, independent from vegetation type. Studies that derive biomass estimates across multiple vegetation or land-cover types to merge them into a single landscape-level biomass map are still scarce, and corresponding workflows must be developed. Here, we present a workflow to derive biomass estimates on landscape-level for a large watershed in central Chile. Our workflow has three steps: First, we combine field plot-based biomass estimates with spectral and structural information collected from Sentinel-2, TanDEM-X and airborne LiDAR data to map grassland, shrubland, native forests and pine plantation biomass using random forest regressions with an automatic feature selection. Second, we predict all models to the entire landscape. Third, we derive a land-cover map including the four considered vegetation types. We then use this land-cover map to assign the correct vegetation type-specific biomass estimate to each pixel according to one of the four considered vegetation types. Using a single repeatable workflow, we obtained biomass predictions comparable to earlier studies focusing on only one of the four vegetation types (Spearman correlation between 0.80 and 0.84; normalized-RMSE below 16 % for all vegetation types). For all woody vegetation types, height metrics were amongst the selected predictors, while for grasslands, only Sentinel-2 bands were selected. The land-cover was also mapped with high accuracy (OA = 83.1 %). The final landscape-level biomass map spatially agrees well with the known biomass distribution patterns in the watershed. Progressing from vegetation-type specific maps towards landscape-level biomass maps is an essential step towards integrating remote-sensing based biomass estimates into models for water and carbon management. © 2020 The AuthorsInternational Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation15698432https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0303243420308795art10223694Thomson Reuters SCIEbiomass; canopy architecture; data set; evapotranspiration; landscape change; mapping method; remote sensing; sentinel; tandem-x; vegetation cover; vegetation dynamics, biomass; forest; grassland; lidar; plantation; sentinel-2; shrubland; tandem-xKIT, Institute of Geography and Geoecology, Kaiserstraße 12, Karlsruhe, 76131, Germany; Universidad de Chile, Depto. Ciencias Ambientales y Recursos Naturales, Santa Rosa, Santiago, 11315, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, 8340589, Chile
Validation of a 9-km WRF dynamical downscaling of temperature and precipitation for the period 1980–2005 over Central South ChileFernández A.; Schumacher V.; Ciocca I.; Rifo A.; Muñoz A.A.; Justino F.Agua y Extremos202110.1007/s00704-020-03416-9In this paper, we evaluated a dynamical downscaling produced for Central South Chile (32°S–38°S) relative to climatic conditions between 1980 and 2005. Assessing the skill of dynamical downscaling relative to the present climate is key to determine the degree of confidence on regional climatic projections. We used the Weather Research and Forecasting model to simulate that period at ~ 9 km grid-cell size, forced by the bias-corrected Community Earth System Model. Results indicated that the dynamical downscaling adequately reproduced spatio-temporal features of the climate within the region. Temperature showed a positive bias at the annual scale while the opposite occurred for precipitation. The bias varied when the comparison was performed relative to a gridded product or instrumental records from weather stations. At the monthly scale, the model failed to capture long-term trends relative to the gridded dataset while reproducing spatial patterns, especially for temperature. We found a generally statistically significant spatial clustering of the monthly mean bias that can support implementation and application of dynamical downscaling and bias-correction methods that account for the distinct climatic features of the study area. In particular, the strip 34°S–35°S presented features that are coincident with previous findings suggesting this latitude to be a boundary between different climate regimes north and south. According to our results, we assert that this dynamical downscaling is comparable with other available databases and thus can be utilized in future studies as an additional and independent source of analysis, contributing to a balanced appraisal of climate scenarios for policymaking within the region. © 2020, Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature.Theoretical and Applied Climatology0177798Xhttp://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00704-020-03416-9361-378143Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; air temperature; climate conditions; climate prediction; computer simulation; downscaling; precipitation assessment; regional climate; weather forecasting, central south chile; dynamical downscaling; precipitation; temperatureDepartment of Geography, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Barrio Universitario, Concepción, Chile; Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, United States; Department of Agriculture Engineering, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil; Department for Geodetic Sciences and Geomatics, Universidad de Concepción, Los Ángeles, Chile; Institute of Geography, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile
Sensitivity of Water Price Elasticity Estimates to Different Data Aggregation LevelsFlores Arévalo Y.; Ponce Oliva R.D.; Fernández F.J.; Vásquez-Lavin F.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.1007/s11269-021-02833-3The empirical literature on residential water demand employs various data aggregation methods, which depend on whether the aggregation is over consumption, sociodemographic variables, or both. In this study, we distinguish three dataset types—aggregated data, disaggregated data, and semi-aggregated data—to compare the consequences of using a large sample of semi-aggregated data vis-à-vis a small sample of fully disaggregated data on the water price elasticity estimates. We also analyze whether different aggregation levels in the sociodemographic variables affect the water price elasticity estimates when the number of observations is fixed. We employ a discrete-continuous choice model that considers that consumers face an increasing block price structure. Our results demonstrate that the water price elasticities depend upon the level of aggregation of the data used and the sample size. We also find that the water price elasticities are statistically different when comparing a large semi-aggregated sample with a small disaggregated sample. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.Water Resources Management09204741https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11269-021-02833-32039-205235Thomson Reuters SCIEdata aggregation; discrete‐continuous choice model; increasing block price structure; water price elasticity, elasticity; large dataset; aggregated datum; aggregation level; data aggregation; empirical literature; price structure; residential water demand; small samples; socio-demographic variables; data processing; demand elasticity; discrete choice analysis; estimation method; sensitivity analysis; water demand; water economics; cost estimatingFacultad de Ciencias Sociales, Empresariales y Jurídicas, Departamento de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Instituto de Investigación Multidisciplinario en Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad de la Serena Chile, Benavente 980, La Serena, Chile; School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo, Concepcion, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Santiago, Chile; Water Research Center for Agriculture and Mining. Chile (ANID/FONDAP/15130015), Victoria 1295, Concepción, Chile; School of Agronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, CR2, Santiago, 8370449, Región Metropolitana, Chile
Landscape Engineering Impacts the Long-Term Stability of Agricultural PopulationsFreeman J.; Anderies J.M.; Beckman N.G.; Robinson E.; Baggio J.A.; Bird D.; Nicholson C.; Finley J.B.; Capriles J.M.; Gil A.F.; Byers D.; Gayo E.; Latorre C.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1007/s10745-021-00242-zExplaining the stability of human populations provides knowledge for understanding the resilience of human societies to environmental change. Here, we use archaeological radiocarbon records to evaluate a hypothesis drawn from resilience thinking that may explain the stability of human populations: Faced with long-term increases in population density, greater variability in the production of food leads to less stable populations, while lower variability leads to more stable populations. However, increased population stability may come with the cost of larger collapses in response to rare, large-scale environmental perturbations. Our results partially support this hypothesis. Agricultural societies that relied on extensive landscape engineering to intensify production and tightly control variability in the production of food experienced the most stability. Contrary to the hypothesis, these societies also experienced the least severe population declines. We propose that the interrelationship between landscape engineering and increased political-economic complexity reduces the magnitude of population collapses in a region. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.Human Ecology03007839https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10745-021-00242-z369-38249Thomson Reuters SSCIhuman population ecology; intensification; population stability; radiocarbon; resilience, nanAnthropology Program and The Ecology Center, Utah State University, Logan, 84322, UT, United States; School of Sustainability and The School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, 85281, AZ, United States; Department of Biology and The Ecology Center, Utah State University, Logan, 84322, UT, United States; Department of Anthropology and Center for Applied Archaeological Science, Boise State University, Boise, 83725, ID, United States; Anthropology Program, Utah State University, Logan, 84322, UT, United States; Sustainable Coastal Systems Cluster and National Center for Integrated Coastal Research, University of Central Florida, Orlando, 32816, FL, United States; Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, 99164, WA, United States; The School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, 85281, AZ, United States; Department of Anthropology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 16802, PA, United States; CONICET/UTN (Instituto de Evolución, Ecología Histórica y Ambiente-IDEVEA), San Rafael, Argentina; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Concepción, Chile; Department of Ecology, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, Santiago, Chile
Crossing a critical threshold: Accelerated and widespread land use changes drive recent carbon and nitrogen dynamics in Vichuquén Lake (35°S) in central ChileFuentealba M.; Latorre C.; Frugone-Álvarez M.; Sarricolea P.; Godoy-Aguirre C.; Armesto J.; Villacís L.A.; Laura Carrevedo M.; Meseguer-Ruiz O.; Valero-Garcés B.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148209Global afforestation/deforestation processes (e.g., Amazon deforestation and Europe afforestation) create new anthropogenic controls on carbon cycling and nutrient supply that have not been fully assessed. Here, we use a watershed-lake dynamics approach to investigate how human-induced land cover changes have altered nutrient transference during the last 700 years in a mediterranean coastal area (Vichuquén Lake). We compare our multiproxy reconstruction with historical documentation and use satellite images to reconstruct land use/cover changes for the last 45 years. Historical landscape changes, including those during the indigenous settlements, Spanish conquest, and the Chilean Republic up to mid-20th century did not significantly alter sediment and nutrient fluxes to the lake. In contrast, the largest changes in the lake-watershed system occurred in the mid-20th century and particularly after the 1980s–90s and were characterized by a large increase in total nitrogen and organic carbon fluxes as well as negative shifts in sediment δ15N and δ13C values. This shift was coeval with the largest land cover transformation in the Vichuquén watershed, as native forests nearly disappeared while anthropogenic tree plantations expanded up to 60% of the surface area. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.Science of the Total Environment00489697https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969721032800art148209791Thomson Reuters SCIEland use land cover change; mediterranean ecosystems; nitrogen cycle; organic geochemistry; stable isotope analyses; watershed–lake system, carbon; chile; forests; humans; lakes; nitrogen; chile; deforestation; geochemistry; image reconstruction; lakes; nitrogen; nutrients; organic carbon; reforestation; watersheds; carbon; nitrogen; organic carbon; stable isotope; carbon; nitrogen; 20th century; anthropogenics; critical threshold; land-use land-cover changes; landuse change; mediterranean ecosystem; nitrogen cycles; organic geochemistry; stable-isotope analysis; watershed–lake system; anthropogenic effect; carbon; isotopic analysis; lake dynamics; land cover; land use change; landscape change; mediterranean environment; nitrogen; organic geochemistry; stable isotope; watershed; afforestation; article; carbon dynamics; chile; chlorophyll content; deforestation; geochemical analysis; land use; nitrogen dynamics; nonhuman; nutrient; organic matter production; ph; seasonal variation; sediment; soil property; summer; vegetation; forest; human; lake; land useDepartamento de Ecología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Alameda 340, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad de Chile, Marcoleta 250, Santiago, Chile; Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, 12545, NY, United States; Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Ñuñoa, Santiago, Chile; Núcleo Milenio Paleoclima and Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Históricas y Geográficas, Universidad de Tarapacá, Sede Iquique, Chile; Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología (IPE-CSIC), Avenida Montañana, 1005, Zaragoza, 50059, Spain
The south pacific pressure trend dipole and the southern blobGARREAUD R.D.; CLEM K.; VELOSO J.V.Agua y Extremos202110.1175/JCLI-D-20-0886.1During the last four decades, the sea level pressure has been decreasing over the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Sea (ABS) region and increasing between 308 and 408S from New Zealand to Chile, thus forming a pressure trend dipole across the South Pacific. The trends are strongest in austral winter and have influenced the climate of West Antarctica and South America. The pressure trends have been attributed to decadal variability in the tropics, expansion of the Hadley cell, and an associated positive trend of the southern annular mode, but these mechanisms explain only about half of the pressure trend dipole intensity. Experiments conducted with two atmospheric models indicate that upper ocean warming over the subtropical southwest Pacific (SSWP), termed the Southern Blob, accounts for about half of the negative pressure trend in the ABS region and nearly all the ridging/drying over the eastern subtropical South Pacific, thus contributing to the central Chile megadrought. The SSWP warming intensifies the pressure trend dipole through warming the troposphere across the subtropical South Pacific and shifting the midlatitude storm track poleward into the ABS. Multidecadal periods of strong SSWP warming also appear in fully coupled preindustrial simulations, associated with a pressure trend dipole and reduction in rainfall over the central tropical Pacific, thus suggesting a natural origin of the Southern Blob and its teleconnection. However, the current warming rate exceeds the range of natural variability, implying a likely additional anthropogenic contribution. © 2021 American Meteorological Society. All rights reserved.Journal of Climate08948755https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/journals/clim/34/18/JCLI-D-20-0886.1.xml7661-767634Thomson Reuters SCIEannular mode; climate change; climate variability; general circulation models; south america; southern hemisphere, amundsen sea; bellingshausen sea; chile; new zealand; southern ocean; sea level; anthropogenic contribution; atmospheric model; decadal variability; mid-latitude storms; natural variability; negative pressures; sea level pressure; southern annular mode; annual variation; climate change; general circulation model; sea level pressure; seasonal variation; southern hemisphere; trend analysis; tropicsDepartment of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; School of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand; Climatologia, Dirección Meteorológica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Disentangling the effect of future land use strategies and climate change on streamflow in a Mediterranean catchment dominated by tree plantationsGalleguillos M.; Gimeno F.; Puelma C.; Zambrano-Bigiarini M.; Lara A.; Rojas M.