Línea de investigación:

Ciudades resilientes

Esta línea de investigación busca comprender cómo evolucionan las ciudades de Chile en cuanto a contaminación, eventos extremos, vulnerabilidad, resiliencia y gobernanza, enfocándose en cómo las dinámicas de estos procesos se perciben a escala humana y son agravados por la desigualdad social.

Para el período 2024-2025, la línea profundizará en la evaluación y cuantificación de los factores que están impulsando los cambios en las ciudades, especialmente en un contexto de clima cambiante.

La investigación de la línea pone foco en la gobernanza urbana, con base en la gobernanza climática integrada de los elementos propuesta por el CR2, y la operacionalización del modelo de resiliencia integrada, que considera el vínculo entre el clima urbano y la salud humana, el nexo entre alimentos, agua y energía, así como los riesgos compuestos a escala urbana.

La línea también busca contribuir al diagnóstico de los presupuestos nacionales de carbono al refinar los inventarios nacionales y latinoamericanos, y apoyar la primera estimación de flujos de carbono en los sistemas socioecológicos chilenos mediante el acoplamiento de emisiones de los sectores transporte, industria, energía, minero y residencial.

Esta investigación, junto a la de pobreza energética, permite a la línea profundizar en las barreras que limitan la implementación de transiciones justas y transformadoras en diferentes territorios.

Revisa los logros de investigación de esta línea en nuestra memoria institucional