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Agua y Extremos202110.1016/j.jhydrol.2021.126047Climate change (CC) along with Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) have a strong influence in water availability in already fragile Mediterranean ecosystems. In this work the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was implemented for the 2006–2018 period in a rainfed catchment of central Chile (36°) to test the hypothesis that adaptive plantation strategies could mitigate the impacts of climate change and increase streamflow. We also hypothesize that afforestation with exotic tree plantations will reduce water availability in Mediterranean catchments, acting in synergy with climate change. Five LULCC scenarios are analyzed: i) current long-term national Forest Policy (FP), ii) extreme scenario (EX) with large afforestation surfaces, both including the replacement of native shrublands with Pinus radiata; iii) adaptive plantation management scenario (FM), with lower planting density, iv) forced land displacement scenario (FLD), where plantations at the headwaters are moved to lowland areas and replaced with native shrublands, and v) pristine scenario (PR), with only native vegetation. Each LULCC scenario was run with present climate and with projections of different CMIP5 climate models under the RCP 8.5 scenario for the period 2037–2050, and then compared against simulations based on the present land cover and climate. Simulations with the five LULCC scenarios (FP, EX, FM, FLD and PR) with present climate resulted in variations of −2.5, −17.3, 0, 2.3 and 10.9% on mean annual streamflow (Q), while simulations with the current land cover and CC projections produced a 32.1% decrease in mean annual Q. The joint impact of CC and LULCC leads to changes in mean annual Q ranging from −46.2% (EX) to –23.3% (PR). Afforestation with exotic pines will intensify the reduction in water yield, while conservative scenarios focused on native forests protection and restoration could partially mitigate the effect of CC. We make a strong call to rethink current and future land management strategies to cope with lower water availability in a drier future. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.Journal of Hydrology00221694https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022169421000949art126047595Thomson Reuters SCIEexotic plantations; hydrological response; lulcc; native shrubland; sdgs; swat, mediterranean region; pinus radiata; catchments; climate models; conservation; land use; reforestation; runoff; stream flow; land use and land cover change; land-use strategies; mediterranean catchment; mediterranean ecosystem; plantation managements; protection and restoration; soil and water assessment tool; water availability; afforestation; catchment; climate change; coniferous forest; coniferous tree; land cover; land use; land use change; shrubland; soil and water assessment tool; streamflow; tree planting; climate changeDepartment of Environmental Science and Renewable Natural Resources, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile; Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Fundación Centro de los Bosques Nativos FORECOS, Valdivia, Chile; Department of Geophysics, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
Automated low-cost led-based sun photometer for city scale distributed measurementsGarrido C.; Toledo F.; Diaz M.; Rondanelli R.Zonas Costeras202110.3390/rs13224585We propose a monochromatic low-cost automatic sun photometer (LoCo-ASP) to perform distributed aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements at the city scale. This kind of network could fill the gap between current automatic ground instruments—with good temporal resolution and accuracy, but few devices per city and satellite products—with global coverage, but lower temporal resolution and accuracy-. As a first approach, we consider a single equivalent wavelength around 408 nm. The cost of materials for the instrument is around 220 dollars. Moreover, we propose a calibration transfer for a pattern instrument, and estimate the uncertainties for several units and due to the internal differences and the calibration process. We achieve a max MAE of 0.026 for 38 sensors at 408 nm compared with AERONET Cimel; a mean standard deviation of 0.0062 among our entire sensor for measurement and a calibration uncertainty of 0.01. Finally, we perform city-scale measurements to show the dynamics of AOD. Our instrument can measure unsupervised, with an expected error for AOD between 0.02 and 0.03. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Remote Sensing20724292https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/13/22/4585art458513Thomson Reuters SCIEaerosol optical depth; led-based sun photometer; network measurements, aerosols; calibration; costs; optical properties; photometers; photometry; uncertainty analysis; aerosol optical depths; city scale; distributed aerosol; distributed measurements; led-based sun photometer; low-costs; monochromatics; network measurement; sun photometers; temporal resolution; light emitting diodesSpace and Planetary Exploration Laboratory (SPEL), Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, 8370448, Chile; Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Ecole polytechnique-IP Paris, ENS-PSL Université, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Palaiseau, 91128, France; Electrical Enginering Department, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, 8370451, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, University of Chile, Santiago, 8370449, Chile
High- And low-latitude forcings drive Atacama Desert rainfall variations over the past 16,000 yearsGonzález-Pinilla F.J.; Latorre C.; Rojas M.; Houston J.; Rocuant M.I.; Maldonado A.; Santoro C.M.; Quade J.; Betancourt J.L.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.1126/sciadv.abg1333Late Quaternary precipitation dynamics in the central Andes have been linked to both high- and low-latitude atmospheric teleconnections. We use present-day relationships between fecal pellet diameters from ashy chinchilla rats (Abrocoma cinerea) and mean annual rainfall to reconstruct the timing and magnitude of pluvials (wet episodes) spanning the past 16,000 years in the Atacama Desert based on 81 14C-dated A. cinerea paleomiddens. A transient climate simulation shows that pluvials identified at 15.9 to 14.8, 13.0 to 8.6, and 8.1 to 7.6 ka B.P. can be linked to North Atlantic (high-latitude) forcing (e.g., Heinrich Stadial 1, Younger Dryas, and Bond cold events). Holocene pluvials at 5.0 to 4.6, 3.2 to 2.1, and 1.4 to 0.7 ka B.P. are not simulated, implying low-latitude internal variability forcing (i.e., ENSO regime shifts). These results help constrain future central Andean hydroclimatic variability and hold promise for reconstructing past climates from rodent middens in desert ecosystems worldwide. Copyright © 2021 The Authors, some rights reserved;Science Advances23752548https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.abg1333arteabg13337Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, climatology; rain; atacama desert; atmospheric teleconnections; central andes; forcings; high latitudes; high-low; late quaternary; low latitudes; pluvials; rainfall variation; landformsCentro UC Desierto de Atacama, Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Rocklea, Dorchester, DT2 9EN, United Kingdom; Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Universidad de La Serena, La Serena, Chile; Departamento de Biología Marina, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile; Instituto de Alta Investigación (IAI), Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile; Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States; U.S. Geological Survey, Science and Decisions Center, Reston, VA, United States
Seasonal precipitation in south-central Chile: Trends in extreme events since 1900González-Reyes Á.; Jacques-Coper M.; Muñoz A.A.Zonas Costeras; Agua y Extremos202110.20937/ATM.52871We study a regional precipitation time series built upon seven meteorological records from south-central Chile (SCC; 37°–42° S), which altogether cover the period 1900–2019. As a first objective, we investigated changes in the return period (RP) of dry (< P20) and wet (> P80) seasonal extreme events of precipitation (SEE) for each season. We observed a reduction in the RP of wet SEE during 1900–1950 in all seasons. Moreover, the dry SEE RP shows a reduction from 1950 to the present in all seasons. This phenomenon is noteworthy since 1900 for summer and winter, and since 1930 for autumn. Spring registers a constant RP value from 1990 onwards. As a second objective, we study possible relationships between seasonal precipitation variability and climate modes, such as the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the Tripole Index (TPI) of sea surface temperature (SST) over the Pacific Ocean. Summer and autumn precipitation showed a significant negative correlation with SAM activity at interannual and decadal scales, while winter and spring precipitation recorded a significant positive correlation with SST variability over multiple regions of the Pacific Ocean (including the tropics and New Zealand) and the Southern Ocean (Amundsen-Bellingshausen Sea). Finally, we confirm that SAM strongly modulates precipitation in SCC, especially in autumn, and that SEE variability in SCC is considerably associated with climate modes of tropical and extra-tropical origin. © 2021. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).Atmosfera01876236https://www.revistascca.unam.mx/atm/index.php/atm/article/view/52871371-38434Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; pacific coast [chile]; pacific coast [south america]; annual variation; climate modeling; extreme event; precipitation (climatology); regional climate; sea surface temperature; summer; trend analysis; winter, extreme seasonal precipitation events; south-central chile; southern annular mode (sam); tripole index of sea surface temperature of the pacific ocean (tpi)Hémera Centro de Observación de la Tierra, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Mayor, Camino La Pirámide 5750, Huechuraba, Santiago, 8580745, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, 2362807, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Chile; Centro de Acción Climática, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, 2362807, Chile
Unveiling Ecological and Genetic Novelty within Lytic and Lysogenic Viral Communities of Hot Spring Phototrophic Microbial MatsGuajardo-Leiva S.; Santos F.; Salgado O.; Regeard C.; Quillet L.; Díez B.Zonas Costeras202110.1128/Spectrum.00694-21Viruses exert diverse ecosystem impacts by controlling their host community through lytic predator-prey dynamics. However, the mechanisms by which lysogenic viruses influence their host-microbial community are less clear. In hot springs, lysogeny is considered an active lifestyle, yet it has not been systematically studied in all habitats, with phototrophic microbial mats (PMMs) being particularly not studied. We carried out viral metagenomics following in situ mitomycin C induction experiments in PMMs from Porcelana hot spring (Northern Patagonia, Chile). The compositional changes of viral communities at two different sites were analyzed at the genomic and gene levels. Furthermore, the presence of integrated prophage sequences in environmental metagenome-assembled genomes from published Porcelana PMM metagenomes was analyzed. Our results suggest that virus-specific replicative cycles (lytic and lysogenic) were associated with specific host taxa with different metabolic capacities. One of the most abundant lytic viral groups corresponded to cyanophages, which would infect the cyanobacteria Fischerella, the most active and dominant primary producer in thermophilic PMMs. Likewise, lysogenic viruses were related exclusively to chemoheterotrophic bacteria from the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. These temperate viruses possess accessory genes to sense or control stress-related processes in their hosts, such as sporulation and biofilm formation. Taken together, these observations suggest a nexus between the ecological role of the host (metabolism) and the type of viral lifestyle in thermophilic PMMs. This has direct implications in viral ecology, where the lysogenic- lytic switch is determined by nutrient abundance and microbial density but also by the metabolism type that prevails in the host community. © 2021 Guajardo-Leiva et al.Microbiology Spectrum21650497https://journals.asm.org/doi/abs/10.1128/Spectrum.00694-21arte00694-219Thomson Reuters SCIEcrispr; hot springs; lysogenic; lytic; phototrophic microbial mats; viral ecogenomics, bacteria; biodiversity; genetic variation; hot springs; lysogeny; metagenome; phototrophic processes; phylogeny; virus physiological phenomena; viruses; mitomycin; article; biofilm; controlled study; cyanophage; gene expression; gene sequence; lysogenization; metagenomics; microbial community; nonhuman; thermal spring; virus replication; bacterium; biodiversity; classification; genetic variation; genetics; isolation and purification; metagenome; phototrophy; phylogeny; radiation response; thermal spring; viral phenomena and functions; virology; virusDepartment of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Physiology Genetics and Microbiology, University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain; Laboratorio de Bioinformática, Facultad de Educación, Universidad Adventista de Chile, Chile; Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC), Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Laboratoire Glyco-MEV EA 4358, Université de Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan, France; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Center for Genome Regulation (CGR), Santiago, Chile
Leaf thermal and chemical properties as natural drivers of plant flammability of native and exotic tree species of the valparaíso region, chileGuerrero F.; Hernández C.; Toledo M.; Espinoza L.; Carrasco Y.; Arriagada A.; Muñoz A.; Taborga L.; Bergmann J.; Carmona C.Agua y Extremos202110.3390/ijerph18137191Forest fires are one of the main environmental threats in Chile. Fires in this Mediterranean climate region frequently affect native forests and exotic plantations, including in several cases urban and rural settlements. Considering the scarcity of information regarding the fire response dynamics of tree species that are frequently affected by fires, this study aims to establish a flammability classification according to the evolution of the fire initiation risk presented by the most affected forest species in the Valparaíso region. Three exotic species, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus radiata, and Acacia dealbata, and two native species, Cryptocarya alba and Quillaja saponaria, were studied. Flammability assays indicate that E. globulus, A. dealbata, and C. alba are extremely flammable, whereas P. radiata and Q. saponaria are flammable. Furthermore, E. globulus and A. dealbata have the highest heating values while Q. saponaria has the lowest values. The extreme flammability of E. globulus, A. dealbata, and C. alba indicates a high susceptibility to ignite. Furthermore, the high heat of combustion of E. globulus and A. dealbata can be associated with a high energy release, increasing the risk of fires spreading. In contrast, Q. saponaria has the lowest predisposition to ignite and capacity to release heat. Accordingly, this work shows that all studied tree species contain organic metabolites that are potentially flammable (sesquiterpenes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohol esters, ketones, diterpenes, and triterpenes) and can be considered as drivers of flammability in vegetation. Finally, these preliminary results will aid in the construction of more resilient landscapes in the near future. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health16617827https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/13/7191art719118Thomson Reuters ISIfire behavior; flammability; forest fire; organic metabolites; sclerophyllous species, chile; fires; forests; mediterranean region; plant leaves; trees; chile; valparaiso [chile]; acacia dealbata; cryptocarya alba; eucalyptus globulus; pinus radiata; quillaja saponaria; radiata; saponaria; alcohol derivative; alcohol ester; aliphatic hydrocarbon; diterpenoid; ketone; sesquiterpene; triterpene; unclassified drug; aliphatic hydrocarbon; fire behavior; fire management; forest fire; leaf; mediterranean environment; metabolite; physicochemical property; risk assessment; vegetation classification; acacia; acacia dealbata; article; chemical parameters; chemical property; chile; combustion; controlled study; cryptocarya alba; eucalyptus globulus; exotic species; flammability; heat; heating; landscape; metabolite; native species; nonhuman; physical chemistry; pine; pinus radiata; plant flammability; plant leaf; quillaja; quillaja saponaria; temperature; vegetation; chile; fire; forest; plant leaf; southern europe; treeDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, Valparaíso, 2390123, Chile; Forestry Department, Faculty of Forestry and Agricultural Sciences, Universidad de Pinar del Río, Calle Martí 300, Pinar del Río, CP 20100, Cuba; Institute of Geography, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Brasil 2241, Valparaíso, 2362807, Chile; Centro de Acción Climática, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Valparaíso, 2340025, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2, Santiago, 8320000, Chile; Natural Products Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, Valparaíso, 2390123, Chile; Institute of Chemistry, Science Faculty, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Universidad 330, Valparaíso, 2373223, Chile
Paving the road for electric vehicles: Lessons from a randomized experiment in an introduction stage marketGuevara C.A.; Figueroa E.; Munizaga M.A.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.tra.2021.09.011We study attitudes, perceptions, and valuations of a convenience sample of Chilean employees from an electric distribution company who applied for a subsidized electric vehicle (EV) acquisition program. The subsidy was randomly assigned among the interested applicants. We use this data in an experiment to assess the impact that being a user, or a non-user of an EV has on the factors under study, using focus groups and a stated preference (SP) experiment. In the focus groups, users mentioned relatively more benefits and barriers of EVs, while non-users spontaneously stated that a limited charging network at the urban level could be an issue. The SP survey suggested that being a user did not trigger a change in environmental attitudes; on the other hand, it significantly boosted perceptions of maintenance costs and driving range. Additionally, discrete choice models estimated from the SP data suggested a possibly null willingness to pay for urban charging infrastructure, expressed as a percentage of current gas stations, among the user group. We discuss possible policy implications that can be inferred from this analysis, considering the size and source limitations of the available sample. © 2021 Elsevier LtdTransportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice09658564https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S096585642100241X326-340153Thomson Reuters SCIE, SSCIelectric vehicle; randomized experiment; stated preferences, chile; public policy; acquisition programmes; driving range; electric distribution company; environmental attitudes; focus groups; group users; maintenance cost; randomized experiments; stated preference surveys; stated preferences; electric vehicle; experimental study; perception; public attitude; subsidy system; survey; valuation; willingness to pay; electric vehiclesDepartamento de Ingeniería Civil, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Instituto Sistemas Complejos de Ingeniería (ISCI), Chile; CIS Asociados Consultores en Transporte S.A, Chile
The last glacial termination in northwestern Patagonia viewed from the Lago Fonk (∼40°S) recordHenríquez C.A.; Moreno P.I.; Dunbar R.B.; Mucciarone D.A.Agua y Extremos202110.1016/j.quascirev.2021.107197The anatomy of the Last Glacial Termination (T1) in the southern mid-latitudes, and its relationship with changes in the Southern Westerly Winds (SWW), offers empirical constraints for understanding the mechanisms involved in the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum into the current interglacial. Northwestern Patagonia (40°-44°S) is a sensitive region for monitoring past changes in the SWW, the Patagonian Ice Sheet, terrestrial ecosystems, and fire regimes through T1. Here we present results from Lago Fonk (∼40°S) to examine the structure of T1 based on the palynological, macroscopic charcoal, elemental, and isotopic composition of organic lake sediments. We observe an instantaneous establishment of Nothofagus-dominated forests at the onset of T1, followed by a diversification and densification trend that culminated with the establishment of thermophilous, Myrtaceae-dominated North Patagonian rainforests between ∼15.6–14.7 cal ka BP. The expansion of the conifer Podocarpus nubigena marks a shift to cool-temperate and hyperhumid conditions, coeval with high lake levels and enhanced algal productivity between ∼14.7–11.9 cal ka BP. Stand-replacing fires, driven by enhanced seasonality or high-frequency rainfall variability, started at ∼12.4 cal ka BP and catalyzed the rapid spread of Weinmannia trichosperma. Subsequent warming and a decline in precipitation at ∼11.4 cal ka BP led to intense fire activity, lake-level lowering, and establishment of the Valdivian rainforest trees Eucryphia/Caldcluvia. Our results suggest a coherent linkage between changes documented in the amphi south Pacific region and Antarctic ice cores during T1. This implies a zonal and hemispheric response to changes in the position/intensity of the SWW that emphasizes their central role as a key driver of the hemispheric and global climate evolution through T1. © 2021 Elsevier LtdQuaternary Science Reviews02773791https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0277379121004042art107197271Thomson Reuters SCIElake sediment cores; last glacial termination; multi-proxy indexes; patagonia; southern westerly winds, patagonia; coniferophyta; eucryphia; myrtaceae; nothofagus; podocarpus nubigenus; weinmannia trichosperma; fires; forestry; glacial geology; lakes; 'current; lake levels; lake sediment cores; last glacial maximum; last glacial terminations; midlatitudes; multi proxies; multi-proxy index; patagonia; southern westerly winds; catalysis; catalyst; global climate; ice core; last glacial maximum; palynology; rainforest; warming; westerly; charcoalMillennium Nucleus Paleoclimate, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate Research and Resilience, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States
The role of climate and disturbance regimes upon temperate rainforests during the Holocene: A stratigraphic perspective from Lago Fonk (∼40°S), northwestern PatagoniaHenríquez C.A.; Moreno P.I.; Lambert F.; Alloway B.V.Ciudades Resilientes; Agua y Extremos202110.1016/j.quascirev.2021.106890Climate and disturbance regimes play key roles in shaping the structure, composition and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Despite this importance, very few stratigraphic studies in the temperate rainforests from northwestern Patagonia have explored this relationship in detail along a time continuum through the entire Holocene. Here we present a high-resolution fossil pollen and charcoal record from Lago Fonk (median resolution: 20 years), a small closed-basin lake in the lowlands of the Chilean Lake District (41°S), where wildfires and explosive volcanism have intermittently taken place during the Holocene, along with pronounced human-induced disturbance in post-colonial time. Our results show persistence of temperate rainforest throughout the Holocene, with changes in the composition and structure of Valdivian rainforests (VRF) at millennial timescales. We detect centennial-scale alternations in dominance between the VRF tree Eucryphia/Caldcluvia and generalist trees found in VRF and North Patagonian rainforests after ∼6.5 cal ka BP. Intervals dominated by VRF coincide with enhanced fire occurrence signaling negative hydroclimate anomalies with a mean duration of ∼150 years, which alternate with positive hydroclimate anomalies lasting ∼312 years on average. Our results suggest that the magnitude and rapidity of vegetation changes detected at 10.2–9.9, 4.0–3.0, ∼1.0, and ∼0.7 cal ka BP were amplified by disturbance regimes, and led to the establishment and maintenance of Eucryphia/Caldcluvia-dominated forests in the Longitudinal Valley of the Chilean Lake District. On several occasions the higher incidence of fire disturbance during warm/dry climate intervals coincided with episodes of heightened explosive volcanic activity from multiple eruptive centers within the Southern Andean Volcanic Zone. © 2021 Elsevier LtdQuaternary Science Reviews02773791https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0277379121000974art106890258Thomson Reuters SCIEcentennial/millennial-scale variability; explosive volcanism; fire disturbance; lake sediment cores; pollen analysis, chile; cumbria; england; lake district; longitudinal valley; patagonia; taiwan; united kingdom; eucryphia; charcoal; explosives; fires; forestry; stratigraphy; volcanoes; centennial/millennial-scale variability; climate regime; disturbance regime; explosive volcanism; fire disturbance; holocenes; lake sediment cores; patagonia; pollen analysis; temperate rainforest; charcoal; climate variation; disturbance; explosive volcanism; fossil record; holocene; rainforest; stratigraphy; temperate forest; vegetation dynamics; lakesMillennium Nucleus Paleoclimate, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate Research and Resilience, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; School of Environment, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand
Estimating coastal flood hazard of Tossa de Mar, Spain: a combined model – data interviews approachHernandez-Mora M.; Meseguer-Ruiz O.; Karas C.; Lambert F.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1007/s11069-021-04914-3Human settlements in coastal areas are highly vulnerable to extreme events, especially in the Mediterranean area, which houses a large number of tourists during the summer and autumn months. It is important to carry out hazard studies at local scale to improve our understanding of natural and anthropogenic processes involved in episodes of coastal flooding. We reconstruct and characterize an extreme weather event in Tossa de Mar (northeastern Spain) and the subsequent urban flooding that occurred in 2008. Our results show flood heights up to 1.27 m, with the maximum occurring between 24 and 64 h after the start of the event. This is broadly consistent with the reconstructions obtained through interviews and photographs. Based on model simulations, we produce a hazard map for the town based on hydrodynamic scenarios for different return periods. We show that the southern part of the town is more susceptible to flooding, whereas the northern part is relatively resilient to extreme events. We recommend the adaption of a currently existing dune by adding vegetation and slightly increasing its height. This low economic cost action would significantly reduce flooding and increase resilience in this area. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.Natural Hazards0921030Xhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11069-021-04914-32153-2171109Thomson Reuters SCIEcoastal flood; hazard index; lisflood-fp; mediterranean sea; northeast spain; risk management, catalonia; gerona [catalonia]; spain; tossa de mar; coastal zone; estimation method; extreme event; flooding; hazard assessment; human settlement; seasonal variation; vulnerabilityPrograma de Doctorado en Geografía, Instituto de Geografía, Facultad de Historia, Geografía Y Ciencia Política, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto Milenio en Socio-Ecología Costera (SECOS), Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Históricas Y Geográficas, Universidad de Tarapacá, Iquique, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Geográfica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Millennium Nucleus Paleoclimate, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
Diversifying Chile's climate action away from industrial plantationsHoyos-Santillan J.; Miranda A.; Lara A.; Sepulveda-Jauregui A.; Zamorano-Elgueta C.; Gómez-González S.; Vásquez-Lavín F.; Garreaud R.D.; Rojas M.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Agua y Extremos202110.1016/j.envsci.2021.06.013As president of the Climate Change Conference of the Parties, Chile has advocated for developing ambitious commitments to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions to achieve carbon-neutrality by 2050. However, Chile's motivations and ambitious push to reach carbon-neutrality are complicated by a backdrop of severe drought, climate change impacts (i.e., wildfires, tree mortality), and the use of industrial plantations as a mitigation strategy. This has become more evident as widespread and severe wildfires have impacted large areas of industrial plantations, transforming the land-use, land-use change, and forestry sector from a carbon sink to a net carbon source. Consequently, Chile must diversify its climate actions to achieve carbon-neutrality. Nature-based solutions, including wetlands-peatlands and oceans, represent alternative climate actions that can be implemented to tackle greenhouse gas emissions at a national level. Diversification, however, must guarantee Chile's long-term carbon sequestration capacity without compromising the ecological functionality of biodiverse tree-less habitats and native forest ecosystems. © 2021 Elsevier LtdEnvironmental Science and Policy14629011https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S146290112100173885-89124Thomson Reuters SCIEcarbon; biodiversity; building; carbon footprint; carbon sequestration; carbon sink; carbon source; chile; climate; climate change; drought; electric power plant; energy yield; forest; forestry; housing; land use; note; peatland; plantation; sea; tree; wetland; wildfire, carbon neutrality; climate action; native forest; nature-based solutions; net-zero; wildfiresSchool of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Loughborough, United Kingdom; Metropolitan Region, Santiago, Chile; Network for Extreme Environments Research, Universidad de La Frontera, La Araucanía, Temuco, Chile; Environmental Biogeochemistry in Extreme Ecosystems Laboratory, University of Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Magallanes, Chile; Laboratorio de Ecología del Paisaje y Conservación, Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de La Frontera, La Araucanía, Temuco, Chile; Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Los Ríos, Chile; Fundación Centro de los Bosques Nativos-FORECOS, Valdivia, Los Ríos, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Tecnología, Universidad de Aysén, Aysén, Coyhaique, Chile; Departamento de Biología-IVAGRO, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain; Center for Fire and Socioecological Systems (FireSES), Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Los Ríos, Chile; School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo, Metropolitan Region, Santiago, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Metropolitan Region, Santiago, Chile; Geophysics Department, University of Chile, Metropolitan Region, Santiago, Chile
Daily and seasonal variation of the surface temperature lapse rate and 0°C isotherm height in the western subtropical AndesIbañez M.; Gironás J.; Oberli C.; Chadwick C.; Garreaud R.D.Agua y Extremos202110.1002/joc.6743The spatial distribution of surface air temperatures is essential for understanding and modelling high-relief environments. Good estimations of the surface temperature lapse rate (STLR) and the 0°C isotherm height (H0) are fundamental for hydrological modelling in mountainous basins. Although STLR changes in space and time, it is typically assumed to be constant leading to errors in the estimation of direct-runoff volumes and flash-floods risk assessment. This paper characterizes daily and seasonal temporal variations of the in-situ STLR and H0 over the western slope of the subtropical Andes (central Chile). We use temperature data collected during 2 years every 10 min by a 16 sensors network in a small catchment with elevations ranging between 700 and 3,250 m. The catchment drains directly into Santiago, the Chilean capital with more than seven million inhabitants. Resulting values are compared against those obtained using off-site, operational data sets. Significant intra- and inter-day variations of the in-situ STLR were found, likely reflecting changes in the low-level temperature inversion during dry conditions. The annual average in-situ STLR is −5.9°C/km during wet-weather conditions. Furthermore, STLR and H0 estimations using off-site gauges are extremely sensitive to the existence of gauging stations at high elevations. © 2020 Royal Meteorological SocietyInternational Journal of Climatology08998418https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/joc.6743E980-E99941Thomson Reuters SCIE0°c isotherm; high density sensor network; mountains; temperature lapse rate; warm events, andes; chile; catchments; floods; isotherms; risk assessment; risk perception; runoff; surface properties; tropics; hydrological modelling; inter-day variations; mountainous basins; seasonal variation; surface air temperatures; surface temperatures; temperature inversions; temporal variation; diurnal variation; mountain environment; mountain region; seasonal variation; sensor; surface temperature; warming; atmospheric temperature, chileDepartamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Investigación para la Gestión Integrada del Riesgo de Desastres, CONICYT/FONDAP/15110017, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Desarrollo Urbano Sustentable, CONICYT/FONDAP/15110020, Santiago, Chile; Centro Interdisciplinario de Cambio Global, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y de la Conservación de la Naturaleza, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Intraseasonal teleconnections leading to heat waves in central ChileJacques-Coper M.; Veloso-Aguila D.; Segura C.; Valencia A.Zonas Costeras202110.1002/joc.7096The ability to anticipate meteorological extreme events beyond the synoptic range of ~1 week offers direct applications, for example, to limit their ecological and socioeconomical impacts. This study focuses on precursors of summer (December–February, DJF) warm events, particularly heat waves, in central Chile (CCh), which are typically induced by low-level anticyclonic anomalies located to the south of this region. Considering that such atmospheric configuration can be part of a large-scale wave-train circulation pattern located upstream of CCh, we investigate signals that might provide guidance concerning the genesis of warm events in CCh. For a historical period (DJF 1872–2010) based on the 20th century reanalysis version 2 (20CR), our results present teleconnections that indicate higher probabilities of occurrence of such warm events with respect to expected climatological values. These signals can be monitored at least ~2 weeks in advance. Specifically, we explore the relationship between warm events in CCh and (a) the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) as a tropical source of variability, and (b) an extra-tropical index (ETI), representative of the internal dynamics of the Southern Hemipshere mid-latitudes, presented as an original contribution from this study following a novel approach. Both signals, and apparently their constructive superposition, seem to contribute to the organization of the large-scale circulation anomalies leading ultimately to heat waves in CCh. We confirm these results for recent decades (DJF 1981–2020) using temperature observations and further data sets, namely the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis (NNR) and the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis versions 1 and 2 (CFSR and CFSv2, respectively). Finally, we describe three recent heat wave events in CCh (DJF 2019–2020) to illustrate the suitability of this conceptualization. © 2021 Royal Meteorological SocietyInternational Journal of Climatology08998418https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.70964712-473141Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; tropics; anticyclonic anomalies; circulation patterns; historical periods; large-scale circulation; madden-julian oscillation; meteorological extremes; provide guidances; temperature observations; atmospheric circulation; extreme event; heat wave; seasonal variation; teleconnection; temperature effect; weather forecasting; climatology, chile; extreme events; forecast; heat waves; south america; teleconnections; temperatureDepartamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