INVESTIGADORA PRINCIPAL

INVESTIGADORES ASOCIADOS

INVESTIGADOR JORNADA COMPLETA

INVESTIGADORES ADJUNTOS

INVESTIGADORES COLABORADORES

ESTUDIANTES

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Noticias relacionadas

TítuloAutoresLínea de InvestigaciónAñoDOIAbstractRevistaISSNAccesoPáginasVolumenIndexKeywordsAfiliaciones
Temporal and Spatial Trends of Adverse Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes in a Sample of Births from a Public Hospital in ChileBlanco E.; Ruiz-Rudolph P.; Yohannessen K.; Ayala S.; Quinteros M.E.; Delgado-Saborit J.M.; Blazquez C.A.; Iglesias V.; Zapata D.A.; Bartington S.E.; Harrison R.M.; Ossa X.Ciudades Resilientes202310.1007/s11524-023-00733-yUnderstanding temporal and spatial trends in pregnancy and birth outcomes within an urban area is important for the monitoring of health indicators of a population. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all births in the public hospital of Temuco, a medium-sized city in Southern Chile between 2009 and 2016 (n = 17,237). Information on adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, as well as spatial and maternal characteristics (insurance type, employment, smoking, age, and overweight/obesity), was collected from medical charts. Home addresses were geocoded and assigned to neighborhood. We tested whether births and prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes changed over time, whether birth events were spatially clustered (Moran’s I statistic), and whether neighborhood deprivation was correlated to outcomes (Spearman’s rho). We observed decreases in eclampsia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and small for gestational age, while gestational diabetes, preterm birth, and low birth weight increased over the study period (all p < 0.01 for trend), with little changes after adjusting for maternal characteristics. We observed neighborhood clusters for birth rate, preterm birth, and low birth weight. Neighborhood deprivation was negatively correlated with low birth weight and preterm birth, but not correlated with eclampsia, preeclampsia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, small for gestational age, gestational diabetes, nor stillbirth. Several encouraging downward trends and some increases in adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, which, overall, were not explained by changes in maternal characteristics were observed. Identified clusters of higher adverse birth outcomes may be used to evaluate preventive health coverage in this setting. © 2023, The New York Academy of Medicine.Journal of Urban Health10993460https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-023-00733-y513-524100Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; diabetes, gestational; eclampsia; female; hospitals, birth outcomes; chile; pregnancy complication; spatial analysis; temporal trends, newborn; pregnancy; pregnancy outcome; premature birth; retrospective studies; chile; eclampsia; female; gestational diabetes; human; maternal hypertension; newborn; pregnancy; pregnancy outcome; prematurity; public hospital; retrospective study, public; humans; hypertension, pregnancy-induced; infantCentro de Investigación en Sociedad y Salud y Núcleo Milenio de Sociomedicina, Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile; Programa de Epidemiología, Instituto de Salud Poblacional, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Independencia 939, Independencia, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Ciencias de La Salud, Universidad de Talca, Avenida Lircay S/N, Talca, Chile; PhD Program in Public Health, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Independencia 939, Independencia, Santiago, Chile; Perinatal Epidemiology, Environmental Health and Clinical Research, School of Medicine, Universitat Jaume I, Avinguda de Vicent Sos Baynat, S/N, Castellón, Castellón de La Plana, 12071, Spain; Environmental Research Group, MRC Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Michael Uren Biomedical Engineering Hub, White City Campus, Wood Lane, London, W12 0BZ, United Kingdom; School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom; Department of Engineering Sciences, Universidad Andres Bello, Quillota 980, Viña del Mar, Chile; Programa de Epidemiología, Escuela de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Independencia 939, Independencia, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Applied Health Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom; Departmen...
Andean peatlands at risk? Spatiotemporal patterns of extreme NDVI anomalies, water extraction and drought severity in a large-scale mining area of Atacama, northern ChileChávez R.O.; Meseguer-Ruiz O.; Olea M.; Calderón-Seguel M.; Yager K.; Isela Meneses R.; Lastra J.A.; Núñez-Hidalgo I.; Sarricolea P.; Serrano-Notivoli R.; Prieto M.Ciudades Resilientes202310.1016/j.jag.2022.103138In the Andes, multiple human and climatic factors threaten the conservation of bofedales, a type of high altitude peat forming wetland widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical Andes. In northern Chile, climate change and water extraction for industrial activities are among the most significant threats to these relevant socio-hydrological systems hosting indigenous pastoral communities. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) anomalies, drought severity and water rights granted to industry to provide insight on the conservation status of bofedales, historical drivers of their transformation, and current threats. Using Landsat satellite imagery from 1986 to 2018, we identify spatio-temporal NDVI changes of 442 bofedales in one of the leading copper producing regions of the world. The NDVI time series analysis over 32 growing seasons was used to detect extreme anomalies, i.e. values outside the 95 % of the reference frequency distribution, indicating periods of extreme changes in the productivity of these high Andes wetlands. To evaluate the relationship between bofedales NDVI extreme periods to drought and continued water extraction activities, we combine a climate-based multi-temporal-scale drought index (SPEI) with the geospatial latitudinal distribution of water rights granted for extractive industries in the study area. Over the time period of analysis, the total amount of granted water rights increased 465 % from 1,201 l/s recorded before 1985 to 5,584 l/s in 2018. In the areas where the highest amount of water rights are concentrated, i.e. between 21.3°S and 22.1°S, “green” bofedales (NDVI>=0.23) are practically absent. NDVI of the austral summer (JFM) was highly correlated with the severity of drought occurring during the three months of the growing season peak. While our findings show bofedal productivity is mostly influenced by precipitation and temperature of the wet season (JFM) during the study period, results also raise questions regarding possible bofedal loss occurring over the previous 80 years prior to the satellite record, wherein water extraction activities have significantly increased according to official records. © 2022International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation15698432https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1569843222003260art103138116Thomson Reuters SCIEandes; atacama; atacama desert; chile; conservation status; drought; growing season; land degradation; landsat; mining; ndvi; peatland; risk assessment; satellite imagery; spatiotemporal analysis; time series analysis; water resource; wetland, atacama desert; bofedal; npphen; productivity; speiMillenium Nucleus in Andean Peatlands (AndesPeat), Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), Chile; Laboratorio de Geo-Información y Percepción Remota, Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, 2362807, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Históricas y Geográficas, Universidad de Tarapacá, Luis Emilio Recabarren 2477, Iquique, 1101783, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Sociales, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas, Universidad de Tarapacá, Iquique 1101319, Baquedano, 1325, Chile; School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Endeavour 145, Stony Brook, 11790, NY, United States; Instituto de Arqueología y Antropología, Universidad Católica del Norte, Le Paige 380, San Pedro de Atacama, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins 340, Región Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Estudios en Ecología Espacial y Medio Ambiente - Ecogeografía, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad de Chile, Portugal 84, Santiago, Santiago, 8331051, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Francisco Tomás y Valiente 1, Madrid, 28049, Spain; Departamento de Ciencias Históricas y Geográficas, Universidad de Tarapacá, 18 de septiembre, 2222, Arica, 1010069, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
A machine learning approach to address air quality changes during the COVID-19 lockdown in Buenos Aires, ArgentinaDiaz Resquin M.; Lichtig P.; Alessandrello D.; De Oto M.; Gómez D.; Rössler C.; Castesana P.; Dawidowski L.Ciudades Resilientes202310.5194/essd-15-189-2023Having a prediction model for air quality at a low computational cost can be useful for research, forecasting, regulatory, and monitoring applications. This is of particular importance for Latin America, where rapid urbanization has imposed increasing stress on the air quality of almost all cities. In recent years, machine learning techniques have been increasingly accepted as a useful tool for air quality forecasting. Out of these, random forest has proven to be an approach that is both well-performing and computationally efficient while still providing key components reflecting the nonlinear relationships among emissions, chemical reactions, and meteorological effects. In this work, we employed the random forest methodology to build and test a forecasting model for the city of Buenos Aires. We used this model to study the deep decline in most pollutants during the lockdown imposed by the COVID-19 (COronaVIrus Disease 2019) pandemic by analyzing the effects of the change in emissions, while taking into account the changes in the meteorology, using two different approaches. First, we built random forest models trained with the data from before the beginning of the lockdown periods. We used the data to make predictions of the business-as-usual scenario during the lockdown periods and estimated the changes in concentrations by comparing the model results with the observations. This allowed us to assess the combined effects of the particular weather conditions and the reduction in emissions during the period when restrictions were in place. Second, we used random forest with meteorological normalization to compare the observational data from the lockdown periods with the data from the same dates in 2019, thus decoupling the effects of the meteorology from short-term emission changes. This allowed us to analyze the general effect that restrictions similar to those imposed during the pandemic could have on pollutant concentrations, and this information could be useful to design mitigation strategies. The results during testing showed that the model captured the observed hourly variations and the diurnal cycles of these pollutants with a normalized mean bias of less than 6% and Pearson correlation coefficients of the diurnal variations between 0.64 and 0.91 for all the pollutants considered. Based on the random forest results, we estimated that the lockdown implied relative changes in concentration of up to -45% for CO, -75% for NO, -46% for NO2, -12% for SO2, and -33% for PM10 during the strictest mobility restrictions. O3 had a positive relative change in concentration (up to an 80%) that is consistent with the response in a volatile-organic-compound-limited chemical regime to the decline in NOx emissions. The relative changes estimated using the meteorological normalization technique show mostly smaller changes than those obtained by the random forest predictive model. The relative changes were up to -26% for CO, up to -47% for NO, -36% for NO2, -20% for PM10, and up to 27% for O3. SO2 is the only species that had a larger relative change when the meteorology was normalized (up to 20%). This points out the need for accounting not only for differences in emissions but also in meteorological variables in order to evaluate the lockdown effects on air quality. The findings of this study may be valuable for formulating emission control strategies that do not disregard their implication on secondary pollutants. We believe that the model itself can also be a valuable contribution to a forecasting system in the city and that the general methodology could also be easily applied to other Latin American cities as well. We also provide the first O3 and SO2 observational dataset in more that a decade for a residential area in Buenos Aires, and it is openly available at 10.17632/h9y4hb8sf8.1 . © 2023 Melisa Diaz Resquin et al.Earth System Science Data18663508https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-15-189-2023189-20915Thomson Reuters SCIEComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Gerencia Química, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Modeling and Observing Systems, Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Comisión de Ambiente, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Misión Ambiente, YPF Tecnología S. A. (Y-TEC), Buenos Aires, Argentina
A large diffusion and small amplification dynamics for density classification on graphsLeal L.; Montealegre P.; Osses A.; Rapaport I.Ciudades Resilientes202310.1142/S0129183123500560The density classification problem on graphs consists in finding a local dynamics such that, given a graph and an initial configuration of 0's and 1's assigned to the nodes of the graph, the dynamics converge to the fixed point configuration of all 1's if the fraction of 1's is greater than the critical density (typically 1/2) and, otherwise, it converges to the all 0's fixed point configuration. To solve this problem, we follow the idea proposed in [R. Briceño, P. M. de Espanés, A. Osses and I. Rapaport, Physica D 261, 70 (2013)], where the authors designed a cellular automaton inspired by two mechanisms: diffusion and amplification. We apply this approach to different well-known graph classes: complete, regular, star, Erdös-Rényi and Barabási-Albert graphs. © 2023 World Scientific Publishing Company.International Journal of Modern Physics C01291831https://doi.org/10.1142/S0129183123500560art235005634Thomson Reuters SCIEautomata networks; density classification; laplacian matrix, nanDepartamento de Ingeniería Matemática, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Chile; DIM-CMM (UMI 2807 CNRS), Universidad de Chile, Chile
Hydrological connections in a glaciated Andean catchment under permafrost conditions (33°S)Pereira S.R.; Díez B.; Cifuentes-Anticevic J.; Leray S.; Fernandoy F.; Marquardt C.; Lambert F.Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes202310.1016/j.ejrh.2022.101311Fresh water supply is critical along the Andes, where drought conditions over the past decade are projected to persist. At high Andean headwater catchments, frozen ground conditions are assumed to modulate groundwater flow paths and their hydrological signals at different timescales. However, knowledge of hydrological connections in subtropical Andean catchments is still very sparse. This study assessed hydrological connections and their impacts on groundwater contribution to baseflow in a headwater proglacial aquifer located in central Chile at 33° S and 3600 m a.s.l. We collected and analyzed snow, glacial stream, and groundwater spring water samples between 2019 and 2021. We combined of water isotope and metagenomic proxies with the hydraulic parameterization of the catchment to deliver mean transit time distributions through the proglacial aquifer. The new hydrological insights for the region include the finding that groundwater spring signals delivered sub-decadal transit times, implying likely origins from glacial or interstitial ice. Additionally, the stable isotope signature showed that groundwater consistently differs from snow and surface runoff. The 16S rRNA metabarcoding analyses demonstrated the presence of psychrophilic microorganisms in groundwater springs, supporting the idea of a late warm-season activation of interstitial ice due to thawing events associated with a differential relative-abundance of specific cryophilic bacteria. Finally, our results suggest hydrological connections and dampening timeframes between glaciers, proglacial areas, and groundwater springs, most likely from thawing sources. © 2023 The AuthorsJournal of Hydrology: Regional Studies22145818https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S221458182200324Xart10131145Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, 16s rrna metabarcoding; cryophilic bacteria; high andes; mountain permafrost; proglacial aquifer; transit timesDepartamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Millennium Institute Center for Genome Regulation (CGR), Chile; Centro de Cambio Global, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Laboratorio de Análisis Isotópico, Universidad Andrés Bello, Viña del Mar, Chile; DIEM/DIEG, Escuela de Ingeniería, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Road transport exhaust emissions in Colombia. 1990–2020 trends and spatial disaggregationRojas N.Y.; Mangones S.C.; Osses M.; Granier C.; Laengle I.; Alfonso A. J.V.; Mendez J.A.Ciudades Resilientes202310.1016/j.trd.2023.103780Road traffic-related air pollution costs society in terms of lost lives, health problems, and financial damages. For directing regulatory actions and enhancing air quality, governments require emission inventories and trends over time across all geographic areas. This study provides a high-resolution spatially disaggregated on-road transportation emissions inventory in Colombia from 1990 to 2020. Our estimates followed a top-down approach that accounted for local characteristics such as fleet technology, fuel consumption, road infrastructure, and activity factors at a national and state level. We report annual CO2, CH4, NOx, VOCs, PM2,5, and black carbon at a spatial resolution of 0.01° x 0.01°. Economic crises (1998–2001), stringent emission requirements (2011), and the most recent sanitary quarantine (2020) all have an impact on emissions patterns, which grow at a slower rate than vehicle activity. For the annual emissions of CH4, CO, and PM2.5, the growth of motorbikes in the vehicle fleet is particularly crucial. © 2023 Elsevier LtdTransportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment13619209https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1361920923001773art103780121Thomson Reuters SCIE, SSCIair quality; fleet operations; obsolescence; roads and streets; vehicles; ch 4; colombia; emission inventories; energy-consumption; exhausts emissions; on-road transport; road transports; spatial disaggregation; transport emissions; vehicle obsolescence; energy utilization, air pollution; emission inventory; energy consumption; on-road transport; transport emissions; vehicle obsolescenceDepartment of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 45 26-85, Bogotá, 111321, Colombia; Department of Civil and Agricultural Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 45 26-85, Bogotá, 111321, Colombia; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Campus San Joaquín, Vicuña Mackenna 3939, Santiago, Chile; LAERO - Laboratoire d'Aérologie, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 14 avenue Édouard Belin, Toulouse, 31400, France; CSL - NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory and CIRES - University of Colorado, 325 Broadway R/CSL, CO, Boulder, 80305-3337, United States
Precipitation extremes in the Puna of Atacama Desert, Chile: How to manage current and future uncertainty?; [Precipitación extrema en la Puna del Desierto de Atacama: ¿Cómo gestionar la incertidumbre actual y futura?]Sarricolea P.; Romero-Aravena H.; Serrano-Notivoli R.; Meseguer-Ruiz O.; Dubreuil V.; Funatsu B.M.Ciudades Resilientes202310.14198/INGEO.22852Chile is one of the Latin American countries most affected by Climate Change. There is a high level of uncertainty regarding the variability of precipitation and its projections in many regions of this country. This poses challenges for climate characterization and for defining strategies to reduce its risks. The study area is the Puna of Atacama Desert, Andean highlands located to the eastern side of the extreme arid lands, a region that concentrates the main copper and lithium mining at word scale, and where meteorological observations are scarce, with missing data and unreliable projections. Considering this data limitations, a daily precipitation database of 35 weather stations was constructed in order to evaluate some extreme precipitation indices that allow establishing changes between 1981-2017, in addition to spatial interpolations based on topography. It is concluded that most of the meteorological stations do not present significant trends of change, e.g. Extremely wet days (R99p), Wet days (RR) and Consecutive wet days (CWD). The index with the highest number of stations with a trend is CDD, which shows an increase in consecutive dry days. One of the main contributions of this research was to expand the number of observations and to generate maps of the spatial distribution of the indices of extremes. We are facing open questions regarding living with uncertainty, and meeting the challenges of maintaining records to increase the levels of certainty of climatic changes. © Pablo Sarricolea, Hugo Romero, Roberto Serrano-Notivoli, Oliver Meseguer-Ruiz, Vincent Dubreuil, Beatriz M. Funatsu.Investigaciones Geograficas (Spain)02134691https://doi.org/10.14198/INGEO.2285251-66Thomson Reuters ESCIextreme indices; precipitation trends; salar de san pedro de atacama; uncertainty, nanDepartamento de Geografía, Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Departamento de Geografía y Ordenación del Territorio, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain; Departamento de Ciencias Históricas y Geográficas, Universidad de Tarapacá, Sede Iquique, Chile; Université Rennes 2, LETG-COSTEL, UMR 6554 CNRS, France; CNRS, Nantes Université, LETG UMR, 6554, France
Volatile organic compounds measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry over the complex terrain of Quintero Bay, Central ChileSeguel R.J.; Garreaud R.; Muñoz R.; Bozkurt D.; Gallardo L.; Opazo C.; Jorquera H.; Castillo L.; Menares C.Agua y Extremos; Ciudades Resilientes202310.1016/j.envpol.2023.121759This research provides new evidence regarding the different kinds of air quality episodes, and their underlying mechanisms, that frequently impact the urban area of Quintero Bay in Central Chile, which is located along complex coastal terrain and is surrounded by industries. The monitoring campaign was carried out in January 2022 and encompassed two distinctive meteorological regimes. The first part of the month was dominated by a coastal low centered to the south of Quintero, which resulted in prevailing northerly flow (or weak southerlies) and a deep cloud-topped marine boundary layer. After a 2–3-day transition, the latter collapsed, and a clear-sky regime ensued, which was characterized by a shallow boundary layer and strong southerly winds during the daytime that lasted until the end of the campaign. By using proton transfer reaction time of flight mass spectrometry (PTR–TOF–MS) at a high temporal resolution (1 s), we measured high levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during air quality episodes in real time. The episodes detected were associated with different prevailing meteorological regimes, suggesting that different point sources were involved. In the first episode, propene/cyclopropane, butenes, benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene/xylenes were associated with north and northwesterly weak winds. Complaints associated with hydrocarbon odor were reported. The pollution originated from industrial and petrochemical units located to the north of Quintero, which transport and store natural gas, liquified petroleum gas and oil. The second episode was linked to an oil refinery located south of our measurement site. In this case, high levels of phenol, furan and cresols occurred under strong southwesterly winds. During this event, headaches and dizziness were reported. By contrast, the levels of other aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene/xylenes) were lower than in the first air pollution episode. © 2023 Elsevier LtdEnvironmental Pollution02697491https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0269749123007613art121759330Thomson Reuters SCIEair pollutants; bays; benzene; chile; environmental monitoring; mass spectrometry; protons; toluene; volatile organic compounds; xylenes; chile; quintero bay; valparaiso [chile]; air quality; benzene; boundary layers; ethylbenzene; mass spectrometry; meteorology; petroleum transportation; proton transfer; toluene; wind; aromatic compound; benzene; cresol; cyclopropane; ethylbenzene; furan; natural gas; oil; petroleum derivative; phenol; propylene; toluene; volatile organic compound; xylene; benzene; proton; toluene; volatile organic compound; xylene; air quality episode; central chile; clear sky; coastal terrain; complex terrains; marine boundary layers; proton transfer reactions; proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometries; sacrifice zone; urban areas; air quality; atmospheric pollution; benzene; coastal zone; complex terrain; mass spectrometry; pollutant source; pollution monitoring; reaction kinetics; toluene; topographic effect; urban area; volatile organic compound; wind field; air pollutant; air pollution; air quality; article; chile; controlled study; dizziness; headache; limit of detection; mass spectrometry; meteorology; oil industry; particulate matter 2.5; proton transport; reaction time; semiarid climate; time of flight mass spectrometry; urban area; air pollutant; bay; environmental monitoring; mass spectrometry; procedures; volatile organic compounds, air quality episodes; benzene; proton transfer reaction; sacrifice zone; toluene; volatile organic compoundsSantiago, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Meteorology, University of Valparaíso, Chile; Center for Oceanographic Research COPAS COASTAL, University of Concepción, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Desarrollo Urbano Sustentable (CEDEUS), Chile
Health and Safety Effects of Airborne Soil Dust in the Americas and BeyondTong D.Q.; Gill T.E.; Sprigg W.A.; Van Pelt R.S.; Baklanov A.A.; Barker B.M.; Bell J.E.; Castillo J.; Gassó S.; Gaston C.J.; Griffin D.W.; Huneeus N.; Kahn R.A.; Kuciauskas A.P.; Ladino L.A.; Li J.; Mayol-Bracero O.L.; McCotter O.Z.; Méndez-Lázaro P.A.; Mudu P.; Nickovic S.; Oyarzun D.; Prospero J.; Raga G.B.; Raysoni A.U.; Ren L.; Sarafoglou N.; Sealy A.; Sun Z.; Vimic A.V.Ciudades Resilientes202310.1029/2021RG000763Risks associated with dust hazards are often underappreciated, a gap between the knowledge pool and public awareness that can be costly for impacted communities. This study reviews the emission sources and chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of airborne soil particles (dust) and their effects on human and environmental health and safety in the Pan-American region. American dust originates from both local sources (western United States, northern Mexico, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina) and long-range transport from Africa and Asia. Dust properties, as well as the trends and interactions with criteria air pollutants, are summarized. Human exposure to dust is associated with adverse health effects, including asthma, allergies, fungal infections, and premature death. In the Americas, a well-documented and striking effect of soil dust is its association with Coccidioidomycosis, commonly known as Valley fever, an infection caused by inhalation of soil-dwelling fungi unique to this region. Besides human health, dust affects environmental health through nutrients that increase phytoplankton biomass, contaminants that diminish water supply and affect food (crops/fruits/vegetables and ready-to-eat meat), spread crop and marine pathogens, cause Valley fever among domestic and wild animals, transport heavy metals, radionuclides and microplastics, and reduce solar and wind power generation. Dust is also a safety hazard to road transportation and aviation, in the southwestern US where blowing dust is one of the deadliest weather hazards. To mitigate the harmful effects, coordinated regional and international efforts are needed to enhance dust observations and prediction capabilities, soil conservation measures, and Valley fever and other disease surveillance. © 2023. The Authors.Reviews of Geophysics87551209https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2021RG000763arte2021RG00076361Thomson Reuters SCIEair pollution; crops; diseases; fungi; hazards; health risks; heavy metals; landforms; power generation; soil conservation; soil pollution; soils; water supply; wind power; airborne soils; america; dust hazards; environmental health; health and safety; health effects; human health; mitigation; public awareness; soil dust; dust, america; dust; environmental health; health effect; mitigation; safetyGeorge Mason University, Fairfax, VA, United States; Department of Earth, Environmental and Resource Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, United States; Science Policy Consultants and University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States; USDA-ARS Wind Erosion and Water Conservation, Big Spring, TX, United States; World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Pathogen and Microbiome Institute, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, United States; Department of Environmental, Agricultural and Occupational Health, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, United States; Pan-American Health Organization, Washington, DC, United States; University of Maryland/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, United States; Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States; United States Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL, United States; Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Earth Sciences Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, United States; Marine Meteorology Division, United States Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, CA, United States; Instituto de Ciencias de la Atmósfera y Cambio Climático, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Department of Geography, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, United States; Oregon Health Authority, Portland, OR, United S...
A pilot study for climate risk assessment in agriculture: a climate-based index for cherry treesTudela V.; Sarricolea P.; Serrano-Notivoli R.; Meseguer-Ruiz O.Ciudades Resilientes202310.1007/s11069-022-05549-8Cherry trees are one of Chile’s most important specialty crop activities. Its commercial orchards have an extensive spatial distribution between the 31° S and 48° S, spreading from semiarid to tundra climates, but the trees appear primarily in the Mediterranean climate. Different extreme weather events, such as frosts, precipitation, and high temperatures, affect this crop at different phenological stages, especially in bloom, ripening, and floral differentiation. Based on a high-resolution climatic-gridded dataset of daily temperature and precipitation data, we defined an integrated risk index (RI) representing the frequency of occurrence of the events throughout the plant development period and considering each type of risk affecting each concrete phenological stage. High RI values indicate high climatic risk. The RI follows a meridional pattern influenced by elevation, with higher values in the highest elevations between 36° S and 40° S, sensitive to the simultaneous occurrence of frosts and precipitation events. The northern coast exhibited the lowest risk values, while a general gradient from low values in coastal areas to higher ones in inland elevated zones revealed an altitudinal pattern. Low-risk areas have a sparse distribution of crops, which can be explained by several factors restricting cherry cultivation such as soil limitations, high slopes, lack of productive support infrastructure, and competition with other profitable forestry and agricultural activities in the north and forest production in the south. These results will help to improve climate impact assessments for production systems, which can be conducted by following an easy-to-understand tool. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.Natural Hazards0921030Xhttps://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11069-022-05549-8163-185115Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; agriculture; angiosperm; extreme event; precipitation assessment; risk assessment; semiarid region; spatial distribution, extreme events; frosts; heat damage; precipitation events; risk index; sweet cherryInstituto de Ciencias Agroalimentarias, Animales y Ambientales – ICA3, Universidad de O’Higgins, San Fernando, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; CITRID, Programa de Reducción de Riesgos y Desastres, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Departamento de Ciencias Históricas y Geográficas, Universidad de Tarapacá, Iquique, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Advances in Simulating the Global Spatial Heterogeneity of Air Quality and Source Sector Contributions: Insights into the Global SouthZhang D.; Martin R.V.; Bindle L.; Li C.; Eastham S.D.; van Donkelaar A.; Gallardo L.Ciudades Resilientes202310.1021/acs.est.2c07253High-resolution simulations are essential to resolve fine-scale air pollution patterns due to localized emissions, nonlinear chemical feedbacks, and complex meteorology. However, high-resolution global simulations of air quality remain rare, especially of the Global South. Here, we exploit recent developments to the GEOS-Chem model in its high-performance implementation to conduct 1-year simulations in 2015 at cubed-sphere C360 (∼25 km) and C48 (∼200 km) resolutions. We investigate the resolution dependence of population exposure and sectoral contributions to surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), focusing on understudied regions. Our results indicate pronounced spatial heterogeneity at high resolution (C360) with large global population-weighted normalized root-mean-square difference (PW-NRMSD) across resolutions for primary (62-126%) and secondary (26-35%) PM2.5 species. Developing regions are more sensitive to spatial resolution resulting from sparse pollution hotspots, with PW-NRMSD for PM2.5 in the Global South (33%), 1.3 times higher than globally. The PW-NRMSD for PM2.5 for discrete southern cities (49%) is substantially higher than for more clustered northern cities (28%). We find that the relative order of sectoral contributions to population exposure depends on simulation resolution, with implications for location-specific air pollution control strategies. © 2023 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.Environmental Science and Technology0013936Xhttps://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.2c072536955-696457Thomson Reuters SCIEair quality modeling; fine particulate matter; high resolution; nitrogen dioxide; population exposure; sectoral contributions, air pollutants; air pollution; cities; computer simulation; environmental monitoring; particulate matter; air pollution control; nitrogen oxides; particles (particulate matter); nitrogen dioxide; air quality models; fine particulate matter; fine-scale; high resolution; high resolution simulations; pm 2.5; population exposure; root mean square differences; sectoral contribution; spatial heterogeneity; air quality; atmospheric pollution; global perspective; nitrogen dioxide; particulate matter; pollution control; air pollution control; air quality; article; particulate matter 2.5; population exposure; spatial analysis; air pollutant; air pollution; city; computer simulation; environmental monitoring; particulate matter; procedures; air qualityDepartment of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, 63130, MO, United States; Laboratory for Aviation and the Environment, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 02139, MA, United States; Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 02139, MA, United States; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, 8370448, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Physical Sciences and Mathematics, University of Chile, Santiago, 8370448, Chile
High resolution urban climatic risk impact maps in Gran Valparaiso, ChileAlamos,Nicolás;Videla,Jose;Madariaga,Marcelo;Gajardo,Vicente;Muñoz,Ariel;Billi,Marco;Amigo,Catalina;Agua y Extremos; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes202310.17605/OSF.IO/E7FPYThis collection of maps contains a set of 6 layers assessing the risk of the population of the Gran Valparaíso conurbation (Chile) in the face of threats of extreme heat, storm surges, floods, forest fires, landslides, and Droughts. The maps have a resolution at the Chilean census block level. The layers show as available attributes the overall level of risk and its components: threat (A), exposure (E), sensitivity (S), and response capacity (CR). To estimate the risk, A, E, S, and CR indices are combined through a fuzzy logic methodology, which considers using causality rules co-constructed and validated with local experts and stakeholders. It should be considered that the values ​​presented by each census block on the maps represent an ordering of risk (and of A, E, S, and CR), where higher values ​​indicate a greater risk than apples with lower values. The results are ordinal, ranging from mild, through moderately mild, to moderate, high, or very high. Moreover, they are not absolute values but relative to the specific case study and should not be comparable or extrapolated to other study areas. This Work is an actualization of what is presented by Alamos, N., Billi, M., Amigo, C., Urquiza, A., Winckler, P., Larraguibel, C., … Valdebenito, C. (2022, March 23). Fuzzy logic modeling to assess high-resolution spatial urban climatic risk impact in Valparaiso, Chile. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/2XTVS Español Esta colección de mapas contiene un conjunto de 6 capas que evalúan el riesgo de la población de la connurbación del Gran Valparaíso (Chile) ante amenazas de calor extremo, marejadas, inundaciones, incendios forestales, deslizamientos y sequías. Los mapas tienen una resolución a nivel de manzana censal. Las capas muestran como atributos disponibles el nivel global de riesgo y sus componentes: amenaza (A), exposición (E), sensibilidad (S) y capacidad de respuesta (CR). Para estimar el riesgo, los índices de A, E, S y CR se combinan a través de una metodología de lógica difusa, que considera el uso de reglas de causalidad co-construidas y validadas con expertos locales y partes interesadas. Se debe considerar que los valores que presenta cada manzana censal en los mapas representan un ordenamiento de riesgo (y de A, E, S y CR), donde los valores más altos indican mayor riesgo que las manzanas con valores más bajos. Los resultados son ordinales, que van desde leves, pasando por moderadamente leves, hasta moderados, altos o muy altos. Además, no son valores absolutos, sino relativos al caso de estudio específico y no deben ser comparables ni extrapolables a otras áreas de estudio. Este Trabajo es una actualización de lo presentado por Alamos, N., Billi, M., Amigo, C., Urquiza, A., Winckler, P., Larraguibel, C., … Valdebenito, C. (2022, March 23). Fuzzy logic modelling to assess high resolution spatial urban climatic risk impact in Valparaiso, Chile. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/2XTVS omparables ni extrapolables a otras áreas de estudio. Este Trabajo es una actualización de lo presentado por Alamos, N., Billi, M., Amigo, C., Urquiza, A., Winckler, P., Larraguibel, C., … Valdebenito, C. (2022, March 23). Fuzzy logic modelling to assess high resolution spatial urban climatic risk impact in Valparaiso, Chile. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/2XTVS omparables ni extrapolables a otras áreas de estudio. Este Trabajo es una actualización de lo presentado por Alamos, N., Billi, M., Amigo, C., Urquiza, A., Winckler, P., Larraguibel, C., … Valdebenito, C. (2022, March 23). Fuzzy logic modelling to assess high resolution spatial urban climatic risk impact in Valparaiso, Chile. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/2XTVShttps://osf.io/e7fpy/Not Indexed
Comité Científico de Cambio Climático: Desalinización: Oportunidades y desafíos para abordar la inseguridad hídrica en Chile.Vicuña,S.;Daniele,L.;Farías,L.;González,H.;Marquet,P.;Palma-Behnke,R.;Stehr,A.;Urquiza,A.;Wagemann,E.;Arenas-Herrera,M.;Borquez,R.;Cornejo-Ponce,L.;Delgado,V.;Etcheberry,G.;Fragkou,M.;Fuster,R.;Gelcich,S.;Melo,O.;Monsalve,T.;Olivares,M.;Ramajo,L.;Ramirez-Pascualli,C.;Rojas,Carolina;Rojas,Christian;Vilca-Salinas,P.;Winckler,P.;Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes2023Frente al problema de escasez hídrica forzada por el cambio climático en Chile, particularmente en la zona norte del país, se han instalado plantas desalinizadoras de distintos tamaños, con varias más en proceso de estudio y evaluación. La masificación de esta tecnología nos plantea el desafío de planificar su desarrollo futuro tomando decisiones con bases científicas considerando las ventajas y desventajas de este tipo de tecnología. El presente documento fue elaborado en respuesta a la solicitud formal del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente para que el Comité Asesor Ministerial Científico para el Cambio Climático (C4) redactase un informe sobre el desarrollo de plantas desalinizadoras en el país. A partir de dicha solicitud, el Comité trabajó recopilando antecedentes y organizando talleres de trabajo con la comunidad científica a lo largo de varias etapas. Como resultado se prepararon una serie de recomendaciones, no siempre consensuadas, acerca del desarrollo de esta tecnología en el país.https://comitecientifico.minciencia.gob.cl/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/2022_informe_desalinizacion.pdfNot Indexed
A stability result for the identification of a permeability parameter on Navier-Stokes equationsAguayo J.; Osses A.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1088/1361-6420/ac6971In this work, we present a stability result for the inverse problem of recovering a smooth scalar permeability parameter given by the Brinkman's law applied to the steady Navier-Stokes equations from local observations of the fluid velocity on a fixed domain. In comparison with (Choulli et al 2013 Appl. Anal. 92 2127-43), we prove a logarithmic estimate under weaker assumptions, since our proof is based in a strategy that does not require pressure observations. This kind or result are useful for inverse problems in soft tissue elastography (see Honarvar et al 2012 Phys. Med. Biol. 57 5909-27). Finally, we present some numerical tests that validate our theoretical results. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing LtdInverse Problems02665611https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6420/ac6971art07500138Thomson Reuters SCIEinverse problems; medical imaging; navier stokes equations; a-stability; brinkman laws; carleman inequalities; elastography; fluid velocities; local observations; numerical tests; soft tissue; stability estimates; stability results; viscous flow, carleman inequalities; inverse problems; navier-stokes equations; stability estimateMathematical Engineering Department, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Bernoulli Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands; Center for Mathematical Modelling, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
High-resolution inventory of atmospheric emissions from transport, industrial, energy, mining and residential activities in ChileAlamos N.; Huneeus N.; Opazo M.; Osses M.; Puja S.; Pantoja N.; Denier Van Der Gon H.; Schueftan A.; Reyes R.; Calvo R.Ciudades Resilientes202210.5194/essd-14-361-2022This study presents the first high-resolution national inventory of anthropogenic emissions for Chile (Inventario Nacional de Emisiones Antropogenicas, INEMA). Emissions for the vehicular, industrial, energy, mining and residential sectors are estimated for the period 2015-2017 and spatially distributed onto a high-resolution grid (approximately 1km×1gkm). The pollutants included are CO2, NOx, SO2, CO, VOCs (volatile organic compounds), NH3 and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) for all sectors. CH4 and black carbon are included for transport and residential sources, while arsenic, benzene, mercury, lead, toluene, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furan (PCDD/F) are estimated for energy, mining and industrial sources. New activity data and emissions factors are compiled to estimate emissions, which are subsequently spatially distributed using census data and Chile's road network information. The estimated annual average total national emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 during the study period are 191 and 173kta-1 (kilotons per year), respectively. The residential sector is responsible for over 90g% of these emissions. This sector also emits 81g% and 87g% of total CO and VOC, respectively. On the other hand, the energy and industry sectors contribute significantly to NH3, SO2 and CO2 emissions, while the transport sector dominates NOx and CO2 emissions, and the mining sector dominates SO2 emissions. In general, emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants and CO2 in northern Chile are dominated by mining activities as well as thermoelectric power plants, while in central Chile the dominant sources are transport and residential emissions. The latter also mostly dominates emissions in southern Chile, which has a much colder climate. Preliminary analysis revealed the dominant role of the emission factors in the final emission uncertainty. Nevertheless, uncertainty in activity data also contributes as suggested by the difference in CO2 emissions between INEMA and EDGAR (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research). A comparison between these two inventories also revealed considerable differences for all pollutants in terms of magnitude and sectoral contribution, especially for the residential sector. EDGAR presents larger emissions for most of the pollutants except for CH4 and PM2.5. The differences between both inventories can partly be explained by the use of different emission factors, in particular for the residential sector, where emission factors incorporate information on firewood and local operation conditions. Although both inventories use similar emission factors, differences in CO2 emissions between both inventories indicate biases in the quantification of the activity. This inventory (available at 10.5281/zenodo.4784286, Alamos et al., 2021) will support the design of policies that seek to mitigate climate change and improve air quality by providing policymakers, stakeholders and scientists with qualified scientific spatially explicit emission information. © Copyright: Earth System Science Data18663508https://essd.copernicus.org/articles/14/361/2022/361-37914Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, chile; anthropogenic source; atmospheric pollution; carbon emission; dioxin; industrial emission; particulate matter; spatiotemporal analysisCenter for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias de la Computacion, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Climate, Air and Sustainability, TNO, Utrecht, Netherlands; Instituto Forestal, Valdivia, Chile; Instituto de Arquitectura y Urbanismo, Facultad de Arquitectura y Artes, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Institute of Geography, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Evaluating adaptation to drought in a changing climate: experience at the local scale in the Aconcagua ValleyAldunce P.; Lillo-Ortega G.; Araya-Valenzuela D.; Maldonado-Portilla P.; Gallardo L.Ciudades Resilientes; Agua y Extremos202210.1080/17565529.2021.1893150Since 2010, a severe drought has affected central Chile, resulting in losses that prompt the need to evaluate and improve adaptation responses. The evaluation process requires the engagement of multiple actors in order to collect knowledge of their experiences and to inform future design and implementation of adaptation responses. A case study was conducted in four counties of the Aconcagua Valley, Chile, to evaluate the usefulness of existing drought response measures, and to identify strengths and weaknesses, and relevant actors’ recommendations for overcoming them. We applied the Index for the Usefulness of Adaptation Practices (IUPA), a multi-criteria tool that systematically identifies the perceived usefulness of measures. The most salient strengths of the evaluated measures were: replicability, pertinence, and efficacy; representing key factors that could facilitate the implementation of drought responses in similar contexts. The most salient weaknesses were: lack of integration with other policy domains and projects, low environmental protection, diminished autonomy in decision-making, and inequity. Proposed recommendations to overcome these weaknesses have real potential for implementation because they emerged from local actors. Results present empirical evidence of the utility of participatory approaches for a context-specific evaluation of measures, contributing to enhance adaptation to climate variability and change. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.Climate and Development17565529https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17565529.2021.1893150121-13214Thomson Reuters SSCIchile; climate change; drought; evaluation of adaptation; index for the usefulness of adaptation practices (iupa), aconcagua valley; chile; valparaiso [chile]; adaptive management; autonomy; decision making; design; environmental policy; environmental protection; index method; knowledge; participatory approach; policy implementationFaculty of Agricultural Science, Department of Environmental Science and Renewable Natural Resources, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Heinrich Böll Foundation Cono Sur, Santiago, Chile; Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany; Independent consultant, Santiago, Chile
A simplified homogenization model applied to viscoelastic behavior of cortical bone at ultrasonic frequenciesAróstica R.; Aguilera A.; Osses A.; Minonzio J.-G.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1016/j.jbiomech.2021.110868Cortical bone is a complex multiscale medium and its study is of importance for clinical fracture prevention. In particular, cortical attenuation is known to be linked with shock energy absorption and ability to resist fracture. However, the links between cortical bone absorption and its multiscale structure are still not well understood. This work is about the use of homogenized tensors in order to characterize the viscoelastic behavior of cortical bone at ultrasonic frequencies, i.e., about 0.1 to 10 MHz. Such tensors are derived from the cell problem via two-scale homogenization theory for linear elastic and Kelvin–Voigt viscoelastic descriptions. The elliptic formulations obtained from the cell problems are implemented within the range of medically-observed porosities. Microstructure is assessed considering cubic cells with cylindrical inclusion and transverse isotropic assumption. A simplified model, adding one temporal parameter τ per phase, allows a good agreement with experimental data. The corresponding attenuation is proportional to the square of the frequency, in agreement with Kramer–Kronig relations. This development is proposed in the context of robust clinical inverse problem approaches using a restricted number of parameter. Two main properties for the material filling the pores are adjusted and discussed: absorption and shear contribution. Best agreement with experimental data is observed for material inside the pores being solid and highly attenuating. © 2021 Elsevier LtdJournal of Biomechanics00219290https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0021929021006242art110868131Thomson Reuters SCIEbone and bones; cortical bone; elasticity; porosity; ultrasonics; bone; inverse problems; tensors; ultrasonic waves; viscoelasticity; attenuation; cell problems; cortical bone; homogenization theory; microstructure mechanic; multiscale; quality factors; simplified homogenizations; ultrasonic frequency; viscoelastic behaviors; article; cortical bone; porosity; ultrasound; viscoelasticity; bone; diagnostic imaging; elasticity; microstructure, attenuation; cortical bone; homogenization theory; microstructure mechanics; multiscale; quality factor; ultrasound; viscoelasticityDepartamento de Ingeniería Matemática and Center for Mathematical Modeling UMI CNRS 2807, FCFM, Universidad de Chile, Av. Beaucheff 851, Santiago, Chile; Millenium Nucleus in Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Cardio MR, Chile; Millenium Nucleus Applied Control and Inverse Problems, ACIP, Chile; Escuela de Ingeniería Informática, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería en Salud, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile
Energy poverty effects on policy-based PM2.5 emissions mitigation in southern and central ChileCalvo R.; Álamos N.; Huneeus N.; O'Ryan R.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes202210.1016/j.enpol.2021.112762Residential firewood burning is the main source of PM2.5 emissions in southern and central Chile. In Chile, approximately 4000 premature deaths are observed each year due to air pollution. Mitigation policies aim to reduce dwellings' energy demand and foster cleaner but more expensive energy sources. Pre-existing energy poverty conditions are often overlooked in these policies, even though they can negatively affect the adoption of these measures. This article uses southern and central Chile as a case study to assess quantitatively different policy scenarios of PM2.5 emissions between 2017 and 2050, considering energy poverty-related effects. Results show that PM2.5 emissions will grow 16% over time under a business as usual scenario. If thermal improvement and stove/heater replacements are implemented, PM2.5 reductions depend on the scale of the policy: a 5%–6% reduction of total southern and central Chile PM2.5 emissions if only cities with Atmospheric Decontamination Plans are included; a 54%–56% reduction of PM2.5 emissions if these policies include other growing cities. Our study shows that the energy poverty effect potentially reduces the effectiveness of these measures in 25%. Consequently, if no anticipatory measures are taken, Chile's energy transition goals could be hindered and the effectiveness of mitigation policies to improve air quality significantly reduced. © 2021 Elsevier LtdEnergy Policy03014215https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0301421521006285art112762161Thomson Reuters SCIE, SSCIchile; economic and social effects; housing; particles (particulate matter); % reductions; central chile; energy poverties; firewood consumption; mitigation policies; particulate matter; policy-based; stove replacement; thermal; thermal retrofit; air quality; biomass burning; emission control; energy use; fuel consumption; particulate matter; poverty; temperature effect; air quality, energy poverty; firewood consumption; particulate matter; stove replacement; thermal retrofitDoctorado en Geografía, Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del clima y la Resiliencia (CR2), Santiago, Chile; Red de Pobreza Energética, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibañez, Santiago, Chile
PAPILA dataset: A regional emission inventory of reactive gases for South America based on the combination of local and global informationCastesana P.; Diaz Resquin M.; Huneeus N.; Puliafito E.; Darras S.; Gómez D.; Granier C.; Osses Alvarado M.; Rojas N.; Dawidowski L.Ciudades Resilientes202210.5194/essd-14-271-2022The multidisciplinary project Prediction of Air Pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean (PAPILA) is dedicated to the development and implementation of an air quality analysis and forecasting system to assess pollution impacts on human health and economy. In this context, a comprehensive emission inventory for South America was developed on the basis of the existing data on the global dataset CAMS-GLOB-ANT v4.1 (developed by joining CEDS trends and EDGAR v4.3.2 historical data), enriching it with data derived from locally available emission inventories for Argentina, Chile, and Colombia. This work presents the results of the first joint effort of South American researchers and European colleagues to generate regional maps of emissions, together with a methodological approach to continue incorporating information into future versions of the dataset. This version of the PAPILA dataset includes CO, NOx, NMVOCs, NH3, and SO2 annual emissions from anthropogenic sources for the period 2014-2016, with a spatial resolution of 0.1gg×g0.1gover a domain that covers 32-120ggW and 34ggN-58ggS. The PAPILA dataset is presented as netCDF4 files and is available in an open-Access data repository under a CC-BY 4 license: 10.17632/btf2mz4fhf.3 . A comparative assessment of PAPILA-CAMS datasets was carried out for (i) the South American region, (ii) the countries with local data (Argentina, Colombia, and Chile), and (iii) downscaled emission maps for urban domains with different environmental and anthropogenic factors. Relevant differences were found at both country and urban levels for all the compounds analyzed. Among them, we found that when comparing PAPILA total emissions versus CAMS datasets at the national level, higher levels of NOx and considerably lower levels of the other species were obtained for Argentina, higher levels of SO2 and lower levels of CO and NOx for Colombia, and considerably higher levels of CO, NMVOCs, and SO2 for Chile. These discrepancies are mainly related to the representativeness of local practices in the local emission estimates, to the improvements made in the spatial distribution of the locally estimated emissions, or to both. Both datasets were evaluated against surface concentrations of CO and NOx by using them as input data to the WRF-Chem model for one of the analyzed domains, the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, for summer and winter of 2015. PAPILA-based modeling results had a smaller bias for CO and NOx concentrations in winter while CAMS-based results for the same period tended to deliver an underestimation of these concentrations. Both inventories exhibited similar performances for CO in summer, while the PAPILA simulation outperformed CAMS for NOx concentrations. These results highlight the importance of refining global inventories with local data to obtain accurate results with high-resolution air quality models. © 2022 Copernicus. All rights reserved.Earth System Science Data18663508https://essd.copernicus.org/articles/14/271/2022/271-29314Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, latin america; south america; air quality; anthropogenic source; atmospheric pollution; data set; emission inventoryConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Gerencia Química, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Mendoza Regional Faculty-National Technological University (FRM-UTN), Mendoza, Argentina; Laboratoire d'Aérologie, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, France; CIRES, University of Colorado and NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, Boulder, United States; Departamento Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (UTFSM), Santiago, Chile; Air Quality Research Group, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia
The complex Andes region needs improved efforts to face climate extremesCazorla M.; Gallardo L.; Jimenez R.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1525/elementa.2022.00092The steep slopes, highlands, and valleys of the Andes mountain chain are inhabited throughout its formidable length.This unique characteristic does not repeat in any other mountain region.The Andes shape weather and climate in South America. However, proper understanding of atmospheric phenomena influenced by a daunting altitudinal gradient is still behind what is needed to produce detailed and consistent climate projections. Despite significant advances, global models misrepresent key precipitation and circulation processes that are influenced by complex topography. Along with a lack of coordinated observations, the result is limited information to design preparedness measures, particularly to face extreme climate events. Of equal concern is the issue of air quality in densely urbanized countries that face decarbonization challenges and share a legacy of social inequity and political unrest. The complexity of the Andes region magnifies risks within all nations that share their influence. Thus, urgent action is needed to improve climate and air quality assessments with the direct purpose of strengthening policy-making processes. © 2022 The Author(s).Elementa23251026https://online.ucpress.edu/elementa/article/10/1/00092/194534/The-complex-Andes-region-needs-improved-efforts-toart1010Thomson Reuters SCIEandes; climate change; climate extremes; climate policy; south america, andes; altitude; atmospheric circulation; climate change; climate effect; climate modeling; environmental policy; extreme event; mountain regionUniversidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ, Colegio de Ciencias e Ingenierías, Instituto de Investigaciones Atmosféricas, Quito, Ecuador; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Bogota, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Air Quality Research Group, Bogota, Colombia
Well-to-wheel emissions and abatement strategies for passenger vehicles in two Latin American citiesCuéllar-Álvarez Y.; Clappier A.; Osses M.; Thunis P.; Belalcázar-Cerón L.C.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1007/s11356-022-20885-9More stringent standards for engines and fuels are progressively implemented as alternatives to reduce on-road vehicle emissions. While electric vehicles appear as a perfect alternative since their engines do not emit pollutants, wear and dust resuspension (W&R) and indirect emissions associated with electricity production remain significant sources of pollution. This work compares well-to-wheel emissions (WTW) and abatement strategies for various types of passenger vehicles in Bogotá and Santiago for different pollutants (CO, PM2.5, SO2, and NOx) and greenhouse gases like CO2 equivalent (CO2-Eq). Results show that WTW baseline emissions are more extensive in Bogotá than in Santiago (i.e., 58 and 30% for PM2.5 and CO2-Eq), mainly due to the higher vehicle activity and older state of Bogotá’s fleet. We also evaluated extreme scenarios to assess the potential of a given vehicle technology or energy source to reduce emissions. We assessed, in particular, the replacement of all current vehicles by (1) conventional technologies with stricter emission standards and (2) battery electric vehicles powered with different energy resources. Our results indicate that replacing the current fleet with modern combustion technologies has a lower reduction potential than battery electric vehicles, but these reductions largely depend on the energy mix. Substitution by electric vehicles powered with electricity from renewable energies is the most efficient scenario in both cities. Finally, results also stress the importance of the resuspension of deposited road dust and brake and tire wear emissions in both cities as a crucial source of PM2.5, which must be better controlled. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.Environmental Science and Pollution Research09441344https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11356-022-20885-972074-7208529Thomson Reuters SCIEair quality; climate change; electricity mix; emission inventory; life cycle emissions; well-to-wheel, air pollutants; carbon dioxide; cities; dust; greenhouse gases; latin america; motor vehicles; vehicle emissions; santiago; carbon dioxide; alternative energy; combustion; dust; electricity generation; emission control; emission inventory; resuspension; tire; wear; air pollutant; city; dust; exhaust gas; greenhouse gas; motor vehicle; south and central americaDepartamento de Ingeniería Química y Ambiental, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia; Laboratoire Image Ville Environnement, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France; Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Santiago, Chile; Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra, Italy
Impact of biomass burning and stratospheric intrusions in the remote South Pacific Ocean troposphereDaskalakis N.; Gallardo L.; Kanakidou M.; Nüß J.R.; Menares C.; Rondanelli R.; Thompson A.M.; Vrekoussis M.Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes202210.5194/acp-22-4075-2022The ozone mixing ratio spatiotemporal variability in the pristine South Pacific Ocean is studied, for the first time, using 21-year-long ozone (O3) records from the entire southern tropical and subtropical Pacific between 1994 and 2014. The analysis considered regional O3 vertical observations from ozonesondes, surface carbon monoxide (CO) observations from flasks, and three-dimensional chemistry-transport model simulations of the global troposphere. Two 21-year-long numerical simulations, with and without biomass burning emissions, were performed to disentangle the importance of biomass burning relative to stratospheric intrusions for ambient ozone levels in the region. Tagged tracers of O3 from the stratosphere and CO from various biomass burning regions have been used to track the impact of these different regions on the southern tropical Pacific O3 and CO levels. Patterns have been analyzed based on atmospheric dynamics variability. Considering the interannual variability in the observations, the model can capture the observed ozone gradients in the troposphere with a positive bias of 7.5 % in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) as well as near the surface. Remarkably, even the most pristine region of the global ocean is affected by distant biomass burning emissions by convective outflow through the mid and high troposphere and subsequent subsidence over the pristine oceanic region. Therefore, the biomass burning contribution to tropospheric CO levels maximizes in the UTLS. The Southeast Asian open fires have been identified as the major contributing source to CO from biomass burning in the tropical South Pacific, contributing on average for the study period about 8.5 and 13 ppbv of CO at Rapa Nui and Samoa, respectively, at an altitude of around 12 km during the burning season in the spring of the Southern Hemisphere. South America is the second-most important biomass burning source region that influences the study area. Its impact maximizes in the lower troposphere (6.5 ppbv for Rapa Nui and 3.8 ppbv for Samoa). All biomass burning sources contribute about 15-23 ppbv of CO at Rapa Nui and Samoa and account for about 25 % of the total CO in the entire troposphere of the tropical and subtropical South Pacific. This impact is also seen on tropospheric O3, to which biomass burning O3 precursor emissions contribute only a few ppbv during the burning period, while the stratosphere-troposphere exchange is the most important source of O3 for the mid troposphere of the South Pacific Ocean, contributing about 15-20 ppbv in the subtropics. © 2022 Nikos Daskalakis et al.Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics16807316https://acp.copernicus.org/articles/22/4075/2022/4075-409922Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, pacific ocean; pacific ocean (south); atmospheric chemistry; biomass burning; carbon monoxide; computer simulation; numerical model; ozone; ozonesonde; spatiotemporal analysis; stratosphere-troposphere interactionLaboratory for Modeling and Observation of the Earth System (LAMOS), Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (ECPL), Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Heraklion, 70013, Greece; Cstacc, ICE-HT, Forth, Patras, Greece; Nasa Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, 20771, MD, United States; Center of Marine Environmental Sciences (MARUM), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Climate and Atmosphere Research Center (CARE-C), Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus
Declining honey production and beekeeper adaptation to climate change in ChileGajardo-Rojas M.; Muñoz A.A.; Barichivich J.; Klock-Barría K.; Gayo E.M.; Fontúrbel F.E.; Olea M.; Lucas C.M.; Veas C.Ciudades Resilientes; Agua y Extremos202210.1177/03091333221093757Drought severity has pervasive impacts on honey production via direct impacts on water resources and nectar availability. The current mega-drought in Chile has impacts on water resources and forest vigor, particularly in the Mediterranean and Temperate regions where honey production is concentrated. While honey production plays an important role in the local rural economy and providing pollination services to other agricultural activities, studies of the long-term impacts of the mega-drought on honey production are scarce. Here, we evaluate the impact of climate variability on historical changes in honey production in the Mediterranean (32°S–37°S) and Temperate (37°S–41°S) regions of Chile, using annual honey production records of beekeepers together with national records of honey exports. We also used questionnaires and interviews to evaluate beekeeper perceptions regarding the effects of climate change on honey production and adaptation practices in both regions. Results indicated a declining trend in honey production and exports in the last decade, largely related to changes in precipitation and temperature in both regions. Declines in honey production affected 82% of beekeepers, 80% of whom had employed adaptive measures, and 74% considered that these measures were effective. The drier, warmer Mediterranean region showed more severe declines in precipitation and honey production, which beekeepers reported as a main contributing factor to transhumance from the Mediterranean to the Temperate region. This is the first study to show the effects of drought on honey production in Chile, providing a foundation for future climate change adaptation strategies within apiculture. © The Author(s) 2022.Progress in Physical Geography03091333http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/03091333221093757737-75646Thomson Reuters SCIEadaptation; apiculture; beekeeping; climate change; drought; forest vigor; honey; honey bee; transhumance, chile; adaptive management; apiculture; climate change; climate effect; drought; environmental stress; forest dynamics; honeyInstituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Acción Climática, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Brasil, Valparaíso, 2241, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement (LSCE), Paris, France; Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad (IEB), Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Biología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Polo Ecologia Fluvial, Departamento del Agua, CENUR Litoral Norte, Universidad de La República, Paysandu, Uruguay; Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios de Territorios Litorales y Rurales, Valparaíso, Chile