Road traffic noise on the santa marta city tourist routeJiménez-Uribe D.A.; Daniels D.; Fleming Z.L.; Vélez-Pereira A.M.Ciudades Resilientes202110.3390/app11167196The objective of this study was to determine the influence of vehicular traffic on the environmental noise levels of the Santa Marta City tourist route on the Colombian coast. An analysis of vehicle types and frequencies at various times of the day over nearly a year helped to track the main sources of environmental noise pollution. Five sampling points were selected, which were distributed over 12 km, with three classified as peripheral urban and two as suburban. The average traffic flow was 966 vehicles/h and was mainly composed of automobiles, with higher values in the peripheral urban area. The noise level was 103.3 dBA, with background and peak levels of 87.2 and 107.3 dBA, respectively. The noise level was higher during the day; however, there were no differences between weekdays and weekends. The results from the analysis of variance showed that the number of vehicles and the noise levels varied greatly according to the time of day and sampling point location. The peak and mean noise levels were correlated with the number of automobiles, buses and heavy vehicles. The mean noise levels were similar at all sample points despite the traffic flow varying, and the background noise was only correlated for automobiles (which varied much more than the heavy vehicles between day and night). © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Applied Sciences (Switzerland)20763417https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/11/16/7196art719611Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, acoustic pollution; analysis of variance; field measurements; freeway; traffic flow dynamicsEnvironmental System Modeling Research Group, Universidad del Magdalena, Santa Marta, 470004, Colombia; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Facultad de Ciencias, Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Envirohealth Dynamics Lab, C+ Research Center in Technologies for Society, School of Engineering, Universidad Del Desarrollo, Santiago, 7550000, Chile; Centro de Investigación en Ecosistemas de la Patagonia (CIEP), ECO-Climático, Coyhaique, 5951369, Chile
Regional patterns and temporal evolution of ocean iron fertilization and CO2 drawdown during the last glacial terminationLambert F.; Opazo N.; Ridgwell A.; Winckler G.; Lamy F.; Shaffer G.; Kohfeld K.; Ohgaito R.; Albani S.; Abe-Ouchi A.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.epsl.2020.116675The last time Earth's climate experienced geologically rapid global warming was associated with the last glacial termination, when atmospheric CO2 concentrations rose from 180 ppmv during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 26-19 kaBP) to ∼260 ppmv by the early Holocene (12-8 kaBP). About one quarter of that difference is thought to be due to a stronger biological pump during glacial times, driven by increased aeolian dust deposition and hence greater iron availability in ocean surface waters. However, dust supply did not change uniformly or in synchrony over the deglacial transition and what is not known is the relative importance of different oceanic regions and how this may have changed in time. Using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity, we quantify the sensitivity of atmospheric CO2 to regional changes in iron supply, and test six different global dust reconstructions in order to explore uncertainty in past dust changes. We confirm the Southern Ocean (>34°S) as the region most sensitive to iron fertilization, with the Atlantic and Pacific sectors accounting for about 41±23% and 16±10%, respectively, of the total CO2 reduction from global iron fertilization. However, the North Pacific contributes 28±3% to the total implying an important role for Northern Hemisphere processes in driving deglacial CO2 rise. In addition, our analysis reveals an unexpected regional-temporal disparity, and while Southern Hemisphere iron fertilization influences atmospheric CO2 relatively constantly throughout the termination the impact of the Northern Hemisphere only occurs during the later stages of the termination. © 2020 The Author(s)Earth and Planetary Science Letters0012821Xhttps://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0012821X20306191art116675554Thomson Reuters SCIEco2; dust; iron fertilization; paleoclimate; termination, biology; carbon dioxide; dust; earth (planet); glacial geology; global warming; surface waters; co2 concentration; earth system model of intermediate complexity; iron fertilization; last glacial maximum; last glacial terminations; northern hemispheres; southern hemisphere; temporal evolution; carbon dioxide; dust; global warming; iron; last glacial maximum; northern hemisphere; paleoclimate; reconstruction; temporal evolution; ironDepartment of Physical Geography, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Chile; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Riverside, United States; Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, 10964, NY, United States; Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, 27570, Germany; Research Center GAIA Antarctica, University of Magallanes, Chile; Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University, Canada; School of Environmental Science, Simon Fraser University, Canada; Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, 236-0001, Japan; Department of Environmental and Earth Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Italy; Atmosphere Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8564, Chiba, Japan
Streamflow response to native forest restoration in former Eucalyptus plantations in south central ChileLara A.; Jones J.; Little C.; Vergara N.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.1002/hyp.14270Global increases in intensive forestry have raised concerns about forest plantation effects on water, but few studies have tested the effects of plantation forest removal and native forest restoration on catchment hydrology. We describe results of a 14-year paired watershed experiment on ecological restoration in south central Chile which documents streamflow response to the early stages of native forest restoration, after clearcutting of plantations of exotic fast-growing Eucalyptus, planting of native trees, and fostering natural regeneration of native temperate rainforest species. Precipitation, streamflow, and vegetation were measured starting in 2006 in four small (3 to 5 ha) catchments with Eucalyptus globulus plantations and native riparian buffers in the Valdivian Coastal Reserve. Mean annual precipitation is 2500 mm, of which 11% occurs in summer. Streamflow increased, and increases persisted, throughout the first 9 years of vigorous native forest regeneration (2011 to 2019). Annual streamflow increased by 40% to >100% in most years and >150% in fall and summer of some years. Streamflow was 50% to 100% lower than before treatment in two dry summers. Base flow increased by 28% to 87% during the restoration period compared to pre-treatment, and remained elevated in later years despite low summer precipitation. Overall, these findings indicate that removal of Eucalyptus plantations immediately increased streamflow, and native forest restoration gradually restored deep soil moisture reservoirs that sustain base flow during dry periods, increasing water ecosystem services. To our knowledge this is the first study to assess catchment streamflow response to native forest restoration in former forest plantations. Therefore, the results of this study are relevant to global efforts to restore native forest ecosystems on land currently intensively managed with fast-growing forest plantations and may inform policy and decision-making in areas experiencing a drying trend associated with climate change. © 2021 John Wiley & Sons LtdHydrological Processes08856087https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hyp.14270arte1427035Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; coastal cordillera; los rios [chile]; valdivian coastal range; eucalyptus; eucalyptus globulus; aerodynamics; climate change; decision making; ecosystems; hydrogeology; reforestation; reservoirs (water); restoration; runoff; soil moisture; stream flow; ecological restoration; eucalyptus globulus; eucalyptus plantations; fast growing forests; mean annual precipitation; natural regeneration; summer precipitation; temperate rainforest; baseflow; catchment; climate change; ecosystem service; evergreen tree; forest ecosystem; plantation forestry; rainforest; restoration ecology; conservation, base flow; climate change; ecological restoration; ecosystem services; paired-catchment experiment; valdivian rainforestInstituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Fundación Centro de los Bosques Nativos FORECOS, Valdivia, Chile; Geography, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States; Instituto Forestal de Chile, Fundo Teja Norte S/N, Valdivia, Chile
Economic value of biodiversity conservation: The case of the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park; [Valor económico de la conservación de la biodiversidad: el caso del Parque Nacional Yanachaga-Chemillén]Lavado-Solis K.; Orihuela C.E.; Vásquez-Lavín F.; Dávila J.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.7201/earn.2021.02.05The present study determined the willingness to pay for the conservation of the biodiversity (WTP) of the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park (YChNP), applying the contingent valuation method, in hypothetical scenarios of conserving 6, 9 or 12 species that guaranteed protection of 50 % of the functionality of the ecosystems of this place. It was found that the WTP was determined by the functional characteristics that key species play in the resilience of the PNYCh ecosystems. For this reason, similar studies should evaluate the option of preferring the use of functionality instead of indicators based, for example, on the number of species © 2021. Economia Agraria y Recursos Naturales.All Rights ReservedEconomia Agraria y Recursos Naturales15780732https://polipapers.upv.es/index.php/EARN/article/view/earn.2021.02.05101-12021Thomson Reuters ESCIUniversidad Científica del Sur, Lima, Peru; Universidad Nacional Agraria, La Molina, Lima, Peru; Facultad de Economía y Planificación, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Peru; Circulo de Investigacion Economía de los Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente, CIERNA, Peru; School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo, Concepcion, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability, Capes, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, CR2, Santiago, Chile; Esan Graduate School Of Business, Lima, Peru
Temperature differently affected methanogenic pathways and microbial communities in sub-Antarctic freshwater ecosystemsLavergne C.; Aguilar-Muñoz P.; Calle N.; Thalasso F.; Astorga-España M.S.; Sepulveda-Jauregui A.; Martinez-Cruz K.; Gandois L.; Mansilla A.; Chamy R.; Barret M.; Cabrol L.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.1016/j.envint.2021.106575Freshwater ecosystems are responsible for an important part of the methane (CH4) emissions which are likely to change with global warming. This study aims to evaluate temperature-induced (from 5 to 20 °C) changes on microbial community structure and methanogenic pathways in five sub-Antarctic lake sediments from Magallanes strait to Cape Horn, Chile. We combined in situ CH4 flux measurements, CH4 production rates (MPRs), gene abundance quantification and microbial community structure analysis (metabarcoding of the 16S rRNA gene). Under unamended conditions, a temperature increase of 5 °C doubled MPR while microbial community structure was not affected. Stimulation of methanogenesis by methanogenic precursors as acetate and H2/CO2, resulted in an increase of MPRs up to 127-fold and 19-fold, respectively, as well as an enrichment of mcrA-carriers strikingly stronger under acetate amendment. At low temperatures, H2/CO2-derived MPRs were considerably lower (down to 160-fold lower) than the acetate-derived MPRs, but the contribution of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis increased with temperature. Temperature dependence of MPRs was significantly higher in incubations spiked with H2/CO2 (c. 1.9 eV) compared to incubations spiked with acetate or unamended (c. 0.8 eV). Temperature was not found to shape the total microbial community structure, that rather exhibited a site-specific variability among the studied lakes. However, the methanogenic archaeal community structure was driven by amended methanogenic precursors with a dominance of Methanobacterium in H2/CO2-based incubations and Methanosarcina in acetate-based incubations. We also suggested the importance of acetogenic H2-production outcompeting hydrogenotrohic methanogenesis especially at low temperatures, further supported by homoacetogen proportion in the microcosm communities. The combination of in situ-, and laboratory-based measurements and molecular approaches indicates that the hydrogenotrophic pathway may become more important with increasing temperatures than the acetoclastic pathway. In a continuously warming environment driven by climate change, such issues are crucial and may receive more attention. © 2021 The AuthorsEnvironment International01604120https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0160412021002002art106575154Thomson Reuters SCIEribosomal, 16s; temperature; cape horn; chile; horn island [wollaston islands]; magallanes; magellan strait; tierra del fuego [(isg) south america]; wollaston islands; archaea; methanobacterium; methanosarcina; bacteria; ecosystems; genes; hydrogen production; lakes; methane; rna; temperature distribution; water; ammonia; dissolved oxygen; genomic dna; nitrate; nitrite; rna 16s; sulfate; fresh water; rna 16s; 16s rrna amplicon; archaeon; ch$-4$; freshwater ecosystem; lows-temperatures; methanogenesis; methanogenic pathways; microbial communities; microbial community structures; production rates; climate change; climate effect; community structure; environmental disturbance; freshwater ecosystem; global warming; lacustrine deposit; limnology; methanogenesis; methanogenic bacterium; microbial community; rna; subantarctic region; temperature effect; altitude; amplicon; article; bacterial gene; bacteroidia; bioaccumulation; chile; chloroflexi; climate change; community structure; controlled study; deltaproteobacteria; dna extraction; freshwater environment; gammaproteobacteria; high throughput sequencing; limit of detection; limit of quantitation; mcra gene; methanobacterium; methanogenesis; methanosarcina; microbial biomass; microbial community; microbial diversity; nonhuman; physical chemistry; population abundance; rna sequencing; sediment; thermodynamics; water temperature; antarctica; genetics; microflora; temperature; global warming, antarctic regions; chile; fresh water; microbiota; rna, 16s rrna amplicons; archaea; bacteria; global warming; limnology; methaneHUB AMBIENTAL UPLA, Laboratory of Aquatic Environmental Research, Centro de Estudios Avanzados, Universidad de Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile; Escuela de Ingeniería Bioquímica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Brasil 2085, Valparaíso, 2340950, Chile; Departamento de Química, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav-IPN), Departamento de Biotecnología y Bioingeniería, México, DF, Mexico; Departamento de Ciencias y Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; ENBEELAB, University of Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Laboratoire Écologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse, France; Aix-Marseille University, Univ Toulon, CNRS, IRD, M.I.O. UM 110, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography, Marseille, France; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity IEB, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Climate and Land Cover Trends Affecting Freshwater Inputs to a Fjord in Northwestern PatagoniaLeón-Muñoz J.; Aguayo R.; Marcé R.; Catalán N.; Woelfl S.; Nimptsch J.; Arismendi I.; Contreras C.; Soto D.; Miranda A.