A Cross-Cutting Approach for Relating Anthropocene, Environmental Injustice and Sacrifice ZonesGayo E.M.; Muñoz A.A.; Maldonado A.; Lavergne C.; Francois J.P.; Rodríguez D.; Klock-Barría K.; Sheppard P.R.; Aguilera-Betti I.; Alonso-Hernández C.; Mena-Carrasco M.; Urquiza A.; Gallardo L.Agua y Extremos; Ciudades Resilientes202210.1029/2021EF002217The Anthropocene is an uneven phenomenon. Accelerated shifts in the functioning of the Earth System are mainly driven by the production and consumption of wealthy economies. Social, environmental and health costs of such industrialization, however, bear on low-income communities inhabiting severely degraded territories by polluting activities (i.e., sacrifice zones). How global, national and local socio-economic and governance processes have interacted in perpetuating socio-environmental inequalities in these territories has been rarely explored. Here, we develop an historical quantitative approach integrating a novel chemostratigraphic record, data on policy making, and socio-economic trends to evaluate the feedback relationship between environmental injustice and Anthropocene in sacrifice zones. We specifically outline a case study for the Puchuncaví valley -one of the most emblematic sacrifice zones from Chile-. We verify an ever-growing burden of heavy metals and metalloids over the past five decades paced by the staggering expansion of local industrial activities, which has ultimately been spurred by national and transnational market forces. Local poverty levels have declined concomitantly, but this path toward social equality is marginal as costs of pollution have grown through time. Indeed, national and international pollution control actions appear insufficient in mitigating the cumulative impact brought by highly toxic elements. Thus, our sub-decadal reconstruction for pollution trends over the past 136 years from a sediment record, emerges as a science-based tool for informing the discussion on Anthropocene governance. Furthermore, it helps to advance in the assessment of environmental inequality in societal models that prioritize economic growth to the detriment of socio-environmental security. © 2022 The Authors. Earth's Future published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Geophysical Union.Earth's Future23284277https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2021EF002217arte2021EF00221710Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; anthropocene; economic growth; environmental justice; paleoenvironment; pollution control; socioeconomic impact; trace element; trend analysis, anthropocene risks; paleopollution records; puchuncaví; socio-economic trends; socio-environmental inequalities; trace elementsCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Institue of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), Santiago, Chile; Núcleo Milenio UPWELL, Concepción, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Center for Climate Action, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), La Serena, Chile; Departamento de Biología Marina, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile; HUB AMBIENTAL UPLA, Universidad de Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile; Laboratory of Aquatic Environmental Research, Centro de Estudios Avanzados (CEA), Universidad de Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias y Geografía, Universidad de Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de Investigación en Tecnología para La Sociedad (C+), Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States; Centro Transdisciplinario de Estudios Ambientales y Desarrollo Humano Sostenible (CEAM), Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; International Atomic Energy Agency—Marine Environment Laboratories (IAEA-EL), Principality of Monaco, Monte Carlo, Monaco; Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Multiple motion encoding in phase-contrast MRI: A general theory and application to elastography imagingHerthum H.; Carrillo H.; Osses A.; Uribe S.; Sack I.; Bertoglio C.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1016/j.media.2022.102416While MRI allows to encode the motion of tissue in the magnetization's phase, it remains yet a challenge to obtain high fidelity motion images due to wraps in the phase for high encoding efficiencies. Therefore, we propose an optimal multiple motion encoding method (OMME) and exemplify it in Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) data. OMME is formulated as a non-convex least-squares problem for the motion using an arbitrary number of phase-contrast measurements with different motion encoding gradients (MEGs). The mathematical properties of OMME are proved in terms of standard deviation and dynamic range of the motion's estimate for arbitrary MEGs combination which are confirmed using synthetically generated data. OMME's performance is assessed on MRE data from in vivo human brain experiments and compared to dual encoding strategies. The unwrapped images are further used to reconstruct stiffness maps and compared to the ones obtained using conventional unwrapping methods. OMME allowed to successfully combine several MRE phase images with different MEGs, outperforming dual encoding strategies in either motion-to-noise ratio (MNR) or number of successfully reconstructed voxels with good noise stability. This lead to stiffness maps with greater resolution of details than obtained with conventional unwrapping methods. The proposed OMME method allows for a flexible and noise robust increase in the dynamic range and thus provides wrap-free phase images with high MNR. In MRE, the method may be especially suitable when high resolution images with high MNR are needed. © 2022Medical Image Analysis13618415https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1361841522000664art10241678Thomson Reuters SCIEbrain; elasticity imaging techniques; humans; magnetic resonance imaging; motion; phantoms, imaging; encoding (symbols); image reconstruction; magnetic resonance; magnetic resonance imaging; medical imaging; motion estimation; stiffness; dynamic range; encoding methods; encoding strategy; in-phase; magnetic resonance elastography; multiple motion encoding; multiple motions; noise ratio; phase contrast mri; phase image; article; brain; cell cycle s phase; controlled study; human; in vivo study; least square analysis; magnetic resonance elastography; motion; noise; nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; rigidity; diagnostic imaging; elastography; imaging phantom; motion; nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; procedures; signal encoding, magnetic resonance elastography; multiple motion encoding; phase-contrast mriInstitute of Medical Informatics, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universitt zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, 10117, Germany; Center for Mathematical Modeling, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8370456, Chile; Department of Mathematical Engineering, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8370456, Chile; ANID – Millennium Nucleus in Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; ANID – Millenium Nucleus in Applied Control and Inverse Problems ACIP, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; Biomedical Imaging Center, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; Bernoulli Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, 9747AG, Netherlands
Pollution and society: The social construction of atmospheric pollution between Chilean press and decontamination planning; [CONTAMINACIÓN Y SOCIEDAD: LA CONSTRUCCIÓN SOCIAL DE LA POLUCIÓN ATMOSFÉRICA ENTRE LA PRENSA CHILENA Y LOS PLANES DE PREVENCIÓN Y DESCONTAMINACIÓN ATMOSFÉRICA]Labraña J.; Billi M.; Ruiz D.A.; Gómez A.U.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes202210.4067/S0718-23762022000200519Air pollution has become a central issue in recent decades. The present research aims to examine how the press media construct the problem of air pollution in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. To this end, news related to air pollution in the Metropolitan Region published in the digital sites of El Mercurio and La Nación between 2003 and 2018 were analyzed, assessing their closeness with respect to the construction of air pollution in science (assessed by analyzing publications on the topic indexed in Web of Science) and in politics (assessed by analyzing the Atmospheric Prevention and Decontamination Plans). The results suggest the existence of four different interpretative frameworks in the period that operate by selectively translating the results of scientific research into inputs for public policy, thus forming an idiosyncratic construction of the causes, consequences, and solutions to pollution. © 2022 Universidad de Talca. All rights reserved.Universum0716498Xhttp://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-23762022000200519&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en519-53837Thomson Reuters ESCInan, atmospheric pollution; communication; press media; public politics; scienceCentro de Ciencia Del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2, Chile; Departamento de Gestión e Innovación Rural, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Núcleo de Estudios Sistémicos Transdisciplinarios, Universidad de Chile, Chile
Silvopastoralism and the shaping of forest patches in the Atacama Desert during the Formative Period (ca. 3000–1500 years BP)McRostie V.; Babot P.; Calás E.; Gayó E.; Gallardo F.; Godoy-Aguirre C.; Labarca R.; Latorre C.; Núñez L.; Ojeda K.; Santoro C.M.; Valenzuela D.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1177/09596836221122636During the Formative period by the Late-Holocene (ca. 3000–1500 BP), semi-sedentary and sedentary human occupations had emerged in the oases, salares, and riverine systems in the central depression (2400–1000 masl) of the Atacama Desert, northern Chile (19–25°S). This hyperarid core was marginally occupied during the post-Pleistocene and middle Holocene droughts. Settlement on these lower belts was accompanied by a rise in humidity, the introduction of Andean crops, flourishment of Prosopis spp. (algarrobo) forests, and increasing integration of domestic camelid caravans. Here, we explore lowland husbandry within risk-spreading strategies, focusing on silvopastoralism and endozoochory between camelids and algarrobos. Analysis of camelid coprolites from seven archeological sites located in the Pampa del Tamarugal, Loa River, and Salar de Atacama found intense grinding from camelid chewing and indicated a ruminal digestive system. Abundant macro and microremains in the form of tissues, phytoliths, crystals, cell structures, and others, were identified as Prosopis, Atriplex, Schoenoplectus, Distichlis, and Phragmites. We conclude that camelids were foraging for Prosopis, although the rather low number of entire seeds preserved in the coprolites leads us to think that these herbivores might not have been the main vectors for the spread and germination of algarrobos. More samples and interdisciplinary studies are needed to comprehend the complex socioecological web in the shaping of these forests and the management of the Atacama Desert landscapes. © The Author(s) 2022.Holocene09596836http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/095968362211226361492-150232Thomson Reuters SCIEatacama desert; chile; chile; loa river; pampa del tamarugal; archaeology; drought; germination; grinding; holocene, algarobia; atacama; camelids; formative; late-holocene; silvopastoralismEscuela de Antropología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Centro del Desierto de Atacama UC, Chile; Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, CONICET, Argentina; Programa de Doctorado en Arqueología, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Chile; Departamento de Ecología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Chile; Instituto de Investigaciones Arqueológicas, Universidad Católica del Norte, Chile; Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de Tarapacá, Chile
High-resolution spatial-distribution maps of road transport exhaust emissions in Chile, 1990-2020Osses M.; Rojas N.; Ibarra C.; Valdebenito V.; Laengle I.; Pantoja N.; Osses D.; Basoa K.; Tolvett S.; Huneeus N.; Gallardo L.; Gómez B.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes202210.5194/essd-14-1359-2022This description paper presents a detailed and consistent estimate and analysis of exhaust pollutant emissions generated by Chile's road transport activity for the period 1990-2020. The complete database for the period 1990-2020 is available at the following DOI: 10.17632/z69m8xm843.2 (Osses et al., 2021). Emissions are provided at a high spatial resolution (0.01° × 0.01°) over continental Chile from 18.5 to 53.2° S, including local pollutants (CO; volatile organic compounds, VOCs; NOx; PM2.5), black carbon (BC) and greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4). The methodology considers 70 vehicle types, based on 10 vehicle categories, subdivided into 2 fuel types and 7 emission standards. Vehicle activity was calculated based on official databases of vehicle records and vehicle flow counts. Fuel consumption was calculated based on vehicle activity and contrasted with fuel sales to calibrate the initial dataset. Emission factors come mainly from the Computer programme to calculate emissions from road transport version 5 (COPERT 5), adapted to local conditions in the 15 political regions of Chile, based on emission standards and fuel quality. While vehicle fleet grew 5-fold between 1990 and 2020, CO2 emissions have followed this trend at a lower rate, and emissions of air local pollutants have decreased due to stricter abatement technologies, better fuel quality and enforcement of emission standards. In other words, there has been decoupling between fleet growth and emissions' rate of change. Results were contrasted with global datasets (EDGAR, CAMS, CEDS), showing similarities in CO2 estimations and striking differences in PM, BC and CO; in the case of NOx and CH4 there is coincidence only until 2008. In all cases of divergent results, global datasets estimate higher emissions. Copyright: © 2022 Mauricio Osses et al.Earth System Science Data18663508https://essd.copernicus.org/articles/14/1359/2022/1359-137614Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, chile; data set; database; road transport; spatial resolution; traffic emissionDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (UTFSM), Santiago, Chile; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL), Bogotá, Colombia; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile
Isotopic Characterization of Water Masses in the Southeast Pacific Region: Paleoceanographic ImplicationsReyes-Macaya D.; Hoogakker B.; Martínez-Méndez G.; Llanillo P.J.; Grasse P.; Mohtadi M.; Mix A.; Leng M.J.; Struck U.; McCorkle D.C.; Troncoso M.; Gayo E.M.; Lange C.B.; Farias L.; Carhuapoma W.; Graco M.; Cornejo-D’Ottone M.; De Pol Holz R.; Fernandez C.; Narvaez D.; Vargas C.A.; García-Araya F.; Hebbeln D.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes202210.1029/2021JC017525In this study, we used stable isotopes of oxygen (δ18O), deuterium (δD), and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) in combination with temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nutrient concentrations to characterize the coastal (71°–78°W) and an oceanic (82°–98°W) water masses (SAAW—Subantarctic Surface Water; STW—Subtropical Water; ESSW—Equatorial Subsurface water; AAIW—Antarctic Intermediate Water; PDW—Pacific Deep Water) of the Southeast Pacific (SEP). The results show that δ18O and δD can be used to differentiate between SAAW-STW, SAAW-ESSW, and ESSW-AAIW. δ13CDIC signatures can be used to differentiate between STW-ESSW (oceanic section), SAAW-ESSW, ESSW-AAIW, and AAIW-PDW. Compared with the oceanic section, our new coastal section highlights differences in both the chemistry and geometry of water masses above 1,000 m. Previous paleoceanographic studies using marine sediments from the SEP continental margin used the present-day hydrological oceanic transect to compare against, as the coastal section was not sufficiently characterized. We suggest that our new results of the coastal section should be used for past characterizations of the SEP water masses that are usually based on continental margin sediment samples. © 2021. The Authors.Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans21699275https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2021JC017525arte2021JC017525127Thomson Reuters SCIEpacific ocean; pacific ocean (southeast); continental margin; dissolved inorganic carbon; isotopic analysis; paleoceanography; stable isotope; water mass, carbon stable isotopes in dissolved inorganic carbon; oxygen and deuterium stable isotopes in seawater; paleoceanography proxies; southeast pacific; water mass distributionMARUM-Zentrum für Marine Umweltwissenschaften, Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Lyell Centre, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom; ANID-Millennium Science Initiative Program Nucleo Milenio UPWELL, La Serena, Chile; AWI-Alfred Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany; Deutsches Zentrum für Integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv), Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Germany; GEOMAR-Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung, Kiel, Germany; COAS-College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States; National Environmental Isotope Facility, British Geological Survey, Nottingham, United Kingdom; School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Loughborough, United Kingdom; Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Berlin, Germany; Department of Earth Sciences, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Falmouth, MA, United States; ANID—FONDAP—Centro de Ciencia del Clima y Resiliencia, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Investigación Oceanográfica COPAS Sur-Austral, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; ANID—FONDAP—Centro IDEAL, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA, United States; Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Naples, Italy; ANID-Millennium Science Initi...
Socioeconomic inequalities and the surface heat island distribution in Santiago, ChileSarricolea P.; Smith P.; Romero-Aravena H.; Serrano-Notivoli R.; Fuentealba M.; Meseguer-Ruiz O.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155152Surface urban heat islands (SUHIs) are an important socio-environmental problem associated with large cities, such as the Santiago Metropolitan Area (SMA), in Chile. Here, we analyze daytime and nighttime variations of SUHIs for each season of the year during the period 2000–2020. To evaluate socioeconomic inequities in the distribution of SUHIs, we establish statistical relationships with socioeconomic status, land price, and urban vegetation. We use the MODIS satellite images to obtain the land surface temperatures and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) through the Google Earth Engine platform. The results indicate more intense SUHIs during the nighttime in the eastern sector, coinciding with higher socioeconomic status and larger green areas. This area during the day is cooler than the rest of the city. The areas with lower and middle socioeconomic status suffer more intense SUHIs (daytime and nighttime) and match poor environmental and urban qualities. These results show the high segregation of SMA. Urban planning is subordinated to land prices with a structure maintained over the study period. The lack of social-climate justice is unsustainable, and such inequalities may be exacerbated in the context of climate change. Thus, these results can contribute to the planning of the SMA. © 2022 Elsevier B.V.Science of the Total Environment00489697https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969722022458art155152832Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; cities; environmental monitoring; hot temperature; socioeconomic factors; chile; metropolitana; climate change; engines; land surface temperature; landforms; surface measurement; urban planning; vegetation; google earth engine; google earths; land prices; local climate; local climate zone; metropolitan area; socio-economic status; socio-economics; surface urban heat islands; heat island; ndvi; seasonal variation; socioeconomic status; temperature effect; urban area; article; chile; city planning; climate change; controlled study; heat; human; justice; price; satellite imagery; season; social environment; social status; vegetation; chile; city; environmental monitoring; procedures; socioeconomics; atmospheric temperature, google earth engine; local climate zones; socioeconomic status; surface urban heat islandDepartment of Geography, University of Chile, Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Portugal 84, Torre Chica, Santiago, Chile; Department of Geography, University of Chile, Portugal 84, Torre Chica, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049, Spain; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Históricas y Geográficas, Universidad de Tarapacá, Sede Iquique, Luis Emilio Recabarren 2477, Iquique, Chile
Photochemical sensitivity to emissions and local meteorology in Bogotá, Santiago, and São Paulo: An analysis of the initial COVID-19 lockdownsSeguel R.J.; Gallardo L.; Osses M.; Rojas N.Y.; Nogueira T.; Menares C.; De Fatima Andrade M.; Belalcázar L.C.; Carrasco P.; Eskes H.; Fleming Z.L.; Huneeus N.; Ibarra-Espinosa S.; Landulfo E.; Leiva M.; Mangones S.C.; Morais F.G.; Moreira G.A.; Pantoja N.; Parraguez S.; Rojas J.P.; Rondanelli R.; Da Silva Andrade I.; Toro R.; Yoshida A.C.Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes202210.1525/elementa.2021.00044This study delves into the photochemical atmospheric changes reported globally during the pandemic by analyzing the change in emissions from mobile sources and the contribution of local meteorology to ozone (O3) and particle formation in Bogotá (Colombia), Santiago (Chile), and São Paulo (Brazil). The impact of mobility reductions (50%-80%) produced by the early coronavirus-imposed lockdown was assessed through high-resolution vehicular emission inventories, surface measurements, aerosol optical depth and size, and satellite observations of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns. A generalized additive model (GAM) technique was also used to separate the local meteorology and urban patterns from other drivers relevant for O3 and NO2 formation.Volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) decreased significantly due to motorized trip reductions. In situ nitrogen oxide median surface mixing ratios declined by 70%, 67%, and 67% in Bogotá, Santiago, and São Paulo, respectively. NO2 column medians from satellite observations decreased by 40%, 35%, and 47%, respectively, which was consistent with the changes in mobility and surface mixing ratio reductions of 34%, 25%, and 4%. However, the ambient NO2 to NOx ratio increased, denoting a shift of the O3 formation regime that led to a 51%, 36%, and 30% increase in the median O3 surface mixing ratios in the 3 respective cities. O3 showed high sensitivity to slight temperature changes during the pandemic lockdown period analyzed. However, the GAM results indicate that O3 increases were mainly caused by emission changes. The lockdown led to an increase in the median of the maximum daily 8-h average O3 of between 56% and 90% in these cities. © 2022 The Author(s).Elementa23251026https://online.ucpress.edu/elementa/article/10/1/00044/169476/Photochemical-sensitivity-to-emissions-and-localart0004410Thomson Reuters SCIEgeneralized additive model; lockdown; mobile sources; nitrogen oxides; ozone, bogota; brazil; colombia; rio grande do sul; santiago [rio grande do sul]; sao paulo [brazil]; covid-19; emission control; emission inventory; meteorology; nitrogen oxides; numerical model; ozone; photochemistry; pollutant source; satellite altimetry; sensitivity analysisCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (UTFSM), Santiago, Chile; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia; Departamento de Ciências Atmosféricas, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Tmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), De Bilt, Netherlands; Envirohealth Dynamics Lab, C+ Research Center in Technologies for Society, School of Engineering, Universidad Del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile; Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Civil and Agricultural Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia; Federal Institute of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; National Meteorology and Hydrology Service (SENAMHI), Lima, Peru; Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Naturais Do Pontal, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Long-term airborne particle pollution assessment in the city of Coyhaique, Patagonia, ChileSolís R.; Toro A. R.; Gomez L.; Vélez-Pereira A.M.; López M.; Fleming Z.L.; Fierro N.; Leiva G. M.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1016/j.uclim.2022.101144An air pollution assessment in a small city located in the heart of Chilean Patagonia is presented. Seven years (2014–2020) of PM concentration levels retrieved from two monitoring stations permits an evaluation of the city's pollution variability, the effect of meteorological variables and long-term trends of air pollution. The highest PM concentration levels observed during the coldest months are mainly related to an increasing emission associated with the intensive use of firewood for residential heating and cooking. The most polluted days are associated with low temperatures, low wind speed and high PM2.5/PM10 ratios, which is consistent with the predominance of local firewood sources over background emissions. A decrease in both PM fractions over time has been estimated (PM10: -4.1, CI99%: −5.7 to −2.9 and PM2.5: -2.2, CI99%: −3.5 to −1.3 μg m−3 year−1). However, the annual average PM mass concentrations in Coyhaique exceeded both national and international air quality thresholds. The city reported a percent of annual exceedances of the daily WHO guidelines of 57% for PM10 and 77% for PM2.5. These numbers highlight the serious air pollution problem of the city of Coyhaique, which exhibits air pollution levels comparable to those of many polluted megacities in the world. © 2022 Elsevier B.V.Urban Climate22120955https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212095522000621art10114443Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, air pollution assessment; domestic wood burning; particulate matterDepartamento of Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Laboratorio Eco-climático, Centro de Investigación de Ecosistemas de la Patagonia (CIEP), Coyhaique, Chile; Campus Patagonia Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh), Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia, (CR)2, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Envirohealth Dynamics lab, C + Research Center in Technologies for Society, Escuela de Ingeniería, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile
Impact of mining on the metal content of dust in indigenous villages of northern ChileZanetta-Colombo N.C.; Fleming Z.L.; Gayo E.M.; Manzano C.A.; Panagi M.; Valdés J.; Siegmund A.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1016/j.envint.2022.107490Indigenous communities from northern Chile have historically been exposed to the impacts of massive copper industrial activities conducted in the region. Some of the communities belonging to the Alto El Loa Indigenous Development Area are located less than 10 km from the “Talabre'' tailings dam, which contains residues from copper production and other metals that can be toxic to human health (e.g., As, Sb, Cd, Mo, Pb). Given the increasing demand of copper production to achieve net-zero emission scenarios and concomitant expansions of the tailings, the exposure to toxic metals is a latent risk to local communities. Despite the impact that copper production could generate on ancestral communities from northern Chile, studies and monitoring are limited and the results are often not made accessible for local communities. Here, we evaluate such risks by characterizing metal concentrations in dust collected from roofs and windows of houses from the Alto El Loa area. Our results showed that As, Sb, Cd, Cu, Mo, Ag, S, and Pb concentrations in these matrices can be connected to local copper mining activities. Additionally, air transport models indicate that high concentrations of toxic elements (As, Sb, and Cd) can be explained by the atmospheric transport of particles from the tailings in a NE direction up to 50 km away. Pollution indices and Health Risk Assessment suggested a highly contaminated region with a health risk for its inhabitants. Our analysis on a local scale seeks to make visible the case of northern Chile as a critical territory where actions should be taken to mitigate the effects of mining in the face of this new scenario of international demand for the raw materials necessary for the transition to a net-zero carbon global society. © 2022 The AuthorsEnvironment International01604120https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0160412022004172art107490169Thomson Reuters SCIEheavy; soil pollutants; atacama; chile; air pollution; atmospheric movements; copper; dust; health; risk assessment; risk perception; antimony; cadmium; carbon; copper; lead; metal; molybdenum; silver; cadmium; carbon; copper; heavy metal; lead; atacama; copper production; health risk assessments; indigenous community; local community; metal content; mining emission; northern chile; pollution risk; toxic metals; atmospheric pollution; atmospheric transport; concentration (composition); copper; dust; emission inventory; indigenous population; metal; mine waste; mining; pollutant transport; pollution effect; pollution exposure; tailings; village; article; chile; community; dispersion; dust; geoaccumulation index; geographic distribution; geomorphology; health hazard; human; indigenous people; ion exchange chromatography; limit of detection; mining; pollution; principal component analysis; quality control; risk assessment; chile; dust; environmental monitoring; procedures; soil pollutant; health risks, atacama; health risk assessment; mining emissions; pollution risk; toxic metal, cadmium; carbon; chile; copper; dust; environmental monitoring; humans; lead; metalsHeidelberg Center for the Environment (HCE), Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Geography – Research Group for Earth Observation (rgeo), Heidelberg University of Education, Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Geography, SAI, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany; Envirohealth Dynamics Lab, C+ Research Center in Technologies for Society, School of Engineering, Universidad Del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Chile; ANID – Millennium Science Initiative Program– Nucleo Milenio UPWELL, Chile; Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, United States; School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom; Laboratorio de Sedimentología y Paleoambientes (LASPAL), Instituto de Ciencias Naturales Alexander von Humboldt, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y de Recursos Biológicos, Universidad de Antofagasta, Antofagasta, Chile
Fuzzy logic modelling to assess high resolution spatial urban climatic risk impact in Valparaiso, ChileAlamos,Nicolás;Billi,Marco;Amigo,Catalina;Urquiza,Anahí;Winckler,Patricio;Larraguibel,Cristian;Contreras,Manuel;Muñoz,Ariel;Videla,Jose;Vargas,Viviana;Casanova,Jessica;Ugalde,Antonio;Valdebenito,Carlos;Agua y Extremos; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes2022This collection of maps contains a set of 5 layers assessing the risk of the population of the Viña del Mar - Valparaiso conurbation (Chile) in the face of threats of extreme heat, storm surges, floods, forest fires and landslides. The maps have a resolution at the chilean census block level. The layers show as available attributes the overall level of risk and its components: threat (A), exposure (E), sensitivity (S) and response capacity (CR). To estimate the risk, the indices of A, E, S and CR are combined through a fuzzy logic methodology, which considers the use of causality rules co-constructed and validated with local experts and stakeholders. It should be considered that the values ​​presented by each census block on the maps represent an ordering of risk (and of A, E, S and CR), where higher values ​​indicate a greater risk than apples with lower values. The results are ordinal, ranging from mild, through moderately mild, to moderate, high or very high. Moreover, they are not absolute values, but rather relative to the specific case study and should not comparable or extrapolated to other study areas.https://osf.io/2xtvs/Not Indexed
Transporte público eléctrico en Valparaíso y Medellín: Historias de movilidad intermodal sobre las que construir el futuroOsses,Mauricio;Ibarra,Cecilia;Vila,Waldo;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes2022Este trabajo hace un recorrido histórico por las diversas formas de transporte público eléctrico de Valparaíso, que incluye ascensores, tranvías, trolebuses, tren y metro, y que se inició hace más de un siglo. Esta experiencia se compara con la de Medellín, Colombia, que es un ejemplo moderno de transporte público eléctrico multimodal, y que también tiene una historia relevante. Se plantea como hipótesis que una diferencia fundamental entre ambos sistemas está en la gobernanza de la planificación urbana y que la experiencia comparada inspira reflexiones para el futuro de la electromovilidad en Chile. Se establecen relaciones entre el transporte público, los procesos de planificación urbana y la participación de los vehículos eléctricos en la movilidad de Valparaíso y Medellín. Esta comparación muestra que los vehículos eléctricos son parte de la historia de estas ciudades, se adaptan a geografías irregulares y escarpadas, tienen un alto nivel de aceptación por parte de la población y, con procesos de planificación urbana integrales, pueden constituir una solución sustentable para la movilidad del futuro.Estudios de Transporte2735-6299https://estudiosdetransporte.org/sochitran/article/view/2661-1923Latindex
Surface wave mitigation in a copper converter via H∞mixed sensitivity controlSalas F.; Torres P.; Osses A.Ciudades Resilientes202210.1016/j.ifacol.2022.09.260In this paper, a robust control strategy for surface wave mitigation in copper converters is presented. In copper converters, the purification of copper is carried out by injection of air into the molten bath through lateral tuyeres. The constant rate of air injection produces undesirable oscillation and splashing of the bath in the surface diminishing the lifetime of the internal cover. An H∞mixed sensitivity approach is proposed to robustly control the air injection rate in order to eliminate the modes of oscillation in the surface even in the case when uncertainty in the parameters of the model and noise in the measurements are present. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is shown by simulations and by comparison with a non-robust LQG control strategy. © 2022 Elsevier B.V.. All rights reserved.IFAC-PapersOnLine24058963https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2405896322014951156-16155Not Indexedair cleaners; copper; disturbance rejection; robust control; uncertainty analysis; air injection; control strategies; copper converters; h ∞ control; h ∞ mixed sensitivity; molten baths; noise attenuation; robust performance; teniente copper converter; tuyeres; surface waves, disturbance rejection; hcontrol; noise attenuation; robust performance; teniente copper converterDepartment of Mathematical Engineering, University of Chile, Box 170/3, Mailbox 3, Santiago, Chile; Center for Mathematical Modeling, University of Chile, Box 170/3, Mailbox 3, Santiago, Chile
A distributed resistance inverse method for flow obstacle identification from internal velocity measurementsAguayo J.; Bertoglio C.; Osses A.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1088/1361-6420/abced8We present a penalization parameter method for obstacle identification in an incompressible fluid flow for a modified version of the Oseen equations. The proposed method consists in adding a high resistance potential to the system such that some subset of its boundary support represents the obstacle. This allows to work in a fixed domain and highly simplify the solution of the inverse problem via some suitable cost functional. Existence of minimizers and first and second order optimality conditions are derived through the differentiability of the solutions of the Oseen equation with respect to the potential. Finally, several numerical experiments using Navier–Stokes flow illustrate the applicability of the method, for the localization of a bi-dimensional cardiac valve from MRI and ultrasound flow type imaging data. © 2021 The Author(s).Inverse Problems02665611https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6420/abced8art02501037Thomson Reuters SCIEdistributed resistance; medical imaging; navier–stokes equations; obstacle identification, flow of fluids; magnetic resonance imaging; numerical methods; cost functionals; differentiability; distributed resistance; first and second order optimality conditions; incompressible fluid flow; inverse methods; numerical experiments; parameter methods; inverse problemsMathematical Engineering Department, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Bernoulli Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands; Center for Mathematical Modeling, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Conocimiento técnico-científico en el conflicto hídrico en ChileAllendes,Angel;Silva,Francisca;Fragkou,María Christina;Moraga,Pilar;Urquiza,Anahi;Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.5354/0719-0527.2021.65874El presente artículo propone un análisis del uso del conoRevista Mad0718-0527https://revistas.uchile.cl/index.php/RMAD/article/view/6587499-119Thomson Reuters ESCI