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.3389/fmars.2021.628454Freshwater inputs strongly influence oceanographic conditions in coastal systems of northwestern Patagonia (41–45°S). Nevertheless, the influence of freshwater on these systems has weakened in recent decades due to a marked decrease in precipitation. Here we evaluate potential influences of climate and land cover trends on the Puelo River (640 m3s–1), the main source of freshwater input of the Reloncaví Fjord (41.5°S). Water quality was analyzed along the Puelo River basin (six sampling points) and at the discharge site in the Reloncaví Fjord (1, 8, and 25 m depth), through six field campaigns carried out under contrasting streamflow scenarios. We also used several indicators of hydrological alteration, and cross-wavelet transform and coherence analyses to evaluate the association between the Puelo River streamflow and precipitation (1950–2019). Lastly, using the WEAP hydrological model, land cover maps (2001–2016) and burned area reconstructions (1985–2019), we simulated future land cover impacts (2030) on the hydrological processes of the Puelo River. Total Nitrogen and total phosphorus, dissolved carbon, and dissolved iron concentrations measured in the river were 3–15 times lower than those in the fjord. Multivariate analyses showed that streamflow drives the carbon composition in the river. High streamflow conditions contribute with humic and colored materials, while low streamflow conditions corresponded to higher arrival of protein-like materials from the basin. The Puelo River streamflow showed significant trends in magnitude (lower streamflow in summer and autumn), duration (minimum annual streamflow), timing (more floods in spring), and frequency (fewer prolonged floods). The land cover change (LCC) analysis indicated that more than 90% of the basin area maintained its land cover, and that the main changes were attributed to recent large wildfires. Considering these land cover trends, the hydrological simulations project a slight increase in the Puelo River streamflow mainly due to a decrease in evapotranspiration. According to previous simulations, these projections present a direction opposite to the trends forced by climate change. The combined effect of reduction in freshwater input to fiords and potential decline in water quality highlights the need for more robust data and robust analysis of the influence of climate and LCC on this river-fjord complex of northwestern Patagonia. © Copyright © 2021 León-Muñoz, Aguayo, Marcé, Catalán, Woelfl, Nimptsch, Arismendi, Contreras, Soto and Miranda.Frontiers in Marine Science22967745https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2021.628454/fullart6284548Thomson Reuters SCIEclimate change; hydrological modeling; land cover change; land-ocean interface; patagonia; water quality, nanDepartamento de Química Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Centro Interdisciplinario para la Investigación Acuícola (INCAR), Concepción, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales, Centro EULA, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, Girona, Spain; Universitat de Girona, Giona, Spain; United States Geological Survey, Boulder, CO, United States; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement, LSCE, CEA, CNRS, UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Ciencias Marinas y Limnológicas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Department of Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States; Departamento de Ingeniería Civil y Ambiental, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Concepción, Chile; Laboratorio de Ecología del Paisaje y, Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de La Frontera, Conservación, Temuco, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Santiago, Chile
The 2019 southern hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex weakening and its impactsLim E.-P.; Hendon H.H.; Butler A.H.; Thompson D.W.J.; Lawrence Z.D.; Scaife A.A.; Shepherd T.G.; Polichtchouk I.; Nakamura H.; Kobayashi C.; Comer R.; Coy L.; Dowdy A.; Garreaud R.D.; Newman P.A.; Wang G.Agua y Extremos202110.1175/BAMS-D-20-0112.1This study offers an overview of the low-frequency (i.e., monthly to seasonal) evolution, dynamics, predictability, and surface impacts of a rare Southern Hemisphere (SH) stratospheric warming that occurred in austral spring 2019. Between late August and mid-September 2019, the stratospheric circumpolar westerly jet weakened rapidly, and Antarctic stratospheric temperatures rose dramatically. The deceleration of the vortex at 10 hPa was as drastic as that of the first-ever-observed major sudden stratospheric warming in the SH during 2002, while the mean Antarctic warming over the course of spring 2019 broke the previous record of 2002 by ∼50% in the midstratosphere. This event was preceded by a poleward shift of the SH polar night jet in the uppermost stratosphere in early winter, which was then followed by record-strong planetary wave-1 activity propagating upward from the troposphere in August that acted to dramatically weaken the polar vortex throughout the depth of the stratosphere. The weakened vortex winds and elevated temperatures moved downward to the surface from mid-October to December, promoting a record strong swing of the southern annular mode (SAM) to its negative phase. This record-negative SAM appeared to be a primary driver of the extreme hot and dry conditions over subtropical eastern Australia that accompanied the severe wildfires that occurred in late spring 2019. State-of-the-art dynamical seasonal forecast systems skillfully predicted the significant vortex weakening of spring 2019 and subsequent development of negative SAM from as early as late July. © 2021 American Meteorological Society.Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society00030007https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/journals/bams/102/6/BAMS-D-20-0112.1.xmlE1150-E1171102Thomson Reuters SCIEsprings (components); elevated temperature; seasonal forecasts; southern annular mode; southern hemisphere; stratospheric polar vortex; stratospheric temperature; stratospheric warmings; sudden stratospheric warming; vortex flow, antarctic oscillation; climate prediction; extreme events; planetary waves; stratosphere-troposphere coupling; stratospheric circulationBureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Australia; NOAA/Chemical Sciences Laboratory, Boulder, CO, United States; Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United States; CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States; NOAA/Physical Sciences Laboratory, Boulder, CO, United States; Met Office Hadley Centre, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom; College of Engineering Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom; Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom; European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom; Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Meteorological Research Institute, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tsukuba, Japan; Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, United States; Science Systems and Applications Inc., Lanham, MD, United States; Department of Geophysics, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
Multilevel business power in environmental politics: the avocado boom and water scarcity in ChileMadariaga A.; Maillet A.; Rozas J.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.1080/09644016.2021.1892981The production and export of avocados in Chile have experienced explosive growth since the 1990s, severely threatening local communities’ human right to water. Despite contentious activities and protest, there has been scant reaction from public authorities and policy continues to strongly support avocado exports. We explain this by analyzing the role that business plays in water politics and the different means it has to counter the search for political influence by aggrieved communities. We argue that the outcome is a product of the multilevel deployment of business power. Based on quantitative and qualitative data, we use process tracing methods to unveil business power mechanisms at the local, national and international levels and their connections. We contribute to the cross-fertilization of business power analyses in comparative political economy and environmental politics, and to the understanding of the under-researched multilevel dynamics of business power and the related politics of scale shift. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.Environmental Politics09644016https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09644016.2021.18929811174-119530Thomson Reuters SSCIbusiness power; chile; multilevel analysis; scale shift; water politics, chile; persea americana; environmental politics; export; fruit; political economy; political integration; resource scarcity; water resourceSchool of Political Science, Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago, Chile; Centre for Economics and Social Policy (CEAS, Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Public Affairs (INAP, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Conflict, territory and extractivism in Chile. Contributions and limits of recent academic production; [Conflicto, territorio y extractivismo en Chile. Aportes y límites de la producción académica reciente]Maillet A.; Allain M.; Delamaza G.; Irarrazabal F.; Rivas R.; Stamm C.; Viveros K.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.4067/S0718-34022021000300059This article analyzes the academic production that addresses the concepts of conflict, territory and extractivism in Chile. The analysis of 32 articles published in indexed journals between 2015 and 2020 accounts for a significant concern for this issue. We characterize this stage in this body of work in relation to its treatment of the different concepts, as well as the methods used, the actors studied, and the scales considered. This academic production appears marked by a routinization, both regarding the conceptual deployment and in the predominance of case studies. In order to maintain the dynamism of this field, we invite to take into consideration the theoretical depth of each concept, diversify the methods and broaden the objects of research. © 2021, Revista de Geografia Norte Grande. All rights reserved.Revista de Geografia Norte Grande03798682http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0718-34022021000300059&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es59-802021Thomson Reuters SCIE, SSCIchile; conflicts; extractivism; scales; territory, chile; conceptual framework; conflict management; natural resource; territory; theoretical studyInstituto de Asuntos Públicos, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Instituto de altos estudios de América latina (IHEAL), Centro de investigación y de documentación sobre las Américas (CREDA), Paris Sorbonne Nouvelle, France; CEDER Universidad de Los Lagos, Chile; Instituto de Estudios Urbanos y Territoriales, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Magíster en Ciencia Política de la Universidad de Chile, Chile
Global resilience models and territories of the South. A critical reviewMarin J.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102541The resilience of cities, regions and other territorial scales is defined by various conceptual frameworks and has since the 2000s constituted a growing scientific and technical field. Although literature points out the difficulty of implementing such a vague and ambiguous concept, a range of metrics, methodological frameworks and principles have emerged, using tools like composite indicators, qualitative assessment or stochastic modelling. Among these models some have been applied globally over the last ten years, for e.g. the City Resilience Framework developed for the 100 Resilient Cities network. This article proposes a discussion of these global resilience models in order to contribute to our understanding of how they are constructed, how they function, and their potential to transform territories. By using literature review and qualitative content analysis, four axes of inquiry are developed: translations and adaptations of the notion of resilience within hegemonic networks; socio-technical markers of resilience models; resilience as a device of neoliberal governmentality; the position of Latin America within the production of knowledge concerning resilience. This manuscript main contribution is to put into question some gaps or biases in our scientific outputs and models that we might be reproducing or legitimating, and that are worth cross-examine. Three key findings are: Evidenced biases in disciplinary associations of resilience; Evidenced gaps in using closed-form of modelling resilience that invisibilize important assumptions of territories and despolitize the concept; The North-South divide resilience knowledge production is not only quantitative but also expressed in the core of models and tools. © 2021International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction22124209https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212420921005021art10254166Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, global south; literature review; sustainability; urban resilienceDoctorado en Territorio, Espacio y Sociedad, Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo, Universidad de Chile, Av. Portugal 84, Región Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile; Centre d'étude des mouvements sociaux, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, 54 Bd Raspail, Paris, 75006, France
Tree growth decline as a response to projected climate change in the 21st century in Mediterranean mountain forests of ChileMatskovsky V.; Venegas-González A.; Garreaud R.; Roig F.A.; Gutiérrez A.G.; Muñoz A.A.; Le Quesne C.; Klock K.; Canales C.Agua y Extremos202110.1016/j.gloplacha.2020.103406Global Climate Models project that observed climate trends are likely to be preserved and the number of extreme events will be increasing during the rest of the 21st century, which may have a detrimental impact on forest ecosystems. These impacts may include forest decline and widespread dieback of the most vulnerable biomes, such as the Mediterranean Forest of Central Chile (MFCC). Nothofagus macrocarpa and Austrocedrus chilensis are two canopy-dominant, endangered tree species in the mountains of MFCC. Here, we project tree growth of these species based on tree-ring width chronologies, a simplified version of a process-based model, and climate change projections. We used the tree ring information derived from ~400 trees from 12 sites distributed across MFCC in combination with the simplified version of process-based Vaganov-Shashkin tree-growth model (VS-Lite) to forecast changes in tree growth for the next four decades. Tree growth projections were made on the basis of monthly values of temperature and precipitation from the output of 35 climate models based on two ensembles of CO2 emission scenarios of the IPCC AR5 (RCP 8.5: higher-emission scenario, and RCP 2.6: lower-emission scenario). For the MFCC region these scenarios result in temperature rise ranging between 0.5 °C and 2.0 °C, and a precipitation decrease between 5% and 20% by the year 2065, as related to historical conditions. Our results showed that the VS-Lite model is capable of reproducing tree growth decline during the recent extreme dry period, i.e. 2010–2018, which supports its use for tree growth projections in the MFCC region. According to the modeling results, we find that tree growth in both N. macrocarpa and A. chilensis forests distributed in the MFCC region will be adversely affected by future climate changes, mainly starting from the year 2035, under both scenarios. Our work provides evidence of the degree of vulnerability of Mediterranean mountain forests in central Chile according to current climate change projections. The projected decline in tree growth indicates serious risks in the dynamics and survival of these forests relatively soon, so alerts are given about this situation which may require to counteract the deleterious effects of global change on vegetation in this region. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.Global and Planetary Change09218181https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0921818120302976art103406198Thomson Reuters SCIEaustrocedrus chilensis; climate change; climatic projections; dendroecology; nothofagus macrocarpa; south american mediterranean forest; tree rings; vaganov–shashkin-lite model, chile; austrocedrus chilensis; nothofagus macrocarpa; climate models; ecosystems; forestry; landforms; climate change projections; deleterious effects; endangered tree species; global climate model; mediterranean forest; mediterranean mountains; process-based modeling; tree growth modeling; biome; chronology; climate change; climate modeling; deciduous tree; dieback; extreme event; forest ecosystem; global change; global climate; growth; mediterranean environment; montane forest; tree; tree ring; twenty first century; climate changeInstitute of Geography RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation; Hémera Centro de Observación de la Tierra, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, Chile; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología e Historia Ambiental, IANIGLA-CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina; Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales y Recursos Naturales Renovables, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Cambio Global, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile
How well do gridded precipitation and actual evapotranspiration products represent the key water balance components in the Nile Basin?McNamara I.; Baez-Villanueva O.M.; Zomorodian A.; Ayyad S.; Zambrano-Bigiarini M.; Zaroug M.; Mersha A.; Nauditt A.; Mbuliro M.; Wamala S.; Ribbe L.Agua y Extremos202110.1016/j.ejrh.2021.100884Study region: Nile Basin, Africa. Study focus: The accurate representation of precipitation (P) and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) patterns is crucial for water resources management, yet there remains a high spatial and temporal variability among gridded products, particularly over data-scarce regions. We evaluated the performance of eleven state-of-the-art P products and seven ETa products over the Nile Basin using a four-step procedure: (i) P products were evaluated at the monthly scale through a point-to-pixel approach; (ii) streamflow was modelled using the Random Forest machine learning technique, and simulated for well-performing catchments for 2009–2018 (to correspond with ETa product availability); (iii) ETa products were evaluated at the multiannual scale using the water balance method; and (iv) the ability of the best-performing P and ETa products to represent monthly variations in terrestrial water storage (ΔTWS) was assessed through a comparison with GRACE Level-3 data. New hydrological insights for the region: CHIRPSv2 was the best-performing P product (median monthly KGE’ of 0.80) and PMLv2 and WaPORv2.1 the best-performing ETa products over the majority of the evaluated catchments. The application of the water balance using these best-performing products captures the seasonality of ΔTWS well over the White Nile Basin, but overestimates seasonality over the Blue Nile Basin. Our study demonstrates how gridded P and ETa products can be evaluated over extremely data-scarce conditions using an easily transferable methodology. © 2021 The AuthorsJournal of Hydrology: Regional Studies22145818https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2214581821001130art10088437Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, evapotranspiration; grace; precipitation; random forest; remote sensing; water balanceInstitute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics (ITT), Cologne University of Applied Sciences, Cologne, Germany; Faculty of Spatial Planning, TU Dortmund University, Dortmund, Germany; Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES), University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany; Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Nile Basin Initiative Secretariat, Entebbe, Uganda; Eastern Nile Technical Regional Office, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Broad-Scale Surface and Atmospheric Conditions during Large Fires in South-Central ChileMcWethy D.B.; Garreaud R.D.; Holz A.; Pederson G.T.Agua y Extremos202110.3390/FIRE4020028The unprecedented size of the 2017 wildfires that burned nearly 600,000 hectares of central Chile highlight a need to better understand the climatic conditions under which large fires develop. Here we evaluate synoptic atmospheric conditions at the surface and free troposphere associated with anomalously high (active) versus low (inactive) months of area burned in south-central Chile (ca. 32–41◦ S) from the Chilean Forest Service (CONAF) record of area burned from 1984–2018. Active fire months are correlated with warm surface temperatures, dry conditions, and the presence of a circumpolar assemblage of high-pressure systems located ca. 40◦–60◦ S. Additionally, warm surface temperatures associated with active fire months are linked to reduced strength of cool, onshore westerly winds and an increase in warm, downslope Andean Cordillera easterly winds. Episodic warm downslope winds and easterly wind anomalies superimposed on long-term warming and drying trends will continue to create conditions that promote large fires in south-central Chile. Identifying the mechanisms responsible for easterly wind anomalies and determining whether this trend is strengthening due to synoptic-scale climatic changes such as the poleward shift in Southern Hemisphere westerly winds will be critical for anticipating future large fire activity in south-central Chile. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Fire25716255https://www.mdpi.com/2571-6255/4/2/28art284Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; climate; enso; fire; fire weather; large fires; southern annual mode, nanDepartment of Earth Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, 59717, MT, United States; Department of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8320000, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, CR2, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8320000, Chile; Department of Geography, Portland State University, Portland, 97201, OR, United States; U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, Bozeman, 59715, MT, United States
Forecasting PM2.5 levels in Santiago de Chile using deep learning neural networksMenares C.; Perez P.; Parraguez S.; Fleming Z.L.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.uclim.2021.100906Air pollution has been shown to have a direct effect on human health. In particular, PM2.5 has been proven to be related to cardiovascular and respiratory problems. Therefore, it is important to have accurate models to predict high pollution events for this and other pollutants. We present different models that forecast PM2.5 maximum concentrations using a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) based neural network and a Deep Feedforward Neural Network (DFFNN). Ten years of air pollution and meteorological measurements from the network of monitoring stations in the city of Santiago, Chile were used, focusing on the behaviour of three zones of the city. All missing values were rebuilt using a method based on discrete cosine transforms and photochemical predictors selected through unsupervised clustering. Deep learning techniques provide significant improvements compared to a traditional multi-layer neural networks, particularly the LSTM model configured with a 7-day memory window (synoptic scale of pollution patterns) can capture critical pollution events at sites with both primary and secondary air pollution problems. Furthermore, the LSTM model consistently outperform deterministic models currently used in Santiago, Chile. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.Urban Climate22120955https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S221209552100136Xart10090638Thomson Reuters SCIEair quality forecasting; deep neural networks; fine particulate matter; lstm; machine learning; meteorology forecast, nanSantiago, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Envirohealth Dynamics lab, C+ Research Center in Technologies for Society, School of Engineering, Universidad Del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile
How much can we see from a uav-mounted regular camera? Remote sensing-based estimation of forest attributes in south american native forestsMiranda A.; Catalán G.; Altamirano A.; Zamorano-Elgueta C.; Cavieres M.; Guerra J.; Mola-Yudego B.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.3390/rs13112151Data collection from large areas of native forests poses a challenge. The present study aims at assessing the use of UAV for forest inventory on native forests in Southern Chile, and seeks to retrieve both stand and tree level attributes from forest canopy data. Data were collected from 14 plots (45 × 45 m) established at four locations representing unmanaged Chilean temperate forests: seven plots on secondary forests and seven plots on old-growth forests, including a total of 17 different native species. The imagery was captured using a fixed-wing airframe equipped with a regular RGB camera. We used the structure from motion and digital aerial photogrammetry techniques for data processing and combined machine learning methods based on boosted regression trees and mixed models. In total, 2136 trees were measured on the ground, from which 858 trees were visualized from the UAV imagery of the canopy, ranging from 26% to 88% of the measured trees in the field (mean = 45.7%, SD = 17.3), which represented between 70.6% and 96% of the total basal area of the plots (mean = 80.28%, SD = 7.7). Individual-tree diameter models based on remote sensing data were constructed with R2 = 0.85 and R2 = 0.66 based on BRT and mixed models, respectively. We found a strong relationship between canopy and ground data; however, we suggest that the best alternative was combining the use of both field-based and remotely sensed methods to achieve high accuracy estimations, particularly in complex structure forests (e.g., old-growth forests). Field inventories and UAV surveys provide accurate information at local scales and allow validation of large-scale applications of satellite imagery. Finally, in the future, increasing the accuracy of aerial surveys and monitoring is necessary to advance the development of local and regional allometric crown and DBH equations at the species level. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Remote Sensing20724292https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/13/11/2151art215113Thomson Reuters SCIEaerial survey; drone; forest inventory; structure from motion, antennas; cameras; data handling; fixed wings; learning systems; photogrammetry; remote sensing; satellite imagery; surveys; unmanned aerial vehicles (uav); aerial photogrammetry; boosted regression trees; field inventories; large-scale applications; machine learning methods; remote sensing data; secondary forests; structure from motion; forestryLaboratorio de Ecología del Paisaje y Conservacion, Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de La Frontera, P.O. Box 54-D, Temuco, 4780000, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Santiago, 8320000, Chile; Doctorado en Ciencias Agroalimentarias y Medioambiente, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias y Forestales, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, 4780000, Chile; Butamallin Research Center for Global Change, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias y Forestales, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, 4780000, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Tecnología, Universidad de Aysen, Obispo Vielmo 62, Coyhaique, 5950000, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias, Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, 5090000, Chile; Campo Digital GIS and Remote Sensing, Osorno, 5290000, Chile; School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, Joensuu, 80101, Finland
Sentencia de la Corte Suprema dictada en causa “Gallardo con Anglo American Sur S.A.”, Rol N°72.198-2020, de 18 de enero de 2021: Reconocimiento del Derecho Humano al Agua.Moraga Sariego,P.;Cornejo,C.;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2021Actualidad Jurídica Ambiental1989-5666https://www.actualidadjuridicaambiental.com/en/jurisprudencia-al-dia-chile-derecho-humano-al-agua/Thomson Reuters ESCI
Transición justa en la mitigación al Cambio Climático. Comentario a la sentencia de la Corte Suprema en recurso de protección rol N°25.530-2021, de 9 de agosto de 2021Moraga Sariego,P.;Cornejo,C.;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2021Actualidad Jurídica Ambiental1989-5666https://www.actualidadjuridicaambiental.com/en/jurisprudencia-al-dia-chile-transicion-energetica-cambio-climatico/Thomson Reuters ESCI
Sentencia de la Corte Suprema dictada en causa “Jara Alarcón, Luis con Servicio de Evaluación Ambiental”, Rol N°8573-2019, de 13 de enero de 2021Moraga Sariego,P.;Cornejo,C.;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2021Actualidad Jurídica Ambiental1989-5666https://www.actualidadjuridicaambiental.com/en/jurisprudencia-al-dia-chile-participacion-evaluacion-ambiental/Thomson Reuters ESCI
Principio precautorio, sustentabilidad y mejor información técnica disponible como criterios de actuación legítima. Comentario a la sentencia de la Corte Suprema en causa “Guarache Gómez con Subsecretaría de Pesca y Acuicultura”, Rol N°71.883-2020, de 1 de abril de 2021Moraga Sariego,P.;Cornejo,C.;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2021Actualidad Jurídica Ambiental1989-5666https://www.actualidadjuridicaambiental.com/en/jurisprudencia-al-dia-chile-principio-de-precaucion-pesca-desarrollo-sostenible/Thomson Reuters ESCI
Estado ambiental de derecho y naturaleza constitucional de los principios preventivo, precautorio, responsabilidad y justicia ambiental. Comentario a la sentencia de inaplicabilidad por inconstitucional rol N°9418-2020, de 15 de junio de 2021, del Tribunal Constitucional chilenoMoraga Sariego,P.;Cornejo,C.;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2021Actualidad Jurídica Ambiental1989-5666https://www.actualidadjuridicaambiental.com/en/jurisprudencia-al-dia-chile-residuos-salud/Thomson Reuters ESCI
Sentencia del Segundo Tribunal Ambiental dictada en causa “Oceana INC. / Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo (Res. Exenta N°11 de fecha 12 de febrero de 2020)”, Rol N°237-2020, de 13 de mayo de 2021: Deja sin efecto aumento de cuota de sobrepesca de merluza australMoraga Sariego,P.;Illanes,J.;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2021Actualidad Jurídica Ambiental1989-5666https://www.actualidadjuridicaambiental.com/en/jurisprudencia-al-dia-chile-pesca/Thomson Reuters ESCI
Sentencia de la Corte Suprema dictada en causa “Instituto Nacional de Derechos Humanos/ Gobernación Provincial de Petorca”, Rol N°131.140-2020, de 23 de marzo de 2021: Reconocimiento del Derecho Humano al AguaMoraga Sariego,P.;Illanes,J.;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2021Actualidad Jurídica Ambiental1989-5666https://www.actualidadjuridicaambiental.com/en/jurisprudencia-al-dia-chile-derecho-humano-al-agua-2/Thomson Reuters ESCI
Sentencia Rol 210-2019 del Segundo Tribunal Ambiental, caratulado “Alonso Raggio, Katta Beatriz y otros en contra del Ministerio del Medio Ambiente”Moraga Sariego,P.;Spoerer,K.;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2021Actualidad Jurídica Ambiental1989-5666https://www.actualidadjuridicaambiental.com/en/jurisprudencia-al-dia-chile-descontaminacion-atmosferica-principio-quien-contamina-paga/Thomson Reuters ESCI
The state of science on severe air pollution episodes: Quantitative and qualitative analysisMorawska L.; Zhu T.; Liu N.; Amouei Torkmahalleh M.; de Fatima Andrade M.; Barratt B.; Broomandi P.; Buonanno G.; Carlos Belalcazar Ceron L.; Chen J.; Cheng Y.; Evans G.; Gavidia M.; Guo H.; Hanigan I.; Hu M.; Jeong C.H.; Kelly F.; Gallardo L.; Kumar P.; Lyu X.; Mullins B.J.; Nordstrøm C.; Pereira G.; Querol X.; Yezid Rojas Roa N.; Russell A.; Thompson H.; Wang H.; Wang L.; Wang T.; Wierzbicka A.; Xue T.; Ye C.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.envint.2021.106732Severe episodic air pollution blankets entire cities and regions and have a profound impact on humans and their activities. We compiled daily fine particle (PM2.5) data from 100 cities in five continents, investigated the trends of number, frequency, and duration of pollution episodes, and compared these with the baseline trend in air pollution. We showed that the factors contributing to these events are complex; however, long-term measures to abate emissions from all anthropogenic sources at all times is also the most efficient way to reduce the occurrence of severe air pollution events. In the short term, accurate forecasting systems of such events based on the meteorological conditions favouring their occurrence, together with effective emergency mitigation of anthropogenic sources, may lessen their magnitude and/or duration. However, there is no clear way of preventing events caused by natural sources affected by climate change, such as wildfires and desert dust outbreaks. © 2021Environment International01604120https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0160412021003573art106732156Thomson Reuters SCIEformation of secondary pollutants; mitigating air pollutants; pollution emissions; pollution episodes; severe air pollution events; urban air pollution, air pollutants; air pollution; cities; environmental monitoring; humans; meteorology; particulate matter; climate change; air pollution episodes; anthropogenic sources; fine particles (pm$-2.5$/); formation of secondary pollutant; mitigating air pollutant; pollution emissions; pollution episodes; quantitative and qualitative analysis; severe air pollution event; urban air pollution; accuracy assessment; atmospheric pollution; emission; episodic event; forecasting method; human activity; qualitative analysis; quantitative analysis; trend analysis; urban pollution; air pollutant; article; climate change; desert; forecasting; human; meteorology; qualitative analysis; quantitative analysis; wildfire; air pollution; city; environmental monitoring; particulate matter; air pollutionInternational Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Faculty of Science, Queensland University Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, 4001, Queensland, Australia; College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China; Chemical and Aerosol Research Team, School of Engineering and Digital Sciences, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan, 010000, Kazakhstan; The Environment and Resource Efficiency Cluster, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan, 010000, Kazakhstan; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences (IAG), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Brazil; Department of Environmental Health, King's College London, United Kingdom; School of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Masjed Soleiman Branch, Iran; University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino, Italy; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia, Colombia; Environmental Science & Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, China; Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Canada; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong; The University of Sydney, University Centre for Rural Health, School of Public Health, New South Wales, Australia; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment...