Radiocarbon bomb-peak signal in tree-rings from the tropical Andes register low latitude atmospheric dynamics in the Southern HemisphereAncapichún S.; De Pol-Holz R.; Christie D.A.; Santos G.M.; Collado-Fabbri S.; Garreaud R.; Lambert F.; Orfanoz-Cheuquelaf A.; Rojas M.; Southon J.; Turnbull J.C.; Creasman P.P.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes; Agua y Extremos202110.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145126South American tropical climate is strongly related to the tropical low-pressure belt associated with the South American monsoon system. Despite its central societal role as a modulating agent of rainfall in tropical South America, its long-term dynamical variability is still poorly understood. Here we combine a new (and world's highest) tree-ring 14C record from the Altiplano plateau in the central Andes with other 14C records from the Southern Hemisphere during the second half of the 20th century in order to elucidate the latitudinal gradients associated with the dissemination of the bomb 14C signal. Our tree-ring 14C record faithfully captured the bomb signal of the 1960's with an excellent match to atmospheric 14C measured in New Zealand but with significant differences with a recent record from Southeast Brazil located at almost equal latitude. These results imply that the spreading of the bomb signal throughout the Southern Hemisphere was a complex process that depended on atmospheric dynamics and surface topography generating reversals on the expected north-south gradient in certain years. We applied air-parcel modeling based on climate data to disentangle their different geographical provenances and their preformed (reservoir affected) radiocarbon content. We found that air parcel trajectories arriving at the Altiplano during the bomb period were sourced i) from the boundary layer in contact with the Pacific Ocean (41%), ii) from the upper troposphere (air above the boundary layer, with no contact with oceanic or continental carbon reservoirs) (38%) and iii) from the Amazon basin (21%). Based on these results we estimated the ∆14C endmember values for the different carbon reservoirs affecting our record which suggest that the Amazon basin biospheric 14C isoflux could have been reversed from negative to positive as early as the beginning of the 1970's. This would imply a much faster carbon turnover rate in the Amazon than previously modelled. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.Science of the Total Environment00489697https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969721001923art145126774Thomson Reuters SCIEbombs; brazil; oceans and seas; pacific ocean; trees; amazon basin; andes; brazil; new zealand; pacific ocean; boundary layers; carbon; forestry; topography; tropics; carbon 14; atmospheric dynamics; carbon reservoirs; continental carbons; geographical provenances; latitudinal gradients; southern hemisphere; tropical climates; upper troposphere; atmospheric circulation; atmospheric dynamics; atmospheric modeling; carbon isotope; latitudinal gradient; paleoclimate; radiocarbon dating; southern hemisphere; tree ring; amazonas (brazil); araucaria; araucaria angustifolia; article; atmosphere; atmospheric circulation; bomb; bomb signal; carbon reservoir effect; chile; controlled study; environmental impact; environmental parameters; geographic distribution; latitude; new zealand; nonhuman; pacific ocean; plant structures; polylepis tarapacana; priority journal; rosaceae; southern hemisphere; surface topography; topography; tree ring; troposphere; turnover rate; bomb; brazil; sea; tree; bombs (ordnance), atmospheric circulation; carbon reservoir effect; radiocarbon; southern hemisphere; tree-ringsPostgraduate School in Oceanography, Faculty of Natural and Oceanographic Sciences, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Centro de Investigación GAIA Antártica (CIGA) and Network for Extreme Environment Research (NEXER), Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Cambio Global, Instituto de Conservación Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Chile; Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, United States; Fundación Crono Austral, Concepción, Biobio, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Physical Geography, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; GNS Science, Rafter Radiocarbon Laboratory, Lower Hutt, New Zealand; CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder, United States; American Center for Oriental Research (ACOR), Amman, Jordan
LIPSCHITZ STABILITY FOR BACKWARD HEAT EQUATION WITH APPLICATION TO FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPYArratia P.; Courdurier M.; Cueva E.; Osses A.; Palacios B.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1137/20M1374183In this work we study a Lipschitz stability result in the reconstruction of a compactly supported initial temperature for the heat equation in Rn, from measurements along a positive time interval and over an open set containing its support. We employ a nonconstructive method which ensures the existence of the stability constant, but it is not explicit in terms of the parameters of the problem. The main ingredients in our method are the compactness of support of the initial condition and the explicit dependency of solutions to the heat equation with respect to it. By means of Carleman estimates we obtain an analogous result for the case when the observation is made along an exterior region ω × (τ, T), such that the unobserved part Rn\ω is bounded. In the latter setting, the method of Carleman estimates gives a general conditional logarithmic stability result when initial temperatures belong to a certain admissible set, without the assumption of compactness of support and allowing an explicit stability constant. Furthermore, we apply these results to deduce similar stability inequalities for the heat equation in R and with measurements available on a curve contained in R ×[0, ∞), leading to the derivation of stability estimates for an inverse problem arising in 2D fluorescence microscopy. In order to further understand this Lipschitz stability, in particular, the magnitude of its stability constant with respect to the parameters of the problem, a numerical reconstruction is presented based on the construction of a linear system for the inverse problem in fluorescence microscopy. We investigate the stability constant by analyzing the condition number of the corresponding matrix. © 2021 Society for Industrial and Applied MathematicsSIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis00361410https://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/20M13741835948-597853Thomson Reuters SCIEbackward heat equation; fluorescence microscopy; inverse problem; lipschitz stability, fluorescence; heat transfer; inverse problems; linear systems; number theory; partial differential equations; stability; backward heat equations; carleman estimate; compactly supported; initial temperatures; inverse problem; lipschitz stability; stability constants; stability results; time interval; fluorescence microscopyDepartment of Mathematical Sciences, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, United Kingdom; Facultad de Matemáticas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Ingeniería Matemática y Computacional, Facultad de Matemáticas y Escuela de Ingeniería, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Departamento de Matemática, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, 170517, Ecuador; Departamento de Ingeniería Matemática, Centro de Modelamiento Matemático, UMI CNRS 2807, FCFM, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Climate change perception, vulnerability, and readiness: inter-country variability and emerging patterns in Latin AmericaAzócar G.; Billi M.; Calvo R.; Huneeus N.; Lagos M.; Sapiains R.; Urquiza A.Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.1007/s13412-020-00639-0In Latin America, there is scarce comparative research on variables associated with the perception of climate change. This hinders the ability of governments to take mitigation and adaptation measures in the face of the phenomenon, as well as the ability of the population to cope with its effects. In order to fill that void, this research studies the relationship between climate change perception, vulnerability, and readiness in 17 countries of the region. To that end, perception indicators included in the Latinobarómetro 2017 survey are analyzed, contrasted with vulnerability and readiness indexes provided by the University of Notre Dame’s Global Adaptation Index. The analytical strategy includes the statistical description of the variables associated with the perception of climate change in countries of the region, clustering together those countries that display similar behavioral patterns in relation to their vulnerability and readiness indicators, as well as crosstabs with climate change indicators. The key findings indicate that it is possible to identify 3 patterns of behavior regarding the countries’ vulnerability and readiness, which account for high, intermediate, and low levels in those variables. These patterns indicate cross-cutting trends concerning variables such as the level of education and affinity for the market economy, as well as particularities differentiating each country from the rest. The main conclusion is the existence of a negative association between the affinity people express for the market economy and their acknowledgment of climate change as a relevant problem. © 2020, AESS.Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences21906483http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13412-020-00639-023-3611Thomson Reuters ESCIlatin america; adaptive management; climate change; perception; questionnaire survey; vulnerability, climate change perceptions; latin america; latinobarómetro; nd-gain; readiness; vulnerabilityDepartment of Social Work, Universidad Alberto Hurtado, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; School of Government, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, Chile; Energy Poverty Network, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Faculty of Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Latinobarómetro Corporation, Santiago, Chile; Faculty of Social Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Major atmospheric particulate matter sources for glaciers in Coquimbo Region, ChileBarraza F.; Lambert F.; MacDonell S.; Sinclair K.; Fernandoy F.; Jorquera H.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1007/s11356-021-12933-7Tapado Glacier is a subtropical mountain glacier in the Coquimbo region of Chile that has been continuously retreating during the last 60 years due to diminishing precipitation rates and rising temperatures and likely due to a currently unknown influence from atmospheric pollutant deposition. Climatic and meteorological impacts on this, and other, Andean glacier have been previously studied; however, cryosphere changes driven by aerosols are still largely unknown. To contribute to the understanding of the origin of aerosols and their dispersion, this study aims to identify natural and anthropogenic sources of air pollution deposited on the Tapado Glacier (4500–5536 m a.s.l.) and their transport by using a receptor model (positive matrix factorization) together with the concentration of major ions as proxies of air pollution deposited on this glacier. This model’s outcomes were complemented with daily wind backward trajectories computed for a whole year using the HYSPLYT meteorological model. Four sources were identified as the main contributors to major soluble ions in the Tapado surface snow. These sources are natural Aeolian dust (38%) from the Atacama Desert (including mining sites), natural weathered sulphates (27%), anthropogenic nitrates (25%), and coastal aerosols (10%). Coastal nitrate emissions and coastal aerosols are both sources with an important anthropogenic component, coming from La Serena and Coquimbo’s coastal cities. The crustal components and sulphate profiles are similar to detritus dispersed from the glacier after wind erosion. Although the glacier is located over 4000 m above sea level, anthropogenic pollutants reached this location. However, their contributions were smaller compared to natural contaminants. Our findings can likely be extended to the nearest glaciers in Northern Chile, which have similar potential contaminant sources from cities, ports, and thriving mining activity. However, these findings may not be suitable for southern Chilean glaciers, which are closer to bigger cities and to smoke from residential heating prevalent in winter months and wildfires during the summer. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH, DE part of Springer Nature.Environmental Science and Pollution Research09441344https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11356-021-12933-736817-3682728Thomson Reuters SCIEaeolian dust; air pollution; andes glaciers; glacier pollution; glaciochemistry; snow chemistry; source apportionment, aerosols; air pollutants; chile; cities; environmental monitoring; ice cover; particulate matter; seasons; atacama desert; chile; coquimbo; la serena; tapado glacier; atacama; atmospheric pollution; detritus; glacier; heating; particulate matter; seasonal variation; smoke; urban pollution; aerosol; air pollutant; chile; city; environmental monitoring; ice cover; particulate matter; seasonInstituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; School of Geography, University of Otago, Richardson Building, 85 Albany St., Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), La Serena, Chile; Applied Aquatic Research Ltd, Calgary, Canada; Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Andrés Bello, Laboratorio de Análisis Isotópico, Viña del Mar, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Carleman-based reconstruction algorithm for wavesBaudouin L.; Buhan M.D.E.; Ervedoza S.; Osses A.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1137/20M1315798We present a globally convergent numerical algorithm based on global Carleman estimates to reconstruct the speed of wave propagation in a bounded domain with Dirichlet boundary conditions from a single measurement of the boundary flux of the solutions in a finite time interval. The global convergence of the proposed algorithm naturally arises from the proof of the Lipschitz stability of the corresponding inverse problem for both sufficiently large observation time and boundary using global Carleman inequalities. The speed of propagation is supposed to be independent of time but varying in space with a trace and normal derivative known at the boundary and belonging to a certain admissible set that limits the speed fluctuations with respect to a given exterior point x0. In order to recover the speed, we also require a single experiment with null initial velocity and initial deformation having some monotonicity properties in the direction of x - x0. We perform numerical simulations in the discrete setting in order to illustrate and to validate the feasibility of the algorithm in both one and two dimensions in space. As proved theoretically, we verify that the numerical reconstruction is achieved for any admissible initial guess, even in the presence of small random disturbances on the measurements. © 2021 Society for Industrial and Applied MathematicsSIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis00361429https://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/20M1315798998-103959Thomson Reuters SCIEcarleman estimates; hyperbolic equation; inverse problem; reconstruction algorithm, boundary conditions; wave propagation; dirichlet boundary condition; finite time intervals; global carleman inequalities; monotonicity property; numerical algorithms; numerical reconstruction; reconstruction algorithms; speed of propagation; inverse problemsLAAS-CNRS, Universite de Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse, 31031, France; Laboratoire de Math\'ematiques d'Orsay, Universite Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Orsay, 91405, France; Univ. Bordeaux and CNRS, IMB, UMR 5251, Talence, F-33400, France; Departamento de Ingeniera Matematica and Centro de Modelamiento Matematico, UMI 2807 CNRS, FCFM Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Past abrupt changes, tipping points and cascading impacts in the Earth systemBrovkin V.; Brook E.; Williams J.W.; Bathiany S.; Lenton T.M.; Barton M.; DeConto R.M.; Donges J.F.; Ganopolski A.; McManus J.; Praetorius S.; de Vernal A.; Abe-Ouchi A.; Cheng H.; Claussen M.; Crucifix M.; Gallopín G.; Iglesias V.; Kaufman D.S.; Kleinen T.; Lambert F.; van der Leeuw S.; Liddy H.; Loutre M.-F.; McGee D.; Rehfeld K.; Rhodes R.; Seddon A.W.R.; Trauth M.H.; Vanderveken L.; Yu Z.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1038/s41561-021-00790-5The geological record shows that abrupt changes in the Earth system can occur on timescales short enough to challenge the capacity of human societies to adapt to environmental pressures. In many cases, abrupt changes arise from slow changes in one component of the Earth system that eventually pass a critical threshold, or tipping point, after which impacts cascade through coupled climate–ecological–social systems. The chance of detecting abrupt changes and tipping points increases with the length of observations. The geological record provides the only long-term information we have on the conditions and processes that can drive physical, ecological and social systems into new states or organizational structures that may be irreversible within human time frames. Here, we use well-documented abrupt changes of the past 30 kyr to illustrate how their impacts cascade through the Earth system. We review useful indicators of upcoming abrupt changes, or early warning signals, and provide a perspective on the contributions of palaeoclimate science to the understanding of abrupt changes in the Earth system. © 2021, Springer Nature Limited.Nature Geoscience17520894https://www.nature.com/articles/s41561-021-00790-5550-55814Thomson Reuters SCIEMax Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany; CEN, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States; Department of Geography and Center for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States; Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS), Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, Hamburg, Germany; Global Systems Institute, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom; School of Human Evolution and Social Change and School of Complex Adaptive Systems, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States; Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, United States; Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY, United States; Geology, Minerals, Energy and Geophysics Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA, United States; Geotop Research Center, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montreal, Canada; Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Institute of Global Environmental Change, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi, China; Institute for Meteorology, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; Earth and Life Institute, UCLouvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Independent Researcher, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Earth Lab, University of C...
Northern Chile intermediate-depth earthquakes controlled by plate hydrationCabrera L.; Ruiz S.; Poli P.; Contreras-Reyes E.; Osses A.; Mancini R.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1093/gji/ggaa565We investigate the variations of the seismic source properties and aftershock activity using kinematic inversions and template-matching for six large magnitude intermediate-depth earthquakes occurred in northern Chile. Results show similar rupture geometry and stress drop values between 7 and 30 MPa. Conversely, aftershock productivity systematically decreases for the deeper events within the slab. Particularly, there is a dramatic decrease in aftershock activity below the 400-450 °C isotherm depth, which separates high-and low-hydrated zones. The events exhibit tensional focal mechanisms at unexpected depths within the slab, suggesting a deepening of the neutral plane, where the extensional regimen reaches the 700-800 °C isotherm depth. We interpret the reduction of aftershocks in the lower part of the extensional regime as the absence of a hydrated-slab at those depths. Our finding highlights the role of the thermal structure and fluids in the subducting plate in controlling the intermediated-depth seismic activity and shed new light in their causative mechanism. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society.Geophysical Journal International0956540Xhttps://academic.oup.com/gji/article/226/1/78/599822778-90226Thomson Reuters SCIEcomposition and structure of the oceanic crust; earthquake dynamics; earthquake source observations; numerical modelling; seismicity and tectonics; subduction zone processes, chile; hydration; isotherms; plates (structural components); template matching; composition and structure of the oceanic crust; earthquake dynamics; earthquake source observations; intermediate-depth earthquakes; northern chile; property; seismic source; seismicity and tectonics; subduction zone process; aftershock; depth; earthquake mechanism; focal mechanism; hydration; numerical model; oceanic crust; plate tectonics; rupture; seismic source; seismicity; subduction zone; earthquakesDepartamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; ISTerre Institut des Sciences de la Terre, Cnrs, Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Cedex 9, 38058, France; Departamento de Ingenieria Matematica y Centro de Modelamiento Matematico Umi 2807 Cnrs, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8370449, Chile
Territorial Energy Vulnerability Assessment to Enhance Just Energy Transition of CitiesCalvo R.; Amigo C.; Billi M.; Fleischmann M.; Urquiza A.; Álamos N.; Navea J.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes202110.3389/frsc.2021.635976Energy poverty is a crucial concept in current global energy policy, both for the importance of securing equitable access to high-quality energy services to all human populations and to advance toward a just energy transition to a decarbonized economy. Nonetheless, one of the limitations of this concept due to its focus at the household scale, it has tended to omit relevant energy conditions at a territorial scale, which can also be a dimension of significant deprivation (e.g., transportation, schools, hospitals, public services, industrial uses among others.). On the other hand, energy services are highly dependent on context: on the geographic, ecological, technical, economic, and sociocultural conditions. This context-dependency determines the range of energy and technological alternatives available in a territory. Hence, a conceptual framework is required to better understand the starting point to a just energy transition, capable of integrating the complexity of socio-techno-ecological systems. To fill this gap, we present a framework based on the concept of Territorial Energy Vulnerability (TEV), defined as the propensity of a territory to not guarantee equitable access—in quantity and quality—to resilient energy services that allow the sustainable human and economic development of its population. That is a greater probability of inequity in access to energy services or a significant impacts derived from socio-natural risks that make it incapable of guaranteeing a sustainable and resilient provision of these services. Built on state-of-the-art conceptualizations of risk, we develop an indicator-based framework on vulnerability understood as the combination of sensitivity and resilience characteristics of socio-techno-ecological systems. Sensitivity relates to economic, demographic, infrastructure, technology, culture, and knowledge characteristics of socio-techno-ecological components. Meanwhile, resilience is presented in a three-dimensional framework based on flexibility, register, and self-transformation capacity of socio-techno-ecological systems. An application of this framework is developed using three case studies: Arica, Los Andes and Coyhaique, all Chilean cities with diverse ecological, technical, economic, and sociocultural conditions that shape territorial vulnerability. Using this framework as a diagnostic tool, the development of a just energy transition could adapt existing concepts of energy poverty and decarbonization pathways into context-specific guidelines and policies. Copyright © 2021 Calvo, Amigo, Billi, Fleischmann, Urquiza, Álamos and Navea.Frontiers in Sustainable Cities26249634https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/frsc.2021.635976/fullart6359763Thomson Reuters ESCInan, cities; energy poverty; just energy transition; resilience; territorial; vulnerabilityDoctorado en Geografía, Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Núcleo de Estudios Sistémicos Transdisciplinarios, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Red de Pobreza Energética, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Espacio y Sociedad, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Escuela de Gobierno, Universidad Adolfo Ibañez, Santiago, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Present-Day Patagonian Dust Emissions: Combining Surface Visibility, Mass Flux, and Reanalysis DataCosentino N.J.; Gaiero D.M.; Lambert F.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1029/2020JD034459The magnitude of the climatic forcing associated with mineral dust aerosols remains uncertain due in part to a lack of observations on dust sources. While modeling and satellite studies provide spatially extensive constraints, they must be supported by surface-validating dust monitoring. Southern South America is the main dust source to the southern oceans (>45°S), a region of low biological productivity potentially susceptible to increased micronutrient fertilization through dust deposition, as well as one of the main dust sources to Antarctica, implying long-range transport of dust from Patagonia and potentially affecting snow cover albedo. We present multiyear time series of dust-related visibility reduction (DRVR) and dust mass flux in Patagonia. We find that local DRVR is partly controlled by long-term (i.e., months) water deficit, while same-day conditions play a smaller role, reflective of water retention properties of fine-grained dust-emitting soils in low-moisture conditions. This is supported independently by reanalysis data showing that large-scale dust outbreaks are usually associated with anomalously high long-term water deficit. By combining visibility data, surface dust sampling, and particle dispersion modeling, we derive regional dust emission rates. Our results suggest that the inclusion of long-term soil hydrologic balance parameterizations under low-moisture conditions may improve the performance of dust emission schemes in Earth system models. © 2021. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres2169897Xhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2020JD034459arte2020JD034459126Thomson Reuters SCIEantarctica; patagonia; south america; atmospheric pollution; long range transport; mass transfer; mineral dust; pollutant source; pollution monitoring; visibility, aerosols; aridity; dust; patagoniaInstituto de Geografía, Facultad de Historia, Geografía y Ciencia Política, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Núcleo Milenio Paleoclima, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra (CICTERRA), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas (CONICET), Córdoba, Argentina; Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina
Assessment of cardiovascular risk in women with periodontal diseases according to c-reactive protein levelsDa Venezia C.; Hussein N.; Hernández M.; Contreras J.; Morales A.; Valdés M.; Rojas F.; Matamala L.; Hernández-Ríos P.Ciudades Resilientes202110.3390/biom11081238Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are highly prevalent non-communicable diseases world-wide. Periodontitis may act as a non-traditional cardiovascular risk (CVR) factor, linked by a low-grade systemic inflammation mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP). Patients with periodontitis reported higher serum CRP levels; however, a CRP systemic and periodontal correlation in gingi-val crevicular fluid (GCF) and its CVR impact have been barely studied. We aimed to assess the association between periodontal diseases and CVR in a group of adult women, based on serum high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) levels; and secondly, to determine the association between serum and GCF CRP levels. Gingival crevicular fluid and blood samples were obtained from women with peri-odontitis, gingivitis, and healthy controls. Serum and GCF CRP were determined by turbidimetric method and Luminex technology, respectively. Data were analyzed and adjusted by CVR factors. All women presented moderate CVR, without an evident association between serum hs-CRP levels and periodontal diseases. While serum hs-CRP concentrations did not significantly differ between groups, patients with gingivitis and periodontitis showed higher CRP levels in GCF, which positively correlated to CRP detection in serum. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Biomolecules2218273Xhttps://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/11/8/1238art123811Thomson Reuters SCIEadolescent; adult; c-reactive protein; cardiovascular diseases; cross-sectional studies; female; gingiva; gingival crevicular fluid; gingivitis; humans; nephelometry and turbidimetry; periodontal diseases; periodontitis; risk assessment; risk factors; c reactive protein; cholesterol; hemoglobin a1c; high density lipoprotein cholesterol; lipid; low density lipoprotein cholesterol; triacylglycerol; c reactive protein; adult; article; blood sampling; body mass; cardiovascular risk factor; cephalic vein; cholesterol blood level; confidence interval; controlled study; data analysis; diabetes mellitus; diagnostic test accuracy study; diastolic blood pressure; dyslipidemia; educational status; fasting; female; gingival index; gingivitis; high density lipoprotein cholesterol level; human; hypertension; immunoassay; low density lipoprotein cholesterol level; major clinical study; obesity; periodontal disease; periodontitis; physical examination; protein blood level; retrospective study; smoking; systolic blood pressure; triacylglycerol blood level; adolescent; biosynthesis; blood; cardiovascular disease; complication; cross-sectional study; gingiva; metabolism; periodontal disease; photometry; risk assessment; risk factor, biomediators; c-reactive protein; cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular risk; gingival crevicular fluid; gingivitis; non-communicable diseases; periodontal diseases; periodontitis; womenFaculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago, 8380544, Chile; Laboratory of Periodontal Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago, 8380544, Chile; Department of Pathology and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago, 8380544, Chile; Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago, 8380544, Chile; Center for Epidemiology and Surveillance of Oral Diseases (CESOD), Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago, 8420000, Chile; Faculty of Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Chile, Santiago, 8380453, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research CR2, University of Chile, Santiago, 8370449, Chile
Landscape Engineering Impacts the Long-Term Stability of Agricultural PopulationsFreeman J.; Anderies J.M.; Beckman N.G.; Robinson E.; Baggio J.A.; Bird D.; Nicholson C.; Finley J.B.; Capriles J.M.; Gil A.F.; Byers D.; Gayo E.; Latorre C.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1007/s10745-021-00242-zExplaining the stability of human populations provides knowledge for understanding the resilience of human societies to environmental change. Here, we use archaeological radiocarbon records to evaluate a hypothesis drawn from resilience thinking that may explain the stability of human populations: Faced with long-term increases in population density, greater variability in the production of food leads to less stable populations, while lower variability leads to more stable populations. However, increased population stability may come with the cost of larger collapses in response to rare, large-scale environmental perturbations. Our results partially support this hypothesis. Agricultural societies that relied on extensive landscape engineering to intensify production and tightly control variability in the production of food experienced the most stability. Contrary to the hypothesis, these societies also experienced the least severe population declines. We propose that the interrelationship between landscape engineering and increased political-economic complexity reduces the magnitude of population collapses in a region. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.Human Ecology03007839https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10745-021-00242-z369-38249Thomson Reuters SSCIhuman population ecology; intensification; population stability; radiocarbon; resilience, nanAnthropology Program and The Ecology Center, Utah State University, Logan, 84322, UT, United States; School of Sustainability and The School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, 85281, AZ, United States; Department of Biology and The Ecology Center, Utah State University, Logan, 84322, UT, United States; Department of Anthropology and Center for Applied Archaeological Science, Boise State University, Boise, 83725, ID, United States; Anthropology Program, Utah State University, Logan, 84322, UT, United States; Sustainable Coastal Systems Cluster and National Center for Integrated Coastal Research, University of Central Florida, Orlando, 32816, FL, United States; Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, 99164, WA, United States; The School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, 85281, AZ, United States; Department of Anthropology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 16802, PA, United States; CONICET/UTN (Instituto de Evolución, Ecología Histórica y Ambiente-IDEVEA), San Rafael, Argentina; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Concepción, Chile; Department of Ecology, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, Santiago, Chile
Crossing a critical threshold: Accelerated and widespread land use changes drive recent carbon and nitrogen dynamics in Vichuquén Lake (35°S) in central ChileFuentealba M.; Latorre C.; Frugone-Álvarez M.; Sarricolea P.; Godoy-Aguirre C.; Armesto J.; Villacís L.A.; Laura Carrevedo M.; Meseguer-Ruiz O.; Valero-Garcés B.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148209Global afforestation/deforestation processes (e.g., Amazon deforestation and Europe afforestation) create new anthropogenic controls on carbon cycling and nutrient supply that have not been fully assessed. Here, we use a watershed-lake dynamics approach to investigate how human-induced land cover changes have altered nutrient transference during the last 700 years in a mediterranean coastal area (Vichuquén Lake). We compare our multiproxy reconstruction with historical documentation and use satellite images to reconstruct land use/cover changes for the last 45 years. Historical landscape changes, including those during the indigenous settlements, Spanish conquest, and the Chilean Republic up to mid-20th century did not significantly alter sediment and nutrient fluxes to the lake. In contrast, the largest changes in the lake-watershed system occurred in the mid-20th century and particularly after the 1980s–90s and were characterized by a large increase in total nitrogen and organic carbon fluxes as well as negative shifts in sediment δ15N and δ13C values. This shift was coeval with the largest land cover transformation in the Vichuquén watershed, as native forests nearly disappeared while anthropogenic tree plantations expanded up to 60% of the surface area. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.Science of the Total Environment00489697https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969721032800art148209791Thomson Reuters SCIEland use land cover change; mediterranean ecosystems; nitrogen cycle; organic geochemistry; stable isotope analyses; watershed–lake system, carbon; chile; forests; humans; lakes; nitrogen; chile; deforestation; geochemistry; image reconstruction; lakes; nitrogen; nutrients; organic carbon; reforestation; watersheds; carbon; nitrogen; organic carbon; stable isotope; carbon; nitrogen; 20th century; anthropogenics; critical threshold; land-use land-cover changes; landuse change; mediterranean ecosystem; nitrogen cycles; organic geochemistry; stable-isotope analysis; watershed–lake system; anthropogenic effect; carbon; isotopic analysis; lake dynamics; land cover; land use change; landscape change; mediterranean environment; nitrogen; organic geochemistry; stable isotope; watershed; afforestation; article; carbon dynamics; chile; chlorophyll content; deforestation; geochemical analysis; land use; nitrogen dynamics; nonhuman; nutrient; organic matter production; ph; seasonal variation; sediment; soil property; summer; vegetation; forest; human; lake; land useDepartamento de Ecología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Alameda 340, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad de Chile, Marcoleta 250, Santiago, Chile; Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, 12545, NY, United States; Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Ñuñoa, Santiago, Chile; Núcleo Milenio Paleoclima and Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Históricas y Geográficas, Universidad de Tarapacá, Sede Iquique, Chile; Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología (IPE-CSIC), Avenida Montañana, 1005, Zaragoza, 50059, Spain