An early Holocene westerly minimum in the southern mid-latitudesMoreno P.I.; Henríquez W.I.; Pesce O.H.; Henríquez C.A.; Fletcher M.S.; Garreaud R.D.; Villa-Martínez R.P.Agua y Extremos202110.1016/j.quascirev.2020.106730An important coupled ocean-atmospheric system in the mid- and high latitudes involves the Southern Westerly Winds (SWW) and the Southern Ocean (SO), which controls climate in the southernmost third of the world, deep water formation, and ventilation of CO2 from the deep ocean. Most studies have examined its role as a driver of atmospheric CO2 concentrations during glacial terminations, but very few have investigated its influence during the Holocene, i.e. the current interglacial. A fundamental problem, however, is resolving whether the SWW strength increased or declined during the early Holocene (∼11.5–7.5 ka, ka = 1000 cal yr BP) in sectors adjacent to the Drake Passage. Here we assess past changes in SWW influence over the last ∼17,000 years using terrestrial paleoclimate records from southwestern Patagonia (∼52°S). We detect a zonally symmetric Early Holocene Westerly Minimum which diminished wind stress and upwelling on the SO, contributing to a contemporary decline in atmospheric CO2 concentrations and enrichment in the stable carbon isotope ratio of atmospheric CO2 (δ13Catm). Our mid-latitude data also indicate a shift to strong SWW influence at ∼7.5 ka which correlates with a sustained increase in atmospheric CO2 and halt in the δ13Catm rise, suggesting enhancement of high-latitude ocean ventilation by an invigorated SWW-SO coupled system. © 2020 Elsevier LtdQuaternary Science Reviews02773791https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0277379120306922art106730251Thomson Reuters SCIEatmospheric co2 holocene; early holocene westerly minimum; southern middle latitudes; southern westerly winds; southwestern patagonia, drake passage; patagonia; southern ocean; oceanography; atmospheric systems; co2 concentration; deep-water formation; glacial terminations; ocean ventilations; paleoclimate records; southern westerly winds; stable carbon isotope ratio; atmosphere-ocean coupling; carbon isotope ratio; concentration (composition); historical record; holocene; midlatitude environment; paleoclimate; stable isotope; upwelling; westerly; carbon dioxideMillennium Nucleus Paleoclimate, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate Research and Resilience, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; School of Geography, Environmental and Earth Science, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand; School of Geography, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Investigación Gaia-Antártica, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile
Vegetation, disturbance, and climate history since the onset of ice-free conditions in the Lago Rosselot sector of Chiloé continental (44°S), northwestern PatagoniaMoreno P.I.; Videla J.; Kaffman M.J.; Henríquez C.A.; Sagredo E.A.; Jara-Arancio P.; Alloway B.V.Agua y Extremos202110.1016/j.quascirev.2021.106924We present results from Lago Negro, a small closed-basin lake adjacent to Lago Rosselot, to examine the vegetation and environmental history of an insufficiently studied sector of Chiloé Continental (41°30′-44°S) in northwestern Patagonia. Lake sediment cores from Lago Negro reveal 27 tephra deposited since ∼12.7 ka, including two prominent rhyodacite tephra marker beds erupted from Volcán Melimoyu, and a stratified basal clastic unit we attribute to meltwater discharge from an ice tongue that originated from Monte Queulat and covered Lago Rosselot during its expanded position, presumably Antarctic Cold Reversal in age. The pollen record shows closed-canopy North Patagonian rainforests since ∼12.7 ka, with variations in species composition and structure that suggest dynamic responses of the vegetation to past environmental changes. Vegetation responses to climate in the Lago Negro record were modulated, sometimes interrupted, by high magnitude and frequent disturbance regimes, most notably during maxima in explosive volcanic activity (∼9.5–7.2 ka and ∼3.6–1.6 ka) and heightened fire activity. Since Lago Negro is the southernmost palynological site so far investigated in the region and is located within a volcanically active sector, it provides a valuable perspective for assessing past vegetation responses along environmental gradients since the last glaciation. When compared with other sites throughout northwestern Patagonia, our record reveals a distinct north-to-south gradient in temperature and precipitation, with peak temperature and rainfall seasonality in the north, and a west-to-east gradient in disturbance regimes, with maximum frequency and magnitude of explosive volcanic events in the east. These gradients have modulated the response of rainforest vegetation to climate forcing at regional scale since ∼12.7 ka. We identify negligible differences in timing for the majority of key vegetation signals during the initial phase of the Lago Negro record, and propose that plant colonization and expansion along the ∼360 km long corridor through the Pacific slope of the northwestern Patagonian Andes was a rapid process during the Last Glacial Termination. © 2021 Elsevier LtdQuaternary Science Reviews02773791https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0277379121001311art106924260Thomson Reuters SCIEchiloé continental; disturbance paleoecology; glacier advance during the antarctic cold reversal; northwestern patagonia; postglacial explosive volcanism; recession and stabilization during younger dryas; vegetation and fire history, andes; chile; chiloe island; los lagos; patagonia; climate change; explosives; glacial geology; lakes; volcanoes; chiloe continental; disturbance paleoecology; glacier advance during the antarctic cold reversal; northwestern patagonium; patagonia; postglacial explosive volcanism; recession and stabilization during young dryas; vegetation and fire history; vegetation history; vegetation response; climate forcing; disturbance; environmental change; environmental history; lacustrine deposit; sediment core; tephra; vegetation history; vegetationMillennium Nucleus Paleoclimate, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate Research and Resilience, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Estación Patagonia de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Departamento de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago, Chile; School of Environment, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, Auckland, 92019, New Zealand
Local and global environmental drivers of growth chronologies in a demersal fish in the south-eastern Pacific OceanMoyano G.; Plaza G.; Cerna F.; Muñoz A.A.Agua y Extremos202110.1016/j.ecolind.2021.108151Upwelling and the El Niño “Southern Oscillation” (ENSO) are recurrent climatic phenomena in the southeastern Pacific Ocean that severely affect the reproduction and growth of pelagic fish populations. However, there are not long-term growth data from demersal fish populations to test these interconections in a long-term analysis. For this reason, a first extensive growth chronology was reconstructed from the annual growth of sagittal otoliths as a proxy for somatic growth for the cardinalfish (Epigonus crassicaudus). Adult fish ranging from 35 to 40 cm in fork length and from 39 to 63 years in age were collected off Chilean waters. The master chronologies were estimated for the period from 1974 to 2014, using the regional curve standardization approach (RCS) and linear mixed models (LMMs). Growth indexes derived from both approaches followed a similar trend and were positively correlated with the Humboldt Current Index (HCI) and negatively with ENSO, Pacific Decadal Oscillation and sea surface temperature. LMMs showed that a 75% of growth variability was explained by the age of increment formation and HCI was the environmental index that most significantly affected the annual growth of cardinalfish followed by the sea surface temperature in spring. A reduced growth phase from 1974 to 1996 contrasted with a higher growth period from 1997, matching the 1997/1998 climatic regime shift, demonstrating that the enhanced growth for cardinalfish was associated with upwelling of nutrient rich water to the surface, triggering an increase of the primary and secondary productivity during the prevalence of a cold regime period in the Humboldt Current System. The consistence between RCS and LMM methods was indicative that both approaches are promising to evaluate the influence of environmental drivers on the growth condition of a demersal fish population in a highly productive marine ecosystem. © 2021 The Author(s)Ecological Indicators1470160Xhttps://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1470160X21008165art108151131Thomson Reuters SCIEchilean margin; humboldt current; pacific ocean; pacific ocean (southeast); epigonus crassicaudus; atmospheric pressure; atmospheric temperature; cell proliferation; climatology; ecosystems; fish; fisheries; population statistics; submarine geophysics; surface properties; surface waters; demersal fish; environmental variables; epigonus crassicaudus; fish populations; humboldt current; linear mixed models; linear modeling; mixed linear model; otolith; sclerochronology; biochronology; demersal fish; el nino-southern oscillation; environmental conditions; growth; pacific decadal oscillation; pelagic fish; perciform; reconstruction; reproduction; sea surface temperature; upwelling; oceanography, demersal fish; environmental variables; epigonus crassicaudus; humboldt current; mixed linear models; otoliths; sclerochronologyDivisión de Investigación Pesquera, Sección Edad y Crecimiento, Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP), Blanco 839, Valparaíso, Chile; Programa de Magíster en Oceanografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso-Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Escuela de Ciencias del Mar, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Universidad 330, Curauma, Valparaíso, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Brasil 2241, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Acción Climática, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro del Clima y la Resiliencia CR2, Santiago, Chile
Reduced Complexity Model Intercomparison Project Phase 2: Synthesizing Earth System Knowledge for Probabilistic Climate ProjectionsNicholls Z.; Meinshausen M.; Lewis J.; Corradi M.R.; Dorheim K.; Gasser T.; Gieseke R.; Hope A.P.; Leach N.J.; McBride L.A.; Quilcaille Y.; Rogelj J.; Salawitch R.J.; Samset B.H.; Sandstad M.; Shiklomanov A.; Skeie R.B.; Smith C.J.; Smith S.J.; Su X.; Tsutsui J.; Vega-Westhoff B.; Woodard D.L.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.1029/2020EF001900Over the last decades, climate science has evolved rapidly across multiple expert domains. Our best tools to capture state-of-the-art knowledge in an internally self-consistent modeling framework are the increasingly complex fully coupled Earth System Models (ESMs). However, computational limitations and the structural rigidity of ESMs mean that the full range of uncertainties across multiple domains are difficult to capture with ESMs alone. The tools of choice are instead more computationally efficient reduced complexity models (RCMs), which are structurally flexible and can span the response dynamics across a range of domain-specific models and ESM experiments. Here we present Phase 2 of the Reduced Complexity Model Intercomparison Project (RCMIP Phase 2), the first comprehensive intercomparison of RCMs that are probabilistically calibrated with key benchmark ranges from specialized research communities. Unsurprisingly, but crucially, we find that models which have been constrained to reflect the key benchmarks better reflect the key benchmarks. Under the low-emissions SSP1-1.9 scenario, across the RCMs, median peak warming projections range from 1.3 to 1.7°C (relative to 1850–1900, using an observationally based historical warming estimate of 0.8°C between 1850–1900 and 1995–2014). Further developing methodologies to constrain these projection uncertainties seems paramount given the international community's goal to contain warming to below 1.5°C above preindustrial in the long-term. Our findings suggest that users of RCMs should carefully evaluate their RCM, specifically its skill against key benchmarks and consider the need to include projections benchmarks either from ESM results or other assessments to reduce divergence in future projections. © 2021. The Authors. Earth's Future published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Geophysical Union.Earth's Future23284277https://doi.org/10.1029/2020EF001900arte2020EF0019009Thomson Reuters SCIEbenchmarking; climatology; complexity; knowledge; numerical model; probability; warming, climate; model intercomparison; probabilistic projections; rcmip; reduced complexity climate modelAustralian-German Climate & Energy College, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia; School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia; Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Member of the Leibniz Association, Potsdam, Germany; Department of Geophysics, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, CR2, Santiago, Chile; Pacficic Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria; Independent Researcher, Potsdam, Germany; Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland-College Park, College Park, United States; Department of Physics, Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Planetary Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland-College Park, College Park, MD, United States; Grantham Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland-College Park, College Park, MD, United States; CICERO Center for International Climate Research, Oslo, Norway; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, United States; Priestley International Centre for Climate, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park, MD, United States; Research Institute for Global Change/Research Center for E...
Introduction. Contestée, appropriée et dépossédée : la place de la nature dans les villes latino-américainesNicolas-Artero C.; Fuster-Farfán X.; Velut S.Agua y Extremos202110.4000/cal.13080[No abstract available]Cahiers des Ameriques Latines11417161http://journals.openedition.org/cal/1308023-35Thomson Reuters ESCICenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2; Université de Concepción, Chile; IHEAL-CREDA, Université Sorbonne Nouvelle, France
Introducción. Disputada, apropiada y desposeída: la naturaleza en las ciudades latinoamericanasNicolas-Artero C.; Fuster-Farfán X.; Velut S.Agua y Extremos202110.4000/cal.13089[No abstract available]Cahiers des Ameriques Latines11417161http://journals.openedition.org/cal/130891-13Thomson Reuters ESCICenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR 2); Universidad de Concepción, Chile; Centre de Recherche sur l’Habitat (Lavue UMR CNRS), France; IHEAL-CREDA, Université Sorbonne-Nouvelle, France
Questionner la relation société – environnement en Amérique latine : extractivisme, violences et résistances:Nicolas-Artero,Chloé;Agua y Extremos202110.3917/lig.854.0093L'Information géographique0020-0093https://www.cairn.info/revue-l-information-geographique-2021-4-page-93.htm?ref=doi93-111Vol. 85Thomson Reuters ESCI
Effective Targeting and Additionality: Evaluating the D.L. 701 Reforms for Afforesting Erodible Land in Southern ChileNiklitschek M.; Labbé R.; Alzamora R.M.; Vásquez F.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.3368/le.97.4.011520-0003R2We analyze the targeting and additionality of the Chilean afforestation program reforms implemented in the mid-1990s. Propensity score matching estimates are obtained by potential erosion categories using random area sample data. The additional afforestation percentage is estimated to be larger for none or low and very severe categories of potential erosion parcels. Even though the program helped maintain forest cover to highly erodible land, afforested parcels with high opportunity costs and possible negative amenity benefits are also attributed to the program. To improve the cost-effectiveness and to avoid misallocation of land and water resources, more effective targeting is required © 2021. by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin SystemLand Economics00237639http://le.uwpress.org/lookup/doi/10.3368/le.97.4.011520-0003R2745-76797Thomson Reuters SSCInan, chile; afforestation; erosion; forest cover; land reformInstitute of Forest and Society, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Department of Forest Management and Environment, Universidad de Concepción, Chile; National Center of Excellence for the Timber Industry (CENAMAD), Pontifical Catholic University of Chile (UC), Chile; School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo, Center of Applied Ecology and Sustaintability (CAPES), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, and Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Concepción, Chile
Validation of 4D Flow based relative pressure maps in aortic flowsNolte D.; Urbina J.; Sotelo J.; Sok L.; Montalba C.; Valverde I.; Osses A.; Uribe S.; Bertoglio C.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.media.2021.102195While the clinical gold standard for pressure difference measurements is invasive catheterization, 4D Flow MRI is a promising tool for enabling a non-invasive quantification, by linking highly spatially resolved velocity measurements with pressure differences via the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. In this work we provide a validation and comparison with phantom and clinical patient data of pressure difference maps estimators. We compare the classical Pressure Poisson Estimator (PPE) and the new Stokes Estimator (STE) against catheter pressure measurements under a variety of stenosis severities and flow intensities. Specifically, we use several 4D Flow data sets of realistic aortic phantoms with different anatomic and hemodynamic severities and two patients with aortic coarctation. The phantom data sets are enriched by subsampling to lower resolutions, modification of the segmentation and addition of synthetic noise, in order to study the sensitivity of the pressure difference estimators to these factors. Overall, the STE method yields more accurate results than the PPE method compared to catheterization data. The superiority of the STE becomes more evident at increasing Reynolds numbers with a better capacity of capturing pressure gradients in strongly convective flow regimes. The results indicate an improved robustness of the STE method with respect to variation in lumen segmentation. However, with heuristic removal of the wall-voxels, the PPE can reach a comparable accuracy for lower Reynolds’ numbers. © 2021 The Author(s)Medical Image Analysis13618415https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1361841521002401art10219574Thomson Reuters SCIEimaging; reproducibility of results; diagnosis; hospital data processing; navier stokes equations; phantoms; reynolds number; aortic coarctation; convective flow; lower resolution; lumen segmentations; pressure differences; spatially resolved; stokes equations; synthetic noise; adult; aortic coarctation; aortic flow; article; case report; catheterization; clinical article; female; flow measurement; four-dimensional imaging; hemodynamic parameters; human; image analysis; male; nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; patient coding; pressure gradient; pressure measurement; aortic coarctation; blood flow velocity; hemodynamics; imaging phantom; nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; reproducibility; blood vessels, 4d flow; catheter; clinical and experimental validation; pressure difference, aortic coarctation; blood flow velocity; hemodynamics; humans; magnetic resonance imaging; phantomsBernoulli Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, 9747AG, Netherlands; Center for Mathematical Modeling, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8370456, Chile; Biomedical Imaging Center, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 833002, Chile; Millennium Nucleus for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; School of Biomedical Engineering, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Department of Electrical Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, 41013, Spain