Paving the road for electric vehicles: Lessons from a randomized experiment in an introduction stage marketGuevara C.A.; Figueroa E.; Munizaga M.A.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.tra.2021.09.011We study attitudes, perceptions, and valuations of a convenience sample of Chilean employees from an electric distribution company who applied for a subsidized electric vehicle (EV) acquisition program. The subsidy was randomly assigned among the interested applicants. We use this data in an experiment to assess the impact that being a user, or a non-user of an EV has on the factors under study, using focus groups and a stated preference (SP) experiment. In the focus groups, users mentioned relatively more benefits and barriers of EVs, while non-users spontaneously stated that a limited charging network at the urban level could be an issue. The SP survey suggested that being a user did not trigger a change in environmental attitudes; on the other hand, it significantly boosted perceptions of maintenance costs and driving range. Additionally, discrete choice models estimated from the SP data suggested a possibly null willingness to pay for urban charging infrastructure, expressed as a percentage of current gas stations, among the user group. We discuss possible policy implications that can be inferred from this analysis, considering the size and source limitations of the available sample. © 2021 Elsevier LtdTransportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice09658564https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S096585642100241X326-340153Thomson Reuters SCIE, SSCIelectric vehicle; randomized experiment; stated preferences, chile; public policy; acquisition programmes; driving range; electric distribution company; environmental attitudes; focus groups; group users; maintenance cost; randomized experiments; stated preference surveys; stated preferences; electric vehicle; experimental study; perception; public attitude; subsidy system; survey; valuation; willingness to pay; electric vehiclesDepartamento de Ingeniería Civil, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Instituto Sistemas Complejos de Ingeniería (ISCI), Chile; CIS Asociados Consultores en Transporte S.A, Chile
The role of climate and disturbance regimes upon temperate rainforests during the Holocene: A stratigraphic perspective from Lago Fonk (∼40°S), northwestern PatagoniaHenríquez C.A.; Moreno P.I.; Lambert F.; Alloway B.V.Ciudades Resilientes; Agua y Extremos202110.1016/j.quascirev.2021.106890Climate and disturbance regimes play key roles in shaping the structure, composition and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Despite this importance, very few stratigraphic studies in the temperate rainforests from northwestern Patagonia have explored this relationship in detail along a time continuum through the entire Holocene. Here we present a high-resolution fossil pollen and charcoal record from Lago Fonk (median resolution: 20 years), a small closed-basin lake in the lowlands of the Chilean Lake District (41°S), where wildfires and explosive volcanism have intermittently taken place during the Holocene, along with pronounced human-induced disturbance in post-colonial time. Our results show persistence of temperate rainforest throughout the Holocene, with changes in the composition and structure of Valdivian rainforests (VRF) at millennial timescales. We detect centennial-scale alternations in dominance between the VRF tree Eucryphia/Caldcluvia and generalist trees found in VRF and North Patagonian rainforests after ∼6.5 cal ka BP. Intervals dominated by VRF coincide with enhanced fire occurrence signaling negative hydroclimate anomalies with a mean duration of ∼150 years, which alternate with positive hydroclimate anomalies lasting ∼312 years on average. Our results suggest that the magnitude and rapidity of vegetation changes detected at 10.2–9.9, 4.0–3.0, ∼1.0, and ∼0.7 cal ka BP were amplified by disturbance regimes, and led to the establishment and maintenance of Eucryphia/Caldcluvia-dominated forests in the Longitudinal Valley of the Chilean Lake District. On several occasions the higher incidence of fire disturbance during warm/dry climate intervals coincided with episodes of heightened explosive volcanic activity from multiple eruptive centers within the Southern Andean Volcanic Zone. © 2021 Elsevier LtdQuaternary Science Reviews02773791https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0277379121000974art106890258Thomson Reuters SCIEcentennial/millennial-scale variability; explosive volcanism; fire disturbance; lake sediment cores; pollen analysis, chile; cumbria; england; lake district; longitudinal valley; patagonia; taiwan; united kingdom; eucryphia; charcoal; explosives; fires; forestry; stratigraphy; volcanoes; centennial/millennial-scale variability; climate regime; disturbance regime; explosive volcanism; fire disturbance; holocenes; lake sediment cores; patagonia; pollen analysis; temperate rainforest; charcoal; climate variation; disturbance; explosive volcanism; fossil record; holocene; rainforest; stratigraphy; temperate forest; vegetation dynamics; lakesMillennium Nucleus Paleoclimate, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate Research and Resilience, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; School of Environment, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand
Estimating coastal flood hazard of Tossa de Mar, Spain: a combined model – data interviews approachHernandez-Mora M.; Meseguer-Ruiz O.; Karas C.; Lambert F.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1007/s11069-021-04914-3Human settlements in coastal areas are highly vulnerable to extreme events, especially in the Mediterranean area, which houses a large number of tourists during the summer and autumn months. It is important to carry out hazard studies at local scale to improve our understanding of natural and anthropogenic processes involved in episodes of coastal flooding. We reconstruct and characterize an extreme weather event in Tossa de Mar (northeastern Spain) and the subsequent urban flooding that occurred in 2008. Our results show flood heights up to 1.27 m, with the maximum occurring between 24 and 64 h after the start of the event. This is broadly consistent with the reconstructions obtained through interviews and photographs. Based on model simulations, we produce a hazard map for the town based on hydrodynamic scenarios for different return periods. We show that the southern part of the town is more susceptible to flooding, whereas the northern part is relatively resilient to extreme events. We recommend the adaption of a currently existing dune by adding vegetation and slightly increasing its height. This low economic cost action would significantly reduce flooding and increase resilience in this area. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.Natural Hazards0921030Xhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11069-021-04914-32153-2171109Thomson Reuters SCIEcoastal flood; hazard index; lisflood-fp; mediterranean sea; northeast spain; risk management, catalonia; gerona [catalonia]; spain; tossa de mar; coastal zone; estimation method; extreme event; flooding; hazard assessment; human settlement; seasonal variation; vulnerabilityPrograma de Doctorado en Geografía, Instituto de Geografía, Facultad de Historia, Geografía Y Ciencia Política, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto Milenio en Socio-Ecología Costera (SECOS), Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Históricas Y Geográficas, Universidad de Tarapacá, Iquique, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Geográfica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Millennium Nucleus Paleoclimate, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
Road traffic noise on the santa marta city tourist routeJiménez-Uribe D.A.; Daniels D.; Fleming Z.L.; Vélez-Pereira A.M.Ciudades Resilientes202110.3390/app11167196The objective of this study was to determine the influence of vehicular traffic on the environmental noise levels of the Santa Marta City tourist route on the Colombian coast. An analysis of vehicle types and frequencies at various times of the day over nearly a year helped to track the main sources of environmental noise pollution. Five sampling points were selected, which were distributed over 12 km, with three classified as peripheral urban and two as suburban. The average traffic flow was 966 vehicles/h and was mainly composed of automobiles, with higher values in the peripheral urban area. The noise level was 103.3 dBA, with background and peak levels of 87.2 and 107.3 dBA, respectively. The noise level was higher during the day; however, there were no differences between weekdays and weekends. The results from the analysis of variance showed that the number of vehicles and the noise levels varied greatly according to the time of day and sampling point location. The peak and mean noise levels were correlated with the number of automobiles, buses and heavy vehicles. The mean noise levels were similar at all sample points despite the traffic flow varying, and the background noise was only correlated for automobiles (which varied much more than the heavy vehicles between day and night). © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Applied Sciences (Switzerland)20763417https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/11/16/7196art719611Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, acoustic pollution; analysis of variance; field measurements; freeway; traffic flow dynamicsEnvironmental System Modeling Research Group, Universidad del Magdalena, Santa Marta, 470004, Colombia; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Facultad de Ciencias, Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Envirohealth Dynamics Lab, C+ Research Center in Technologies for Society, School of Engineering, Universidad Del Desarrollo, Santiago, 7550000, Chile; Centro de Investigación en Ecosistemas de la Patagonia (CIEP), ECO-Climático, Coyhaique, 5951369, Chile
Regional patterns and temporal evolution of ocean iron fertilization and CO2 drawdown during the last glacial terminationLambert F.; Opazo N.; Ridgwell A.; Winckler G.; Lamy F.; Shaffer G.; Kohfeld K.; Ohgaito R.; Albani S.; Abe-Ouchi A.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.epsl.2020.116675The last time Earth's climate experienced geologically rapid global warming was associated with the last glacial termination, when atmospheric CO2 concentrations rose from 180 ppmv during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 26-19 kaBP) to ∼260 ppmv by the early Holocene (12-8 kaBP). About one quarter of that difference is thought to be due to a stronger biological pump during glacial times, driven by increased aeolian dust deposition and hence greater iron availability in ocean surface waters. However, dust supply did not change uniformly or in synchrony over the deglacial transition and what is not known is the relative importance of different oceanic regions and how this may have changed in time. Using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity, we quantify the sensitivity of atmospheric CO2 to regional changes in iron supply, and test six different global dust reconstructions in order to explore uncertainty in past dust changes. We confirm the Southern Ocean (>34°S) as the region most sensitive to iron fertilization, with the Atlantic and Pacific sectors accounting for about 41±23% and 16±10%, respectively, of the total CO2 reduction from global iron fertilization. However, the North Pacific contributes 28±3% to the total implying an important role for Northern Hemisphere processes in driving deglacial CO2 rise. In addition, our analysis reveals an unexpected regional-temporal disparity, and while Southern Hemisphere iron fertilization influences atmospheric CO2 relatively constantly throughout the termination the impact of the Northern Hemisphere only occurs during the later stages of the termination. © 2020 The Author(s)Earth and Planetary Science Letters0012821Xhttps://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0012821X20306191art116675554Thomson Reuters SCIEco2; dust; iron fertilization; paleoclimate; termination, biology; carbon dioxide; dust; earth (planet); glacial geology; global warming; surface waters; co2 concentration; earth system model of intermediate complexity; iron fertilization; last glacial maximum; last glacial terminations; northern hemispheres; southern hemisphere; temporal evolution; carbon dioxide; dust; global warming; iron; last glacial maximum; northern hemisphere; paleoclimate; reconstruction; temporal evolution; ironDepartment of Physical Geography, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Chile; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Riverside, United States; Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, 10964, NY, United States; Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, 27570, Germany; Research Center GAIA Antarctica, University of Magallanes, Chile; Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University, Canada; School of Environmental Science, Simon Fraser University, Canada; Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, 236-0001, Japan; Department of Environmental and Earth Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Italy; Atmosphere Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8564, Chiba, Japan
Global resilience models and territories of the South. A critical reviewMarin J.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102541The resilience of cities, regions and other territorial scales is defined by various conceptual frameworks and has since the 2000s constituted a growing scientific and technical field. Although literature points out the difficulty of implementing such a vague and ambiguous concept, a range of metrics, methodological frameworks and principles have emerged, using tools like composite indicators, qualitative assessment or stochastic modelling. Among these models some have been applied globally over the last ten years, for e.g. the City Resilience Framework developed for the 100 Resilient Cities network. This article proposes a discussion of these global resilience models in order to contribute to our understanding of how they are constructed, how they function, and their potential to transform territories. By using literature review and qualitative content analysis, four axes of inquiry are developed: translations and adaptations of the notion of resilience within hegemonic networks; socio-technical markers of resilience models; resilience as a device of neoliberal governmentality; the position of Latin America within the production of knowledge concerning resilience. This manuscript main contribution is to put into question some gaps or biases in our scientific outputs and models that we might be reproducing or legitimating, and that are worth cross-examine. Three key findings are: Evidenced biases in disciplinary associations of resilience; Evidenced gaps in using closed-form of modelling resilience that invisibilize important assumptions of territories and despolitize the concept; The North-South divide resilience knowledge production is not only quantitative but also expressed in the core of models and tools. © 2021International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction22124209https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212420921005021art10254166Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, global south; literature review; sustainability; urban resilienceDoctorado en Territorio, Espacio y Sociedad, Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo, Universidad de Chile, Av. Portugal 84, Región Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile; Centre d'étude des mouvements sociaux, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, 54 Bd Raspail, Paris, 75006, France
Forecasting PM2.5 levels in Santiago de Chile using deep learning neural networksMenares C.; Perez P.; Parraguez S.; Fleming Z.L.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.uclim.2021.100906Air pollution has been shown to have a direct effect on human health. In particular, PM2.5 has been proven to be related to cardiovascular and respiratory problems. Therefore, it is important to have accurate models to predict high pollution events for this and other pollutants. We present different models that forecast PM2.5 maximum concentrations using a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) based neural network and a Deep Feedforward Neural Network (DFFNN). Ten years of air pollution and meteorological measurements from the network of monitoring stations in the city of Santiago, Chile were used, focusing on the behaviour of three zones of the city. All missing values were rebuilt using a method based on discrete cosine transforms and photochemical predictors selected through unsupervised clustering. Deep learning techniques provide significant improvements compared to a traditional multi-layer neural networks, particularly the LSTM model configured with a 7-day memory window (synoptic scale of pollution patterns) can capture critical pollution events at sites with both primary and secondary air pollution problems. Furthermore, the LSTM model consistently outperform deterministic models currently used in Santiago, Chile. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.Urban Climate22120955https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S221209552100136Xart10090638Thomson Reuters SCIEair quality forecasting; deep neural networks; fine particulate matter; lstm; machine learning; meteorology forecast, nanSantiago, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Envirohealth Dynamics lab, C+ Research Center in Technologies for Society, School of Engineering, Universidad Del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile
The state of science on severe air pollution episodes: Quantitative and qualitative analysisMorawska L.; Zhu T.; Liu N.; Amouei Torkmahalleh M.; de Fatima Andrade M.; Barratt B.; Broomandi P.; Buonanno G.; Carlos Belalcazar Ceron L.; Chen J.; Cheng Y.; Evans G.; Gavidia M.; Guo H.; Hanigan I.; Hu M.; Jeong C.H.; Kelly F.; Gallardo L.; Kumar P.; Lyu X.; Mullins B.J.; Nordstrøm C.; Pereira G.; Querol X.; Yezid Rojas Roa N.; Russell A.; Thompson H.; Wang H.; Wang L.; Wang T.; Wierzbicka A.; Xue T.; Ye C.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.envint.2021.106732Severe episodic air pollution blankets entire cities and regions and have a profound impact on humans and their activities. We compiled daily fine particle (PM2.5) data from 100 cities in five continents, investigated the trends of number, frequency, and duration of pollution episodes, and compared these with the baseline trend in air pollution. We showed that the factors contributing to these events are complex; however, long-term measures to abate emissions from all anthropogenic sources at all times is also the most efficient way to reduce the occurrence of severe air pollution events. In the short term, accurate forecasting systems of such events based on the meteorological conditions favouring their occurrence, together with effective emergency mitigation of anthropogenic sources, may lessen their magnitude and/or duration. However, there is no clear way of preventing events caused by natural sources affected by climate change, such as wildfires and desert dust outbreaks. © 2021Environment International01604120https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0160412021003573art106732156Thomson Reuters SCIEformation of secondary pollutants; mitigating air pollutants; pollution emissions; pollution episodes; severe air pollution events; urban air pollution, air pollutants; air pollution; cities; environmental monitoring; humans; meteorology; particulate matter; climate change; air pollution episodes; anthropogenic sources; fine particles (pm$-2.5$/); formation of secondary pollutant; mitigating air pollutant; pollution emissions; pollution episodes; quantitative and qualitative analysis; severe air pollution event; urban air pollution; accuracy assessment; atmospheric pollution; emission; episodic event; forecasting method; human activity; qualitative analysis; quantitative analysis; trend analysis; urban pollution; air pollutant; article; climate change; desert; forecasting; human; meteorology; qualitative analysis; quantitative analysis; wildfire; air pollution; city; environmental monitoring; particulate matter; air pollutionInternational Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Faculty of Science, Queensland University Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, 4001, Queensland, Australia; College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China; Chemical and Aerosol Research Team, School of Engineering and Digital Sciences, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan, 010000, Kazakhstan; The Environment and Resource Efficiency Cluster, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan, 010000, Kazakhstan; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences (IAG), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Brazil; Department of Environmental Health, King's College London, United Kingdom; School of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Masjed Soleiman Branch, Iran; University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino, Italy; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia, Colombia; Environmental Science & Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, China; Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Canada; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong; The University of Sydney, University Centre for Rural Health, School of Public Health, New South Wales, Australia; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment...
Validation of 4D Flow based relative pressure maps in aortic flowsNolte D.; Urbina J.; Sotelo J.; Sok L.; Montalba C.; Valverde I.; Osses A.; Uribe S.; Bertoglio C.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.media.2021.102195While the clinical gold standard for pressure difference measurements is invasive catheterization, 4D Flow MRI is a promising tool for enabling a non-invasive quantification, by linking highly spatially resolved velocity measurements with pressure differences via the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. In this work we provide a validation and comparison with phantom and clinical patient data of pressure difference maps estimators. We compare the classical Pressure Poisson Estimator (PPE) and the new Stokes Estimator (STE) against catheter pressure measurements under a variety of stenosis severities and flow intensities. Specifically, we use several 4D Flow data sets of realistic aortic phantoms with different anatomic and hemodynamic severities and two patients with aortic coarctation. The phantom data sets are enriched by subsampling to lower resolutions, modification of the segmentation and addition of synthetic noise, in order to study the sensitivity of the pressure difference estimators to these factors. Overall, the STE method yields more accurate results than the PPE method compared to catheterization data. The superiority of the STE becomes more evident at increasing Reynolds numbers with a better capacity of capturing pressure gradients in strongly convective flow regimes. The results indicate an improved robustness of the STE method with respect to variation in lumen segmentation. However, with heuristic removal of the wall-voxels, the PPE can reach a comparable accuracy for lower Reynolds’ numbers. © 2021 The Author(s)Medical Image Analysis13618415https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1361841521002401art10219574Thomson Reuters SCIEimaging; reproducibility of results; diagnosis; hospital data processing; navier stokes equations; phantoms; reynolds number; aortic coarctation; convective flow; lower resolution; lumen segmentations; pressure differences; spatially resolved; stokes equations; synthetic noise; adult; aortic coarctation; aortic flow; article; case report; catheterization; clinical article; female; flow measurement; four-dimensional imaging; hemodynamic parameters; human; image analysis; male; nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; patient coding; pressure gradient; pressure measurement; aortic coarctation; blood flow velocity; hemodynamics; imaging phantom; nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; reproducibility; blood vessels, 4d flow; catheter; clinical and experimental validation; pressure difference, aortic coarctation; blood flow velocity; hemodynamics; humans; magnetic resonance imaging; phantomsBernoulli Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, 9747AG, Netherlands; Center for Mathematical Modeling, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8370456, Chile; Biomedical Imaging Center, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 833002, Chile; Millennium Nucleus for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; School of Biomedical Engineering, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Department of Electrical Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, 41013, Spain
Assessment of landscape transformation in protected areasPereira S.R.; Fernández J.; Herrera J.; Olea J.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.eiar.2020.106472Mountain protected landscapes continuously endure conflicts of appropriation that bear inherent transformations. One type of direct intervention is by Commercial Concessions within these areas, affecting their landscape value. The aim is to determine conceptual gaps in Environmental Impact Studies regarding landscape assessment and propose a way to improve them in this sense. Shortcomings regarding landscape are checked in different normative frameworks and tensions are analyzed through the case of a Commercial Concession grant within a Mountain Protected area in the South-Central Andes of Chile (38°22′S;71°35′W). Weak or absent definitions of landscape are found in normative frames and Environmental Impact guidelines. A reductionism of landscape as mere viewshed units avoids a proper differentiation for several types of economic transformations and conservation management purposes therein. Hence, transformations affecting the inherent value of landscape are latent under monitoring and legislation abiding practices. Tensions between protected areas and commercial concessions depend on landscape management strategies which are associated to capital gain uncertainties by risking the nonuse-value of landscape. This uncertainty as a natural insurance value can be integrated to conceptual analyses assessing landscape transformations and report their depreciation. These transformations of landscape value are deemed necessary to be implemented in Environmental Impact Assessment without having to discretize bipartite purposes in protected areas by assessing landscape value through conceptual and economic analyses. © 2020 Elsevier Inc.Environmental Impact Assessment Review01959255https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0195925520301347art10647286Thomson Reuters SSCIandes; chile; conservation; economic analysis; environmental impact assessments; environmental protection; uncertainty analysis; conceptual analysis; conservation management; economic transformation; environmental impact study; landscape assessments; landscape management; landscape values; protected areas; conceptual framework; conservation management; economic analysis; environmental impact assessment; legislation; protected area; uncertainty analysis; environmental impact, commercial concession; economical transformation; eia; landscape value; mountain protected areasInstituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Universidad de Chile, Chile; University of Bonn, Germany; Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Temuco, Chile; Facultad de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Chile; Laboratório História e Natureza, UFRJ, Brazil
Contaminant emissions as indicators of chemical elements in the snow along a latitudinal gradient in southern AndesPizarro J.; Vergara P.M.; Cerda S.; Cordero R.R.; Castillo X.; Rowe P.M.; Casassa G.; Carrasco J.; Damiani A.; Llanillo P.J.; Lambert F.; Rondanelli R.; Huneeus N.; Fernandoy F.; Alfonso J.; Neshyba S.Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes202110.1038/s41598-021-93895-1The chemical composition of snow provides insights on atmospheric transport of anthropogenic contaminants at different spatial scales. In this study, we assess how human activities influence the concentration of elements in the Andean mountain snow along a latitudinal transect throughout Chile. The concentration of seven elements (Al, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn and Zn) was associated to gaseous and particulate contaminants emitted at different spatial scales. Our results indicate carbon monoxide (CO) averaged at 20 km and nitrogen oxide (NOx) at 40 km as the main indicators of the chemical elements analyzed. CO was found to be a significant predictor of most element concentrations while concentrations of Cu, Mn, Mg and Zn were positively associated to emissions of NOx. Emission of 2.5 μm and 10 μm particulate matter averaged at different spatial scales was positively associated to concentration of Li. Finally, the concentration of Zn was positively associated to volatile organic compounds (VOC) averaged at 40 km around sampling sites. The association between air contaminants and chemical composition of snow suggests that regions with intensive anthropogenic pollution face reduced quality of freshwater originated from glacier and snow melting. © 2021, The Author(s).Scientific Reports20452322http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-93895-1art1453011Thomson Reuters SCIEUniversidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Santiago, Chile; NorthWest Research Associates, Redmond, WA, United States; Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan; Department of Physical Geography, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research CR2, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, Chile; Universidad Nacional Andrés Bello, Viña del Mar 2531015, Valparaíso, Chile; Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Carretera Panamericana, Km 11, Altos de Pipe, Venezuela; Department of Chemistry, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA, United States
Urban heat islands and vulnerable populations in a mid-size Coastal City in an arid environmentQuintana-Talvac C.; Corvacho-Ganahin O.; Smith P.; Sarricolea P.; Prieto M.; Meseguer-Ruiz O.Ciudades Resilientes202110.3390/atmos12070917Arica is a coastal city located in northern Chile, in the Atacama Desert. The behavior of surface temperatures in the city between 1985 and 2019 was studied using Landsat satellite images, leading to the identification of surface urban heat islands (SUHI), surface urban cold islands (SUCI), and average temperature zones. The higher intensities of the SUHI reach values of almost 45◦C and the SUCI lower values are below 13◦C. From the socioeconomic characterisation of the population based on indicators retrieved from the 2012 and 2017 population censuses, we identified that during the study period there was a lower presence of SUHI, but these were linked to spaces of lower socioeconomic level and, for the most part, would form new urban spaces within the city. On the other hand, SUCI had a greater spatial presence in the study area and in the urban morphology, being found mostly in areas of high socioeconomic level and in consolidated spaces with few possibilities of generating new constructions. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Atmosphere20734433https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4433/12/7/917art91712Thomson Reuters SCIEarica; desert; landsat; socioeconomic level; surface temperature; urban climate; urban segregation, arica; arica and parinacota; chile; atacama; morphology; satellite imagery; arid environments; landsat satellite images; new constructions; population census; surface temperatures; surface urban heat islands; urban heat island; urban morphology; arid environment; desert; heat island; landsat; social segregation; socioeconomic status; surface temperature; vulnerability; atmospheric temperatureDepartamento de Ciencias Históricas y Geográficas, Universidad de Tarapacá, 18 de Septiembre 2222, Arica, 1010069, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad de Chile, Portugal 84, Santiago, Santiago Centro, 8331051, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Históricas y Geográficas, Universidad de Tarapacá, Luis Emilio Recabarren 2477, Iquique, 1101783, Chile
Permafrost evolution in a mountain catchment near Santiago de ChileRuiz Pereira S.; Marquardt C.; Beriain E.; Lambert F.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.jsames.2021.103293The Chilean Central Andes near Santiago are a semi-arid region with substantial frozen water reserves in their high altitude cryosphere. Millions of people depend on the Andean cryosphere for freshwater supply. Over the last sixty years, global warming has altered the mountains’ water balance, as the temperature rose, precipitation decreased, and deglacierization exposed hundreds of square kilometers. The distribution of solid water stored in soil permafrost and the potential effects of climate change on it are unknown. Here, we map favorable spots for permafrost occurrence at the “Monos de Agua” catchment, Aconcagua basin at 33°S, between 3600 and 5100 m a.s.l. We identify these “cold spots” based on ground surface temperature and incoming solar radiation between 2017 and 2019. We suggest that these locations currently present permafrost and frozen water might actually be there. We confirmed a body of frozen water at one of these cold spots using an electrical resistivity survey. Our mapping suggests that at least 15 ± 7% of the catchment's surface is underlain by permafrost. Permafrost occurrence begins around 3600 m a.s.l. with low probability and only at locations with favorable conditions of low exposure and isolation. Permafrost occurrence probability increases with altitude, with the largest fraction present above 4200 m a.s.l. Our results suggest that the permafrost area in this region will decrease between 13 and 87% by the end of the century under the future global warming RCP scenarios. This event represents new challenges for the hydrological memory and water security planning in the Chilean Central Andes. © 2021 Elsevier LtdJournal of South American Earth Sciences08959811https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0895981121001401art103293109Thomson Reuters SCIEaconcagua basin; aggradation; central andes; degradation; permafrost, aconcagua; andes; argentina; chile; cordillera principal; metropolitana; santiago [metropolitana]; aggradation; catchment; environmental degradation; mountain environment; permafrost; solar radiation; surface temperatureInstituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Universidad de Chile, Chile; DIEG/DIM, Engineering School, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; GeoNomadic, Santiago de Chile, Chile
Long-term exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and covid-19 incidence and mortality rate in chile during 2020Salgado M.V.; Smith P.; Opazo M.A.; Huneeus N.Ciudades Resilientes202110.3390/ijerph18147409Background: Several countries have documented the relationship between long-term exposure to air pollutants and epidemiological indicators of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as incidence and mortality. This study aims to explore the association between air pollutants, such as PM2.5 and PM10, and the incidence and mortality rates of COVID-19 during 2020. Methods: The incidence and mortality rates were estimated using the COVID-19 cases and deaths from the Chilean Ministry of Science, and the population size was obtained from the Chilean Institute of Statistics. A chemistry transport model was used to estimate the annual mean surface concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 in a period before the current pandemic. Negative binomial regressions were used to associate the epidemiological information with pollutant concentrations while considering demographic and social confounders. Results: For each microgram per cubic meter, the incidence rate increased by 1.3% regarding PM2.5 and 0.9% regarding PM10. There was no statistically significant relationship between the COVID-19 mortality rate and PM2.5 or PM10. Conclusions: The adjusted regression models showed that the COVID-19 incidence rate was significantly associated with chronic exposure to PM2.5 and PM10, even after adjusting for other variables. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health16617827https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/14/7409art740918Thomson Reuters ISIair pollution; climate; covid-19; environmental indicators; sars-cov-2; south america, air pollutants; air pollution; chile; covid-19; environmental exposure; humans; incidence; mortality; pandemics; particulate matter; sars-cov-2; south america; sars coronavirus; covid-19; environmental risk; health impact; health risk; mortality; particulate matter; public health; air pollution; article; chile; climate; concentration (parameter); controlled study; coronavirus disease 2019; demography; environmental indicator; epidemiological data; human; incidence; long term exposure; major clinical study; mortality rate; pandemic; pm10 exposure; pm2.5 exposure; population size; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; social aspect; south america; adverse event; air pollutant; air pollution; environmental exposure; epidemiology; incidence; mortality; particulate matterCenter for Climate and Resilience Research CR2, FONDAP N°15110009, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Programa de Epidemiología, Escuela de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8380453, Chile; Red de la Pobreza Energética—RedPE, Santiago, 8320000, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8331051, Chile; Project FONDECYT-INITIATION N°11180990 Social Construction of the Urban Climate: towards Quality and Climate Justice in Chilean Cities, Santiago, 8320000, Chile; Chile Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Cs Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8370449, Chile
Study of the urban microclimate using thermal UAV. The case of the mid-sized cities of Arica (arid) and Curicó (Mediterranean), ChileSmith P.; Sarricolea P.; Peralta O.; Aguila J.P.; Thomas F.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.buildenv.2021.108372The study of the urban microclimate requires detailed information that is not available in most cities. The monitoring of climate parameters is reduced to a limited number of stations that are useful for urban climate studies at local or zonal scales. Detailed information is generally obtained through field work and fixed sensors. There are some climate parameters that can be obtained from remote sensors, such as the surface emission temperature, however, this information is only available in medium or low-resolution images from satellite images. Currently, it is possible to generate detailed information with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). There are not many UAVs that can capture information on the surface emission temperature and those that can are, in general, prohibitively expensive. Only a few years ago a low-cost drone became available, the Mavic 2 dual, equipped with a thermal sensor, which qualitatively captures information from the thermal field. This article proposes the study of the urban microclimate of two mid-size Chilean cities using thermal images captured with the Mavic 2 dual drone, for which it was first necessary to process the images and convert their values to degrees Celsius. The values obtained are compared with those derived from Modis and Landsat satellite images, evaluating the correlation of the information. © 2021Building and Environment03601323https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0360132321007691art108372206Thomson Reuters SCIEarica; arica and parinacota; chile; chile; curico; costs; drones; remote sensing; satellite imagery; climate parameters; climate studies; field works; mid-sized city; surface emissions; surface temperatures; thermal; unmanned aerial vehicle; urban climates; urban microclimate; arid environment; correlation; emission inventory; landsat; mediterranean environment; microclimate; modis; qualitative analysis; remote sensing; satellite imagery; surface temperature; unmanned vehicle; urban climate; antennas, mid-sized cities; surface temperature; unmanned aerial vehicles (uav); urban climateDepartamento de Geografía, Universidad de Chile & Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Portugal 84, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad de Chile, Portugal 84, Santiago, Chile; Escuela de Geografía, Universidad de Chile, Portugal 84, Santiago, Chile
A global observational analysis to understand changes in air quality during exceptionally low anthropogenic emission conditionsSokhi R.S.; Singh V.; Querol X.; Finardi S.; Targino A.C.; Andrade M.D.F.; Pavlovic R.; Garland R.M.; Massagué J.; Kong S.; Baklanov A.; Ren L.; Tarasova O.; Carmichael G.; Peuch V.-H.; Anand V.; Arbilla G.; Badali K.; Beig G.; Belalcazar L.C.; Bolignano A.; Brimblecombe P.; Camacho P.; Casallas A.; Charland J.-P.; Choi J.; Chourdakis E.; Coll I.; Collins M.; Cyrys J.; da Silva C.M.; Di Giosa A.D.; Di Leo A.; Ferro C.; Gavidia-Calderon M.; Gayen A.; Ginzburg A.; Godefroy F.; Gonzalez Y.A.; Gueva...Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.envint.2021.106818This global study, which has been coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmospheric Watch (WMO/GAW) programme, aims to understand the behaviour of key air pollutant species during the COVID-19 pandemic period of exceptionally low emissions across the globe. We investigated the effects of the differences in both emissions and regional and local meteorology in 2020 compared with the period 2015–2019. By adopting a globally consistent approach, this comprehensive observational analysis focuses on changes in air quality in and around cities across the globe for the following air pollutants PM2.5, PM10, PMC (coarse fraction of PM), NO2, SO2, NOx, CO, O3 and the total gaseous oxidant (OX = NO2 + O3) during the pre-lockdown, partial lockdown, full lockdown and two relaxation periods spanning from January to September 2020. The analysis is based on in situ ground-based air quality observations at over 540 traffic, background and rural stations, from 63 cities and covering 25 countries over seven geographical regions of the world. Anomalies in the air pollutant concentrations (increases or decreases during 2020 periods compared to equivalent 2015–2019 periods) were calculated and the possible effects of meteorological conditions were analysed by computing anomalies from ERA5 reanalyses and local observations for these periods. We observed a positive correlation between the reductions in NO2 and NOx concentrations and peoples’ mobility for most cities. A correlation between PMC and mobility changes was also seen for some Asian and South American cities. A clear signal was not observed for other pollutants, suggesting that sources besides vehicular emissions also substantially contributed to the change in air quality. As a global and regional overview of the changes in ambient concentrations of key air quality species, we observed decreases of up to about 70% in mean NO2 and between 30% and 40% in mean PM2.5 concentrations over 2020 full lockdown compared to the same period in 2015–2019. However, PM2.5 exhibited complex signals, even within the same region, with increases in some Spanish cities, attributed mainly to the long-range transport of African dust and/or biomass burning (corroborated with the analysis of NO2/CO ratio). Some Chinese cities showed similar increases in PM2.5 during the lockdown periods, but in this case, it was likely due to secondary PM formation. Changes in O3 concentrations were highly heterogeneous, with no overall change or small increases (as in the case of Europe), and positive anomalies of 25% and 30% in East Asia and South America, respectively, with Colombia showing the largest positive anomaly of ~70%. The SO2 anomalies were negative for 2020 compared to 2015–2019 (between ~25 to 60%) for all regions. For CO, negative anomalies were observed for all regions with the largest decrease for South America of up to ~40%. The NO2/CO ratio indicated that specific sites (such as those in Spanish cities) were affected by biomass burning plumes, which outweighed the NO2 decrease due to the general reduction in mobility (ratio of ~60%). Analysis of the total oxidant (OX = NO2 + O3) showed that primary NO2 emissions at urban locations were greater than the O3 production, whereas at background sites, OX was mostly driven by the regional contributions rather than local NO2 and O3 concentrations. The present study clearly highlights the importance of meteorology and episodic contributions (e.g., from dust, domestic, agricultural biomass burning and crop fertilizing) when analysing air quality in and around cities even during large emissions reductions. There is still the need to better understand how the chemical responses of secondary pollutants to emission change under complex meteorological conditions, along with climate change and socio-economic drivers may affect future air quality. The implications for regional and global policies are also significant, as our study clearly indicates that PM2.5 concentrations would not likely meet the World Health Organization guidelines in many parts of the world, despite the drastic reductions in mobility. Consequently, revisions of air quality regulation (e.g., the Gothenburg Protocol) with more ambitious targets that are specific to the different regions of the world may well be required. © 2021Environment International01604120https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0160412021004438art106818157Thomson Reuters SCIEair pollutants; air pollution; cities; communicable disease control; covid-19; environmental monitoring; humans; pandemics; particulate matter; sars-cov-2; atmospheric movements; carbon monoxide; geographical regions; nitrogen oxides; ozone; particles (particulate matter); quality control; sulfur dioxide; % reductions; air pollutants; biomass-burning; covid-19; nitrogen dioxides; no $-2$; observational analysis; particulate matter; pm$-2.5$; sulphur dioxide; air quality; atmospheric pollution; carbon monoxide; concentration (composition); covid-19; nitrogen dioxide; ozone; particulate matter; sulfur dioxide; air pollutant; air pollution; city; communicable disease control; environmental monitoring; human; pandemic; particulate matter; air quality, carbon monoxide; covid-19; nitrogen dioxide; ozone; particulate matter; sulphur dioxideCentre for Atmospheric and Climate Physics (CACP) and Centre for Climate Change Research (C3R), University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom; National Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Gadanki, AP, India; Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Research Council (CSIC), Barcelona, Spain; ARIANET, Milan, Italy; Graduate Program in Environment Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Londrina, Brazil; Departamento de Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Dorval, Canada; Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa; Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa; Department of Geography, Geo-informatics and Meteorology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Mining, Industrial and ICT Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, BarcelonaTech (UPC), Barcelona, Spain; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China; Science and Innovation Department, World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Geneva, Switzerland; Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research, University of Iowa, Iowa City, United States; ECMWF, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield Park, Reading, United Kingdom; Secretaria del Medio Ambiente de la Ci...
Air pollution and COVID-19 lockdown in a large South American city: Santiago Metropolitan Area, ChileToro A. R.; Catalán F.; Urdanivia F.R.; Rojas J.P.; Manzano C.A.; Seguel R.; Gallardo L.; Osses M.; Pantoja N.; Leiva-Guzman M.A.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1016/j.uclim.2021.100803The implementation of confinement and physical distancing measures to restrict people's activities and transit in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic allowed us to study how these measures affect the air quality in urban areas with high pollution rates, such as Santiago, Chile. A comparative study between the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, NOx, CO, and O3 during the months of March to May 2020 and the corresponding concentrations during the same period in 2017–2019 is presented. A combination of surface measurements from the air quality monitoring network of the city, remote satellite measurements, and simulations of traffic activity and road transport emissions allowed us to quantify the change in the average concentrations of each pollutant. Average relative changes of traffic emissions (between 61% and 68%) implied statistically significant concentrations reductions of 54%, 13%, and 11% for NOx, CO, and PM2.5, respectively, during the pandemic period compared to historical period. In contrast, the average concentration of O3 increased by 63% during 2020 compared to 2017–2019. The nonlinear response observed in the pollution levels can be attributed to the changes in the vehicular emission patterns during the pandemic and to the role of other sources such as residential emissions or secondary PM. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.Urban Climate22120955https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S221209552100033Xart10080336Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, covid-19 lockdown; traffic emission rates; urban air qualityDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology, Lima, Peru; School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, United States; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Department of Geophysics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (UTFSM), Santiago, Chile
13,000 years of sociocultural plant use in the Atacama Desert of northern ChileUgalde P.C.; McRostie V.; Gayo E.M.; García M.; Latorre C.; Santoro C.M.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1007/s00334-020-00783-1Throughout Earth’s most extreme environments, such as the Kalahari Desert or the Arctic, hunter–gatherers found ingenious ways to obtain proteins and sugars provided by plants for dietary requirements. In the hyperarid Atacama Desert, wild plant resources are scarce and unevenly distributed due to limited water availability. This study brings together all available archaeobotanical evidence gathered in the Atacama Desert from the Late Pleistocene (ca. 13,000 cal bp) until the Inka epoch (ca. 450 cal bp) to help us comprehend when these populations acquired and managed useful plants from the coastal zone, Intermediate Depression, High Andes, as well as tropical and subtropical ecosystems. Widespread introduction of farming crops, water control techniques and cultivation of diverse plants by 3,000 cal bp ended not only a chronic food shortage, but also led to the establishment of a set of staple foods for the Atacama Desert dwellers, a legacy that remains visible today. By contrasting these trends with major sociocultural changes, together with palaeodemographic and climatic fluctuations, we note that humans adapted to, and transformed this hyperarid landscape and oscillating climate, with plants being a key factor in their success. This long-term process, which we term the “Green Revolution”, coincided with an exponential increase in the number of social groups inhabiting the Atacama Desert during the Late Holocene. © 2020, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.Vegetation History and Archaeobotany09396314http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00334-020-00783-1213-23030Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, archaeobotany; atacama desert; palaeoenvironments; plant management; socio-cultural changeSchool of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, 85721-0030, AZ, United States; Escuela de Antropología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago, Chile; Centro UC Desierto de Atacama, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR) 2, Blanco Encalada 2002, piso 4, Santiago, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Alameda 340, Casilla 114-D, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology & Biodiversity (IEB), Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Investigaciones Arqueológicas y Museo R.P. Gustavo Le Paige s.j. (IIAM), Universidad Católica del Norte, Calle Tebenquiche s/n, San Pedro de Atacama, 1410000, Chile; Departamento de Ecología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Alameda 340, Casilla 114-D, Santiago, Chile; Laboratorio de Arqueología y Paleoambiente, Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Antofagasta 1520, Casilla 6-D, Arica, 1001236, Chile
An Integrated Framework to Streamline Resilience in the Context of Urban Climate Risk AssessmentUrquiza A.; Amigo C.; Billi M.; Calvo R.; Gallardo L.; Neira C.I.; Rojas M.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes202110.1029/2020EF001508Cities are increasingly acknowledged as crucial when facing climate change—and the environmental crisis more in general—, offering challenges and opportunities in terms of both mitigation and adaptation. Climate change-sensitive urban governance requires proactive, integrated, and contextualized approaches, making room for the complex, multilayered, multiscalar, and dynamic processes constituting a city. The notion of “resilience” has been acquiring growing recognition as a flexible and powerful concept to respond to these challenges. Resilience itself, however, is also a polysemic notion, often treated as little more than a catchword or a wishful aim or superimposed with other climate-related terms, such as risk, vulnerability, or adaptation. To promote a stronger integration among different problem-settings and epistemic communities, this paper advances six analytical distinctions aiming to provide structure and articulation to existing definitions of the concept of “resilience.” Likewise, it offers an integrated analytical framework and methodological pipeline to streamline resilience analysis in the context of urban climate risk assessment. The framework is specially defined to link up with the definition of climate risk provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) latest Assessment Reports and is illustrated through examples derived from the recent experience of the Chilean Climate Risk Atlas. © 2021. The Authors. Earth's Future published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Geophysical Union.Earth's Future23284277https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2020EF001508arte2020EF0015089Thomson Reuters SCIEclimate risk; ecosystem services; polycentric governance; socio-ecological systems; systems-of-systems; urban resilience, chile; adaptive management; climate change; governance approach; integrated approach; intergovernmental panel on climate change; risk assessment; urban climateCenter for Climate and Resilience Research CR2, Santiago, Chile; Social Sciences Faculty, University of Chile, Ñuñoa, Chile; Energy Poverty Network, Santiago, Chile; University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Núcleo de Estudios Sistémicos Transdisciplinarios, Ñuñoa, Chile; School of Government, Adolfo Ibáñez University, Santiago, Chile; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, San Joaquín, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Overcoming energy poverty through micro-grids: An integrated framework for resilient, participatory sociotechnical transitionsValencia F.; Billi M.; Urquiza A.Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.1016/j.erss.2021.102030Nowadays, the sustainability of micro-grids has received much attention in the research community since micro-grids are becoming an appealing alternative to provide clean energy access to rural communities, and by this token, contribute to overcome energy poverty. The aim of this paper was to investigate the sustainability of micro-grids through the analysis of their resilience. In this regard, an integrated framework was developed combining socio-technical transitions with socio-ecological resilience concepts. This allows to pay attention at once to two dimensions of micro-grid sustainability: (i) the ability of the micro-grid to effectively transform the relationship between community, energy, and territory to make it more sustainable in economic, social and environmental terms; (ii) the sustainability of the micro-grid itself, namely, its ability to endure, adapt to and recover from changes in contextual factors which may limit its operativity over time. Methodological guidelines are offered for the participatory co-construction and monitoring of the micro-grid and its monitoring, supporting both dimensions. To illustrate our proposal, the micro-grid installed in Huatacondo, north of Chile, was used as test-bed. © 2021 Elsevier LtdEnergy Research and Social Science22146296https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2214629621001237art10203075Thomson Reuters SSCInan, chile; energy poverty; micro-grids; participatory co-construction; socio-ecological resilience; socio-technical transitions; sustainabilityEnergy Center University of Chile, Plaza Ercilla 847, Santiago, 8370451, Chile; Energy Poverty Network, University of Chile, Diagonal Paraguay 265, Santiago, 8330015, Chile; enter for Climate and Resilience Research CR2, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, 8370451, Chile; School of Government, Adolfo Ibáñez University, Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, 7941169, Chile; NEST.R3, Social Sciences Faculty, University of Chile, Ignacio Carrera Pinto 1045, 7800284 Ñuñoa, Chile
Anthropogenic Perturbations to the Atmospheric Molybdenum CycleWong M.Y.; Rathod S.D.; Marino R.; Li L.; Howarth R.W.; Alastuey A.; Alaimo M.G.; Barraza F.; Carneiro M.C.; Chellam S.; Chen Y.-C.; Cohen D.D.; Connelly D.; Dongarra G.; Gómez D.; Hand J.; Harrison R.M.; Hopke P.K.; Hueglin C.; Kuang Y.-W.; Lambert F.; Liang J.; Losno R.; Maenhaut W.; Milando C.; Monteiro M.I.C.; Morera-Gómez Y.; Querol X.; Rodríguez S.; Smichowski P.; Varrica D.; Xiao Y.-H.; Xu Y.; Mahowald N.M.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1029/2020GB006787Molybdenum (Mo) is a key cofactor in enzymes used for nitrogen (N) fixation and nitrate reduction, and the low availability of Mo can constrain N inputs, affecting ecosystem productivity. Natural atmospheric Mo aerosolization and deposition from sources such as desert dust, sea-salt spray, and volcanoes can affect ecosystem function across long timescales, but anthropogenic activities such as combustion, motor vehicles, and agricultural dust have accelerated the natural Mo cycle. Here we combined a synthesis of global atmospheric concentration observations and modeling to identify and estimate anthropogenic sources of atmospheric Mo. To project the impact of atmospheric Mo on terrestrial ecosystems, we synthesized soil Mo data and estimated the global distribution of soil Mo using two approaches to calculate turnover times. We estimated global emissions of atmospheric Mo in aerosols (<10 μm in diameter) to be 23 Gg Mo yr−1, with 40%–75% from anthropogenic sources. We approximated that for the top meter of soil, Mo turnover times range between 1,000 and 1,000,000 years. In some industrialized regions, anthropogenic inputs have enhanced Mo deposition 100-fold, lowering the soil Mo turnover time considerably. Our synthesis of global observational data, modeling, and a mass balance comparison with riverine Mo exports suggest that anthropogenic activity has greatly accelerated the Mo cycle, with potential to influence N-limited ecosystems. © 2021. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.Global Biogeochemical Cycles08866236https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2020GB006787arte2020GB00678735Thomson Reuters SCIEconcentration (composition); ecosystem function; estimation method; human activity; mass balance; molybdenum; nitrate; nitrogen; nitrogen fixation, aerosol deposition; nitrogen fixation; nitrogenase; nutrient limitation; particulate matterCary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY, United States; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States; Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United States; Department of Earth and Atmospheric Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States; Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDEA-CSIC), Barcelona, Spain; Dipartimento Scienze della Terra e del Mare, University of Palermo, Sicily, Italy; School of Geography, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Coordenação de Análises Minerais, Centro de Tecnologia Mineral – CETEM, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, United States; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW, Australia; Department of Mathematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States; Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Gerencia Química, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United States; School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom; Department of Environmental Sciences/Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Clark...
Spatial distribution and interannual variability of coastal fog and low clouds cover in the hyperarid Atacama Desert and implications for past and present Tillandsia landbeckii ecosystemsdel Río C.; Lobos-Roco F.; Latorre C.; Koch M.A.; García J.-L.; Osses P.; Lambert F.; Alfaro F.; Siegmund A.Ciudades Resilientes202110.1007/s00606-021-01782-zThe hyperarid Atacama Desert coast receives scarce moisture inputs mainly from the Pacific Ocean in the form of marine advective fog. The collected moisture supports highly specialized ecosystems, where the bromeliad Tillandsia landbeckii is the dominant species. The fog and low clouds (FLCs) on which these ecosystems depend are affected in their interannual variability and spatial distribution by global phenomena, such as ENSO. Yet, there is a lack of understanding of how ENSO influences recent FLCs spatial changes and their interconnections and how these variations can affect existing Tillandsia stands. In this study, we analyze FLCs occurrence, its trends and the influence of ENSO on the interannual variations of FLCs presence by processing GOES satellite images (1995–2017). Our results show that ENSO exerts a significant influence over FLCs interannual variability in the Atacama at ~ 20°S. Linear regression analyses reveal a relation between ENSO3.4 anomalies and FLCs with opposite seasonal effects depending on the ENSO phase. During summer (winter), the ENSO warm phase is associated with an increase (decrease) of the FLCs occurrence, whereas the opposite occurs during ENSO cool phases. In addition, the ONI Index explains up to ~ 50 and ~ 60% variance of the interannual FLCs presence in the T. landbeckii site during summer and winter, respectively. Finally, weak negative (positive) trends of FLCs presence are observed above (below) 1000 m a. s. l. These results have direct implications for understanding the present and past distribution of Tillandsia ecosystems under the extreme conditions characterizing our study area. © 2021, The Author(s).Plant Systematics and Evolution03782697https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00606-021-01782-zart58307Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, chile; enso; fog ecosystems; goes; interdecadal pacific oscillation; southeast pacific oceanInstituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro UC Desierto de Atacama, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica Y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Meteorology and Air Quality Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands; Centre for Organismal Studies, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, 69120, Germany; Heidelberg Center for the Environment HCE, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, 69120, Germany; Departamento de Ecología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; GEMA Center for Genomics, Ecology and Environment, Universidad Mayor, Camino La Piramide 5750, Huechuraba, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Ecología & Biodiversidad (IEB), Casilla 653, Santiago, Chile; Research Group for Earth Observation (rgeo), Department of Geography, Heidelberg University of Education, Heidelberg, Germany; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, Chile
La emergencia de los territorios y la condición socioambiental: poder, naturaleza, ciudadanía y la necesidad de conocimiento transdisciplinarAliste,E;Ciudades Resilientes202110.5354/0717-8883.2021.66069Escuchar a los territorios. Dejar que hablen los territorios. No actuar sin el consentimiento de los territorios. Algunas frases como las anteriores o de similar talante se han hecho cada vez más comunes en los últimos años, posicionándose con fuerza y convicción como expresión clara de que tras esta idea hay una conceptualización compleja que abarca muchísimo más que una unidad espacial capaz de ser plasmada en una cartografía remarcando sus delimitaciones. De ello muchísimas discusiones han dado cuenta en los últimos años, pero hay algo aún más poderoso y relevante en torno a aquello, y se trata del modo en que la expresión se usa por estos días, dando cuenta de algo que hace sentido, da coherencia y se entiende como dialogante entre quienes habitan y se sienten parte de un espacio que se significa y apropia como parte extendida de una cotidianidadRevista Anales de la Universidad de Chile0717-8883https://anales.uchile.cl/index.php/ANUC/article/view/66069197-20619Latindex
Transdisciplinary university in the framework of the knowledge society. discursive tensions within universidad de chile; [Universidad transdisciplinaria en el marco de la sociedad del conocimiento. Tensiones discursivas en la Universidad de Chile]Aravena A.H.; Billi M.; Faúndez V.; Labraña J.; Neira I.; Urquiza A.Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política202110.7764/PEL.58.1.2021.10Amidst contemporary social transformations, including the new role adopted by universities, transdisciplinarity has been gaining increasing recognition as an approach to understanding phenomena that cannot be addressed by the traditional model of disciplinary specialization: these include climate change, inequality, or, more recently, pandemics. However, there is little study of specific experiences that help to understand the implications, purpose, and challenges of adopting a transdisciplinary approach in universities. In order to reduce this gap, this article analyses the results of a participatory dialogue carried out in Universidad de Chile, examining different narratives regarding the emergence of transdisciplinarity and the associated opportunities and obstacles. These, in turn, relate to the historical, organizational, and cultural dynamics of the trajectory adopted by this institution, and the higher education sector in general, in the country: i) the social commitment, inscribed in the tradition and academic mission of the public university; ii) a promise of novelty, innovation, and transformation of scientific and academic work, associated with the emerging model of an entrepreneurial university; and, iii) the growing demand for a profound reform of the higher education system in the country. © 2021 Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile. All rights reserved.Pensamiento Educativo07171013http://ojs.uc.cl/index.php/pel/article/view/2913758Not Indexednan, higher education; innovation; knowledge society; transdiscipline; universidad de chileNúcleo de Investigación-Acción en Interdisciplina y Transdisciplina para la Educación Superior (NITES), Universidad de Chile, Chile; Observatorio de Innovación, Facultad de Economía y Negocios, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Núcleo de Estudios Sistémicos Transdisciplinarios, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia CR2, 1511009, Chile; Centro de Políticas Comparadas de Educación, Universidad Diego Portales, Chile; Observatorio de Innovación, Facultad de Economía y Negocios, Universidad de Chile Diagonal Paraguay, 265. Piso 14, Of. 1405, Santiago, Chile
Aporte de un sistema predictivo de contraloría médica en la gestión de licencias médicas electrónicasBernales,Bélgica;Bravo,Stéphanie;Causa,Leonardo;Gómez,Najely;Valdés,Macarena;Ciudades Resilientes202110.5354/0719-5281.2020.61265Introducción: El retraso del procesamiento de las licencias médicas (LMs) representa un problema de salud pública en Chile, considerando que esto afecta el pago del subsidio a las personas destinado a realizar el reposo médico prescrito mientras no se pueda trabajar. El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar las diferencias en el tiempo de procesamiento de las licencias médicas electrónicas (LMEs) evaluadas por contraloría médica (CM) y las evaluadas por un sistema predictivo de contraloría médica (SPCM) basado en redes neuronales artificiales. Materiales y métodos: El tiempo de procesamiento de LMEs procesadas con SPCM fue comparado con el tiempo de procesamiento de LMEs examinadas solo con CM, usando curvas de Kaplan Meier, prueba de log-rank y modelos multivariados de Cox. Resultados: La tasa de procesamiento del SPCM fue entre 1,7 a 5,5 veces más rápida que la tasa de procesamiento de la CM, ajustando por potenciales confusores. Discusión: La implementación del SPCM permitió disminuir el tiempo de procesamiento de las LMEs, beneficiando a los trabajadores afiliados al seguro público.Revista Chilena de Salud Pública0719-5281, 0717-3652https://revistasaludpublica.uchile.cl/index.php/RCSP/article/view/6126511524Not Indexed
Report to the Nations Climate Governance of the Elements. Towards an Integrated, anticipatory, socio- ecosystemic and evidence- based climate governance of water, air, fire and land.Billi,M;Moraga,P;Aliste, E,E.;Maillet,A.;O'Ryan,R.;Sapiains A.,R.;Bórquez,R.;Aldunce,P.;Azócar,G.;Blanco,G.;Carrasco,N.;Galleguillos,M.;Hervé,D.;Ibarra,C.;Gallardo,L.;Inostroza,V.;Lambert,F.;Manuschevic,D.;Martínez,F.;Osses,M.;Rivas,N.;Rojas,M.;Seguel,R.;Tolvett,S.;Ugarte,A.;Agua y Extremos; Zonas Costeras; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes2021Humanity has become one of the greatest transformative forces of the planet, generating significant (and
sometimes irreversible) changes in geophysical and
ecological balances with potentially catastrophic and
partly still unknown consequences (Foster et al., 2017;
Rockström et al., 2009; Steffen et al, 2007). Among all
these alterations, climate change possesses predominant importance due to the magnitude and scale of
its potential consequences, as well as the complexity
and the controversies that have characterized the attempts to address it (Coninck et al, 2018; IPCC, 2018).
Contemplating this scenario entails a double dilemma.
On one hand, it implies the need for urgent, coordinated and transformative actions on multiple scales and
domains that address the drivers that cause climate
change, as well as its significant and unequal effects
on different territories and populations. On the other,
it faces the insufficiency, biases and limitations shown
by traditional governance models in dealing with these
challenges.
https://bit.ly/3JdvVbd69Not Indexed
Informe a las Naciones Gobernanza Climática de los Elementos. Hacia una gobernanza climática del agua, el aire, el fuego y la tierra en Chile, integrada, anticipatoria, socio-ecosistémica y fundada en evidencia.Billi,M;Moraga,P;Aliste, E,E.;Maillet,A.;O'Ryan,R.;Sapiains A.,R.;Bórquez,R.;Aldunce,P.;Azócar,G.;Blanco,G.;Carrasco,N.;Galleguillos,M.;Hervé,D.;Ibarra,C.;Gallardo,L.;Inostroza,V.;Lambert,F.;Manuschevic,D.;Martínez,F.;Osses,M.;Rivas,N.;Rojas,M.;Seguel,R.;Tolvett,S.;Ugarte,A.;Agua y Extremos; Zonas Costeras; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes2021La humanidad se ha vuelto una de las mayores fuerzas transformadoras del planeta, generando cambios significativos (y en ocasiones irreversibles) en los
equilibrios geofísicos y ecológicos, con consecuencias
potencialmente catastróficas y en parte aún desconocidas (Foster et al., 2017; Rockström et al., 2009; Steffen
et al., 2007). Entre todas estas alteraciones, el cambio
climático adquiere una importancia preponderante
debido a la magnitud y escala de sus posibles consecuencias, así como por la complejidad y las controversias que ha caracterizado los intentos de hacerle frente
(de Coninck et al., 2018; IPCC, 2018). Contemplar este escenario implica un doble dilema. Por un lado, supone la
necesidad de acciones urgentes, concertadas y transformativas, en múltiples escalas y dominios, que lleven
a hacerse cargo de los forzantes que causan el cambio
climático, sus efectos significativos y desiguales en distintos territorios y poblaciones. Por el otro, se enfrenta
a la insuficiencia, parcialidad y limitación demostrada
por los modelos tradicionales de gobernanza para enfrentar estos desafíos.
https://bit.ly/3JdvVbd69Not Indexed
Escuelas Seguras en tiempos del COVID-19Brevis,W.;Cortés,S.;Duarte,I.;Fica,D.;Förster,F.;Martínez,S.;Rojas,M.;Repetto,P.;Rondanelli,R.;Valdés,M.;Ciudades Resilientes; Zonas Costeras; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2021v1.3https://portaluchile.uchile.cl/documentos/escuelas-seguras-en-tiempos-del-covid-19_176441_0_4940.pdfv1.3
Desarrollo de indicadores de pobreza energética en América Latina y el CaribeCalvo,R.;Alamos,N.;Billi,M.;Urquiza,A.;Contreras Lisperguer,R.;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes2021Garantizar el acceso a una energía asequible, segura y sostenible para todos y todas es un pilar fundamentalde los objetivos de desarrollo sostenible, siendo uno de los elementos base para la satisfacción de una gran variedad de necesidades humanas, el desarrollo económico y humano. Sin embargo, estudios recientes en América Latina y el Caribe han evidenciado las condiciones de acceso desigual a servicios energéticos de calidad en la región, documentando la exposición de una proporción relevante de la población a diversas barreras en el acceso a energía: falta de electrificación, uso de combustibles contaminantes, nula o deficiente aislación térmica de las viviendas, alto gasto en servicios energéticos, entre otras.