Nexus thinking at River Basin scale: Food, water and welfareOliva R.D.P.; Fernández F.J.; Vasquez-Lavín F.; Montevechio E.A.; Julio N.; Stehr A.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.3390/w13071000Water resources face an unparalleled confluence of pressures, with agriculture and urban growth as the most relevant human-related stressors. In this context, methodologies using a Nexus framework seem to be suitable to address these challenges. However, the urban sector has been commonly ignored in the Nexus literature. We propose a Nexus framework approach, considering the economic dimensions of the interdependencies and interconnections among agriculture (food production) and the urban sector as water users within a common basin. Then, we assess the responses of both sectors to climatic and demographic stressors. In this setting, the urban sector is represented through an economic water demand at the household level, from which economic welfare is derived. Our results show that the Nexus components here considered (food, water, and welfare) will be negatively affected under the simulated scenarios. However, when these components are decomposed to their particular elements, we found that the less water-intensive sector—the urban sector—will be better off since food production will leave significant amounts of water available. Moreover, when addressing uncertainty related to climate-induced shocks, we could identify the basin resilience threshold. Our approach shows the compatibilities and divergences between food production and the urban sector under the Nexus framework. © 2021 by the authors, Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Water (Switzerland)20734441https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/13/7/1000art100013Thomson Reuters SCIEclimate change; hydro-economic model; nexus approach; trade-off effects; welfare, agricultural robots; agriculture; urban growth; economic welfare; food production; household level; river basins; water demand; water users; water resourcesSchool of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo, Concepción, 4070001, Chile; Water Research Center for Agriculture and Mining (CRHIAM), Concepción, 4070411, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Santiago, 7820244, Chile; School of Agronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Mayor, Santiago, 8320000, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, University of Chile, Santiago, 8370415, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Administrativas, Universidad Católica de la Ssma, Concepción, 4060002, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales y Centro EULA, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, 4070386, Chile; Departamento Ingeniería Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales y Centro EULA, Universidad de Con-cepción, Concepción, 4070386, Chile
Deep fire topology: Understanding the role of landscape spatial patterns in wildfire occurrence using artificial intelligencePais C.; Miranda A.; Carrasco J.; Shen Z.-J.M.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.1016/j.envsoft.2021.105122Increasing wildfire activity globally has become an urgent issue with enormous ecological and social impacts. In this work, we focus on analyzing and quantifying the influence of landscape topology, understood as the spatial structure and interaction of multiple land-covers in an area, on fire ignition. We propose a deep learning framework, Deep Fire Topology, to estimate and predict wildfire ignition risk. We focus on understanding the impact of these topological attributes and the rationale behind the results to provide interpretable knowledge for territorial planning considering wildfire ignition uncertainty. We demonstrate the high performance and interpretability of the framework in a case study, accurately detecting risky areas by exploiting spatial patterns. This work reveals the strong potential of landscape topology in wildfire occurrence prediction and its implications to develop robust landscape management plans. We discuss potential extensions and applications of the proposed method, available as an open-source software. © 2021 Elsevier LtdEnvironmental Modelling and Software13648152https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1364815221001651art105122143Thomson Reuters SCIEdeep learning; landscape topology; machine learning; territorial planning; wildfire ignition risk; wildfire management, application programs; deep learning; open source software; open systems; risk perception; deep learning; ecological impacts; landscape topology; machine-learning; social impact; spatial patterns; territorial planning; wildfire ignition; wildfire ignition risk; wildfire management; artificial intelligence; estimation method; land cover; performance assessment; risk assessment; territorial planning; topology; uncertainty analysis; wildfire; topologyUniversity of California Berkeley, IEOR Department, Berkeley, United States; Universidad de Chile, ), Santiago, Chile; Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Laboratorio de Ecología Del Paisaje y Conservación, Temuco, Chile; University of Chile, Industrial Engineering Department, Santiago, Chile; Complex Engineering System Institute - ISCI, Santiago, Chile; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 94720, CA, United States
Assessment of landscape transformation in protected areasPereira S.R.; Fernández J.; Herrera J.; Olea J.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.eiar.2020.106472Mountain protected landscapes continuously endure conflicts of appropriation that bear inherent transformations. One type of direct intervention is by Commercial Concessions within these areas, affecting their landscape value. The aim is to determine conceptual gaps in Environmental Impact Studies regarding landscape assessment and propose a way to improve them in this sense. Shortcomings regarding landscape are checked in different normative frameworks and tensions are analyzed through the case of a Commercial Concession grant within a Mountain Protected area in the South-Central Andes of Chile (38°22′S;71°35′W). Weak or absent definitions of landscape are found in normative frames and Environmental Impact guidelines. A reductionism of landscape as mere viewshed units avoids a proper differentiation for several types of economic transformations and conservation management purposes therein. Hence, transformations affecting the inherent value of landscape are latent under monitoring and legislation abiding practices. Tensions between protected areas and commercial concessions depend on landscape management strategies which are associated to capital gain uncertainties by risking the nonuse-value of landscape. This uncertainty as a natural insurance value can be integrated to conceptual analyses assessing landscape transformations and report their depreciation. These transformations of landscape value are deemed necessary to be implemented in Environmental Impact Assessment without having to discretize bipartite purposes in protected areas by assessing landscape value through conceptual and economic analyses. © 2020 Elsevier Inc.Environmental Impact Assessment Review01959255https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0195925520301347art10647286Thomson Reuters SSCIandes; chile; conservation; economic analysis; environmental impact assessments; environmental protection; uncertainty analysis; conceptual analysis; conservation management; economic transformation; environmental impact study; landscape assessments; landscape management; landscape values; protected areas; conceptual framework; conservation management; economic analysis; environmental impact assessment; legislation; protected area; uncertainty analysis; environmental impact, commercial concession; economical transformation; eia; landscape value; mountain protected areasInstituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Universidad de Chile, Chile; University of Bonn, Germany; Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Temuco, Chile; Facultad de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Chile; Laboratório História e Natureza, UFRJ, Brazil
Biotic and abiotic drivers of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in a temperate rainforestPerez-Quezada J.F.; Pérez C.A.; Brito C.E.; Fuentes J.P.; Gaxiola A.; Aguilera-Riquelme D.; Lopatin J.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.1016/j.foreco.2021.119341Forest ecosystems are recognized for their large capacity to store carbon (C) in their aboveground and belowground biomass and soil pools. While the distribution of C among ecosystem pools has been extensively studied, less is known about nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pools and how these stocks relate to each other. There is also a need to understand how biotic and abiotic ecosystem properties drive the magnitude and distribution of C-N-P stocks. We studied a temperate rainforest in southern South America to answer the following questions: 1) how are C-N-P total stocks distributed among the different ecosystem pools?, 2) how do C:N, C:P and N:P ratios vary among ecosystem pools?, and 3) which are the main biotic and abiotic drivers of C-N-P stocks? We established 33 circular plots to estimate C, N, and P stocks in different pools (i.e. trees, epiphytes, understory, necromass, leaf litter, and soil) and a set of biotic (e.g., tree density and richness) and abiotic variables (e.g., air temperature, humidity and soil depth). We used structural equation modeling to identify the relative importance of environmental drivers on C-N-P stocks. We found that total ecosystem stocks (mean ± SE) were 1062 ± 58 Mg C ha−1, 28.8 ± 1.5 Mg N ha−1, and 347 ± 12.5 kg P ha−1. The soil was the largest ecosystem pool, containing 68%, 92%, and 73% of the total C, N, and P stocks, respectively. Compared to representative temperate forests, the soil of this forest contains the largest concentrations and stocks of C and N. The low P stock and wide soil C:P and N:P ratios suggest that P may be limiting forest productivity. The ecosystem C-N-P stocks were mainly driven by abiotic properties measured in the study area, however for N stocks, variables such as plant diversity and canopy openness were also relevant. Our results provide evidence about the importance not only of understanding the differences in C, N, and P stocks but also of the factors that drive such differences. This is key to inform conservation policies related to preserving old-growth forests in southern South America, which indeed are facing a rapid land-use change process. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.Forest Ecology and Management03781127https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378112721004291art119341494Thomson Reuters SCIEbiomass; deadwood; evergreen broadleaf forest; nutrients; patagonia; vines, biomass; carbon; ecosystems; forestry; lakes; magnesium; south america; matthiola; biomass; carbon; ecosystems; forestry; lakes; magnesium; nitrogen; nutrients; phosphorus; biotics; deadwood; evergreen broadleaf forest; n:p ratio; nitrogen and phosphorus; patagonia; property; southern south america; temperate rainforest; vine; abiotic factor; belowground biomass; environmental factor; forest ecosystem; geodiversity; land use; land use change; old-growth forest; rainforest; soil nutrient; species diversity; soilsDepartment of Environmental Science and Renewable Natural Resources, University of Chile, Avenida Santa Rosa 11315, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, Alameda 340, Santiago, Chile; Department of Silviculture and Nature Conservation, University of Chile, Avenida Santa Rosa 11315, Santiago, Chile; Department of Ecology, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Alameda 340, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate Resilience Research (CR)2, University of Chile, Santiago, 8370449, Chile
Contaminant emissions as indicators of chemical elements in the snow along a latitudinal gradient in southern AndesPizarro J.; Vergara P.M.; Cerda S.; Cordero R.R.; Castillo X.; Rowe P.M.; Casassa G.; Carrasco J.; Damiani A.; Llanillo P.J.; Lambert F.; Rondanelli R.; Huneeus N.; Fernandoy F.; Alfonso J.; Neshyba S.Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes202110.1038/s41598-021-93895-1The chemical composition of snow provides insights on atmospheric transport of anthropogenic contaminants at different spatial scales. In this study, we assess how human activities influence the concentration of elements in the Andean mountain snow along a latitudinal transect throughout Chile. The concentration of seven elements (Al, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn and Zn) was associated to gaseous and particulate contaminants emitted at different spatial scales. Our results indicate carbon monoxide (CO) averaged at 20 km and nitrogen oxide (NOx) at 40 km as the main indicators of the chemical elements analyzed. CO was found to be a significant predictor of most element concentrations while concentrations of Cu, Mn, Mg and Zn were positively associated to emissions of NOx. Emission of 2.5 μm and 10 μm particulate matter averaged at different spatial scales was positively associated to concentration of Li. Finally, the concentration of Zn was positively associated to volatile organic compounds (VOC) averaged at 40 km around sampling sites. The association between air contaminants and chemical composition of snow suggests that regions with intensive anthropogenic pollution face reduced quality of freshwater originated from glacier and snow melting. © 2021, The Author(s).Scientific Reports20452322http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-93895-1art1453011Thomson Reuters SCIEUniversidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Santiago, Chile; NorthWest Research Associates, Redmond, WA, United States; Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan; Department of Physical Geography, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research CR2, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, Chile; Universidad Nacional Andrés Bello, Viña del Mar 2531015, Valparaíso, Chile; Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Carretera Panamericana, Km 11, Altos de Pipe, Venezuela; Department of Chemistry, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA, United States
Water Use and Climate Stressors in a Multiuser River Basin Setting: Who Benefits from Adaptation?Ponce Oliva R.D.; Montevechio E.A.; Jorquera F.F.; Vásquez-Lavin F.; Stehr A.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.1007/s11269-020-02753-8Adapting to new climate conditions will require an intricate mix of knowledge, planning, coordination, and foresight. There is increasing sectoral evidence on the implementation of successful adaptation actions. However, the success of these actions when we consider the interdependencies among sectors remains debatable. This paper aims to assess who benefits from implementing adaptation options in a multiuser river basin to both climate-induced and demographic stress on water use. Our analysis relies on a hydro-economic model that considers two sets of water users: agriculture and urban households. We innovate in our modelling approach by analyzing and explicitly integrating the household-level economic behavior through its water demand. We assess the cross-user consequences of autonomous and planned adaptation actions. We provide insights into the different trade-offs at the basin level, demonstrating the compatibilities and divergences between agriculture and household-level water demand. We found different consequences of implementing either autonomous or planned adaptation measures. For instance, a decentralized scheme would drive negative implications for the entire basin, although the less water-intensive sector will be better off. On the other hand, different policy interventions would drive positive consequences for the entire basin, with the most water-intensive sector benefiting the most. These results highlight the distributional consequences across users of different adaptation measures. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V. part of Springer Nature.Water Resources Management09204741http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11269-020-02753-8897-91535Thomson Reuters SCIEclimate change adaptation policies; economic consequences; multiuser; trade-offs; water management, agricultural robots; agriculture; economic and social effects; watersheds; climate condition; climate stressors; distributional consequences; economic modeling; household level; policy intervention; river basins; urban-household; adaptive management; climate change; policy implementation; river basin; river management; trade-off; water demand; water management; water planning; water use; water resourcesSchool of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo, Ainavillo 456, Concepcion, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Water Research Center for Agriculture and Mining, (ANID/FONDAP/15130015). Victoria 1295, Concepcion, Chile; Department of Economics, Universidad de Concepción, Victoria 471, Concepcion, Chile; School of Agronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, CR2, Santiago, Chile; Millennium Nucleus Center for the Socioeconomic Impact of Environmental Policies (CESIEP), Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales and Centro EULA, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
Reconciling livestock production and wild herbivore conservation: challenges and opportunitiesPozo R.A.; Cusack J.J.; Acebes P.; Malo J.E.; Traba J.; Iranzo E.C.; Morris-Trainor Z.; Minderman J.; Bunnefeld N.; Radic-Schilling S.; Moraga C.A.; Arriagada R.; Corti P.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.1016/j.tree.2021.05.002Increasing food security and preventing further loss of biodiversity are two of humanity's most pressing challenges. Yet, efforts to address these challenges often lead to situations of conflict between the interests of agricultural production and those of biodiversity conservation. Here, we focus on conflicts between livestock production and the conservation of wild herbivores, which have received little attention in the scientific literature. We identify four key socio-ecological challenges underlying such conflicts, which we illustrate using a range of case studies. We argue that addressing these challenges will require the implementation of co-management approaches that promote the participation of relevant stakeholders in processes of ecological monitoring, impact assessment, decision-making, and active knowledge sharing. © 2021 The AuthorsTrends in Ecology and Evolution01695347https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2021.05.002750-76136Thomson Reuters SCIEagriculture; animals; biodiversity; conservation of natural resources; herbivory; livestock; agricultural production; biodiversity; conservation planning; conservation status; decision making; detection method; food security; herbivore; livestock farming; wild population; agriculture; animal; biodiversity; environmental protection; herbivory; livestock, co-management; coexistence; conflict; food security; livestock husbandryEscuela de Agronomía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Quillota, 2260000, Chile; Centro de Modelación y Monitoreo de Ecosistemas, Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile; Terrestrial Ecology Research Group (TEG-UAM), Departamento de Ecología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Centro de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Cambio Global (CIBC-UAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Laboratorio de Manejo y Conservación de Vida Silvestre, Instituto de Ciencia Animal y Programa de Investigación Aplicada en Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK, United Kingdom; Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom; Departamento de Ciencias Agropecuarias y Acuícolas, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; School of Natural Resources and Environment, and Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Department, University of Florida, FL, United States; Centro de Estudios del Cuaternario de Fuego-Patagonia y Antártica (Fundación CEQUA), Punta Arenas, Chile; Department of Ecosystems and Environment, Millennium Nucleus Center for the Socioeconomic Impact of Environmental Policies (CESIEP), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; ), Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chil...
A multispecies assessment of wildlife impacts on local community livelihoodsPozo R.A.; LeFlore E.G.; Duthie A.B.; Bunnefeld N.; Jones I.L.; Minderman J.; Rakotonarivo O.S.; Cusack J.J.Cambio de Uso de Suelo202110.1111/cobi.13565Conflicts between the interests of agriculture and wildlife conservation are a major threat to biodiversity and human well-being globally. Addressing such conflicts requires a thorough understanding of the impacts associated with living alongside protected wildlife. Despite this, most studies reporting on human–wildlife impacts and the strategies used to mitigate them focus on a single species, thus oversimplifying often complex systems of human–wildlife interactions. We sought to characterize the spatiotemporal patterns of impacts by multiple co-occurring species on agricultural livelihoods in the eastern Okavango Delta Panhandle in northern Botswana through the use of a database of 3264 wildlife-incident reports recorded from 2009 to 2015 by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks. Eight species (African elephants [Loxodonta africana], hippopotamuses [Hippopotamus amphibious], lions [Panthera leo], cheetah [Acinonyx jubatus], African wild dogs [Lycaon pictus], hyenas [Crocuta crocuta], leopards [Panthera pardus], and crocodiles [Crocodylus niloticus]) appeared on incident reports, of which 56.5% were attributed to elephants. Most species were associated with only 1 type of damage (i.e., either crop damage or livestock loss). Carnivores were primarily implicated in incident reports related to livestock loss, particularly toward the end of the dry season (May–October). In contrast, herbivores were associated with crop-loss incidents during the wet season (November–April). Our results illustrate how local communities can face distinct livelihood challenges from different species at different times of the year. Such a multispecies assessment has important implications for the design of conservation interv