En este marco, el Observatorio Regional de Energías Sostenibles (ROSE) de la CEPAL, está realizando esfuerzos para poder cuantificar en la región la pobreza energética. Este informe complementa el reporte anterior publicado por la CEPAL, “Seguridad hídrica y energética en América Latina y el Caribe: definición y aproximación territorial para el análisis de brechas y riesgos de la población”, en dos aspectos. En primer lugar, se busca aportar en el debate de política pública sobre pobreza energética en América Latina y el Caribe, en base a la propuesta conceptual que define a la pobreza energética como un fenómeno multidimensional y situado desde una perspectiva territorial introducida por la CEPAL, facilitando una mejor integración de los conceptos de seguridad y transición que permita una perspectiva integral de los desafíos en materia de energía de los países de la región. Y, en segundo lugar, profundiza el trabajo realizado por la CEPAL ampliando la mirada de la pobreza energética más allá de la electrificación, evidenciando, a través de diversos indicadores, las múltiples formas de privación del acceso equitativo a energía de calidad y los diversos impactos que esto tiene en los hogares que la enfrentan.
Recursos naturales y desarrollo, Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL)2664-4541https://www.cepal.org/es/publicaciones/47216-desarrollo-indicadores-pobreza-energetica-america-latina-caribe1-88Santiago, Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL)Not Indexed
He Antropoceno i a Tire: he mata ꞌite he haka pūaiGallardo,L.;Rudnick,A.;Barraza,J.;Fleming,Z.;Rojas,M.;Gayó,E.;Aguirre,C.;Farías,L.;Boisier,J. P.;Garreaud,R.;Barría,P.;Miranda,A.;Lara,A.;Gómez,S.;Arriagada,R.;Agua y Extremos; Zonas Costeras; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes2021Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia mew (CR)2, ta
iñ kvzawkan mew zujiyiñ fey ta nvxamkagelu Anxopozeno
zugu mew ta iñ inarumeael ka ta iñ gvnezuamael. Femgeci
ta cijkatuyiñ cumgeci cambio climático vñfitumapukey
kiñeke mapu mew Cile mew fanten mew, ta iñ kejuael
zugu mew cew ta cijkatugekey ka gvnezuamgekey weke
rvpv ta iñ kvme wimturpuael zugu mew mvlelu fanten
mew. Wvnelu ta inarumeyiñ ta pu registro geohistórico
pegeltulu cumgeci ta wizvmapukunurpukefuy kuyfi
mew ta cegen mapu mew Cile pigelu faciantv; fey mew
kvmeafuy wiñokintuliyiñ feyti mew kuyfi mew rupalu
ka kejuafulu sistemas socio-ecológicos zugu mew ta
kvpaialu.
https://bit.ly/3sAJOdvNot Indexed
Anxopozeno Cile mew: Ta iñ inazuamfiel ka cumgeci amulerpuaelGallardo,L.;Rudnick,A.;Barraza,J.;Fleming,Z.;Rojas,M.;Gayó,E.;Aguirre,C.;Farías,L.;Boisier,J. P.;Garreaud,R.;Barría,P.;Miranda,A.;Lara,A.;Gómez,S.;Arriagada,R.;Agua y Extremos; Zonas Costeras; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes2021Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia mew (CR)2, ta
iñ kvzawkan mew zujiyiñ fey ta nvxamkagelu Anxopozeno
zugu mew ta iñ inarumeael ka ta iñ gvnezuamael. Femgeci
ta cijkatuyiñ cumgeci cambio climático vñfitumapukey
kiñeke mapu mew Cile mew fanten mew, ta iñ kejuael
zugu mew cew ta cijkatugekey ka gvnezuamgekey weke
rvpv ta iñ kvme wimturpuael zugu mew mvlelu fanten
mew. Wvnelu ta inarumeyiñ ta pu registro geohistórico
pegeltulu cumgeci ta wizvmapukunurpukefuy kuyfi
mew ta cegen mapu mew Cile pigelu faciantv; fey mew
kvmeafuy wiñokintuliyiñ feyti mew kuyfi mew rupalu
ka kejuafulu sistemas socio-ecológicos zugu mew ta
kvpaialu.
https://bit.ly/3FyHHL0Not Indexed
Summary for policymakers. The air we breathe: past, present and future - PM2.5 air pollution in Central and Southern Chile .Gayo,E. M.;Osses,M.;Urquiza,A.;Arriagada,R.;Huneeus,N.;Valdés,M.;Barraza,J;Rudnick,A.;Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes2021Air quality is a complex problem involving not only physical-chemical
factors, but also sociocultural, economic, and institutional variables.
The report “The air we breathe: past, present and future – PM2.5 air
pollution in Central and Southern Chile” focuses on the impacts and the role
played by the residential sector and its PM2.5 emissions, taking the above
factors and variables into account. This interdisciplinary research
integrates information from multiple databases, numerical simulations,
and interviews and workshops with diff erent stakeholders in order to
characterize not only current air quality but also the evolution of air
pollution since pre-Colombian times, and the factors influencing its future
evolution.
https://bit.ly/32xerpfNot Indexed
Resumen para tomadores de decisiones. El aire que respiramos: pasado, presente y futuro - Contaminación atmosférica por MP2,5 en el centro y sur de Chile.Gayo,E. M.;Osses,M.;Urquiza,A.;Arriagada,R.;Huneeus,N.;Valdés,M.;Barraza,J;Rudnick,A.;Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes2021La calidad del aire es un problema complejo que no responde solo a factores
físico-químicos, sino que también a variables socioculturales, económicas e
institucionales. El informe “El aire que respiramos: pasado, presente y futuro
– Contaminación atmosférica por MP2,5 en el centro y sur de Chile” se centra en
los impactos y el rol que juega el sector residencial y sus emisiones de MP2,5
considerando estos diferentes factores. Esta investigación interdisciplinaria
integra múltiples bases de datos, simulaciones numéricas, resultados
de entrevistas y talleres con diversos actores para caracterizar no solo la
calidad del aire actual, sino que también la evolución de la contaminación
atmosférica desde épocas precolombinas y los factores que influyen en su
evolución futura.
https://bit.ly/3z0dxO4Not Indexed
Variación en la intensidad de la isla de calor urbana por efecto del cambio climático en ciudades chilenasHenríquez Ruiz,Cristian;Smith,Pamela;Contreras,Paulina;Qüense,Jorge;Ciudades Resilientes202110.26754/ojs_geoph/geoph.2021735114La Isla de Calor Urbano (ICU) es la principal característica del clima urbano y se define como la diferencia entre la temperatura urbana y la temperatura rural. Su existencia se explica por el diseño y materiales de construcción de la ciudad, superficies impermeables y no evapotranspirantes, y sus efectos son de diversa índole. La magnitud e intensidad de la ICU depende, a su vez, del tamaño de la ciudad y por ello, del volumen de población concentrada espacialmente. El objetivo de esta investigación es proponer una metodología que permita estimar la intensidad máxima de la ICU presente y futura mediante una aproximación de múltiples modelos (climáticos y de usos de suelo) y considerando los efectos del cambio climático. Los resultados demuestran que la ICU promedio de las principales ciudades chilenas analizadas es consistente con valores de estudios internacionales, destacando el caso del Gran Santiago que llegaría a tener una ICU mayor 10 ºC.Geographicalia2386-3021, 0210-8380https://papiro.unizar.es/ojs/index.php/geographicalia/article/view/5114133-154Latindex
The Construction of Air Pollution as a Public Problem, Santiago of Chile (1961-1978); [La Construcción de la Contaminación Atmosférica como Problema Público, Santiago de Chile (1961-1978)]Labraña J.; Folchi M.; Urquiza A.; Rivas M.Ciudades Resilientes202110.32991/2237-2717.2021V11I3.P149-177The purpose of this research is to analyze the origins of the public policy to combat atmospheric pollution in Santiago de Chile and, in particular, the role played by scientists in this process. In order to achieve this objective, legislative documentary sources, notes from the newspaper "El Mercurio" and scientific publications between 1961 and 1978 were examined, applying a mixed content analysis. The results suggest that the experts, making use of their national and international networks, were able to turn air quality into a problem of national interest that had to be solved through the elaboration of an integral regulation validated by the results of academic research and legitimized by an incipient social demand in the same sense. This led to the formation of successive technical-political commissions that undertook the task of understanding the air pollution problem and proposing measures for its resolution. Despite the early enactment of specific legislation, the evidence indicates that the complexity of the pollution problem exceeded the technical-political capacity of the State to solve the problem effectively, which has extended to the present. © 2021 Centro Universitario de Anapolis. All rights reserved.Historia Ambiental Latinoamericana y Caribena22372717https://www.halacsolcha.org/index.php/halac/article/view/558149-17711Scopusnan, air pollution; history of science; public policiesCentro de Ciencias del Clima y la Resiliencia Cr2, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Históricas, Universidad de Chile, Chile
La ciudad del mañana en la nueva constitución: Una mirada desde la PatagoniaMoraga,P.;Sapiains A.,R.;Rojas,M.;Medina,L.;Valenzuela,C.;Cornejo,C.;Pulgar,A.;Aldunce,P.;Urquiza,A.;Azócar,G.;Sepúlveda,B.;Agua y Extremos; Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2021Entre agosto 202 y septiembre 2021, un equipo interdisciplinario de la Universidad de Chile, del Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2 y con el apoyo del Centro de Investigación GAIA Antártica (CIGA) de la Universidad de Magallanes, desarrolló el proyecto "Laboratorio social para la cosntrucción comunitaria de bases constitucionales para una sociedad resiliente al cambio climático, una perspectiva desde la Patagonia".Universida de Chile, Vicerrectoría de Investigación y Desarrollo.https://bit.ly/3qiXEOXNot Indexed
Encuesta sobre percepciones de la ciudadanía de Punta Arenas sobre cambio climático, gobernanza climática y aspectos constitucionales.Moraga,P;Sapiain,R;Aldunce,P;Urquiza,A;Rojas,M;Medina,L;Valenzuela,C;Cornejo,C;Agua y Extremos; Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2021Entre agosto 202 y septiembre 2021, un equipo interdisciplinario de la Universidad de Chile, del Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2 y con el apoyo del Centro de Investigación GAIA Antártica (CIGA) de la Universidad de Magallanes, desarrolló el proyecto "Laboratorio social para la cosntrucción comunitaria de bases constitucionales para una sociedad resiliente al cambio climático, una perspectiva desde la Patagonia".https://bit.ly/3pxYatdNot Indexed
Comité Científico de Cambio Climático: La importancia de la ventilaciónTolvett,Sebastián;Rondanelli,Roberto;Brevis,Wernher;Valdes,Macarena;Rojas,Maisa;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes2021https://comitecientifico.minciencia.gob.cl/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/Tolvett-ventilacion_11.pdfNot Indexed
Vulnerabilidad hídrica territorial: Marco analítico y aplicacionesÁlamos,N.;Monsalve,T.;Billi,M.;Lefort,I.;Allendes,A.;Navea,J.;Calvo,R.;Urquiza,A.;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes202110.17605/OSF.IO/AGJ6PLa crisis hídrica evidenciada en los últimos años a nivel global ha puesto de relieve la
necesidad de establecer metas unificadas para el logro del acceso universal al agua potable
y saneamiento (Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible ODS 6), en el contexto de cambio
climático que posiciona a la sequía como una de las amenazas más graves, presente en
distintas regiones del mundo. Según las proyecciones del Grupo Intergubernamental de
Expertos sobre el Cambio Climático (IPCC, 2014b), se espera una reducción de recursos
renovables de aguas superficiales y subterráneas, un aumento de la frecuencia e intensidad
de sequías a finales del siglo XXI (con arreglo al escenario RCP8,5), e incluso, disminuciones
en la calidad del agua potable, debido a una mayor concentración de contaminantes durante
la sequía (IPCC, 2014b). Además, la importancia de la seguridad hídrica se ve incrementada
en la crisis sanitaria provocada por la propagación del COVID-19 (Staddon et al., 2020), ya
que no sólo tensiona el funcionamiento de los servicios fundamentales para la salud y el
desarrollo humano, sino que también tensiona los servicios hídricos donde el acceso ya
está limitado para muchas personas en el mundo, restringiendo la posibilidad de un
correcto lavado de manos (medida de higiene básica para combatir la propagación del virus)
según la Organización Mundial de la Salud (WHO, 2020a).
Documento de trabajo NEST`-r3 N°3https://bit.ly/3qhuD6nNot Indexed
INEMA: High resolution inventory of atmospheric emissions from transport, industrial, energy, mining and residential sectors of ChileÁlamos,Nicolás;Hunneus,Nicolas;Osses,Mauricio;Opazo,Mariel;Puja,Sebastián;Pantoja,Nicolas;Ciudades Resilientes202110.5281/zenodo.4784286Brief description This study presents the first high-resolution national inventory of anthropogenic emission for Chile (INEMA from spanish Inventario Nacional de EMisiones Antropogénicas). Emissions for vehicular, industrial, energy, mining and residential sectors are estimated for the period 2015-2017 and spatially distributed onto a high resolution grid (1 x 1 km approximately). The pollutants included are CO2, NOx, SO2, CO, VOCs, NH3, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) for all sectors.  CH4 and Black Carbon are included for transport and residential sources, while Arsenic, Benzene, Mercury, Lead, Toluene, and Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Furan (PCDD / F)  are estimated for energy,  mining and industrial sources. This work compiles new activity data and emissions factors and distributes them geographically based on census and Chile´s road network information. This inventory should contribute to the design of policies that seek to mitigate climate change and improve air quality by providing policy makers, stakeholders and scientists with qualified scientific spatial explicit emission information. Metadata Each .tar file contain netcdf (.nc) files for each pollutant of the sector and year of the .tar file. Netcdf  contains annual total emissions for the pollutant and year indicated per grid cell  The emission grid consists of Chilean territory in WGS84 projection (lon-lat) with a spatial resolution of 0.01 * 0.01  degrees (lon x lat). The extension boundaries of the grid are: [(-76-56.3), (-66,-17)] The unit in the .nc files is  Kilotonne/Km2/Year The dataset is described in  Álamos, N., Hunneus, N., Opazo, M., Osses, M., Puja, S., Pantoja, N., Calvo, R., Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C., Schueftan, A., Reyes, R., High resolution inventory of atmospheric emissions from transport, industrial, energy, mining and residential sectors of Chile, ESSD, in preparation, 2021https://zenodo.org/record/4784286Zenodo
Mathematical modeling for 2D light-sheet fluorescence microscopy image reconstructionCueva E.; Courdurier M.; Osses A.; Castañeda V.; Palacios B.; Härtel S.Ciudades Resilientes202010.1088/1361-6420/ab80d8We study an inverse problem for light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM), where the density of fluorescent molecules needs to be reconstructed. Our first step is to present a mathematical model to describe the measurements obtained by an optic camera during an LSFM experiment. Two meaningful stages are considered: excitation and fluorescence. We propose a paraxial model to describe the excitation process which is directly related with the Fermi pencil-beam equation. For the fluorescence stage, we use the transport equation to describe the transport of photons towards the detection camera. For the mathematical inverse problem that we obtain after the modeling, we present a uniqueness result, recasting the problem as the recovery of the initial condition for the heat equation in ℝ × (0,∞) from measurements in a space-time curve. Additionally, we present numerical experiments to recover the density of the fluorescent molecules by discretizing the proposed model and facing this problem as the solution of a large and sparse linear system. Some iterative and regularized methods are used to achieve this objective. The results show that solving the inverse problem achieves better reconstructions than the direct acquisition method that is currently used. © 2020 IOP Publishing Ltd.Inverse Problems02665611https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6420/ab80d8art07500536Thomson Reuters SCIEalgebraic reconstruction techniques; backward uniqueness; fermi pencil-beam equation; heat equation; lsfm; microscopy; radiative transfer equation, cameras; fluorescence; fluorescence microscopy; image reconstruction; iterative methods; light; linear systems; molecules; direct acquisition; excitation process; fluorescence microscopy images; fluorescent molecules; numerical experiments; regularized method; sparse linear systems; transport equation; inverse problemsSchool of Mathematical and Computational Sciences, Department of Mathematics, Yachay Tech University, Ecuador, Ecuador; Facultad de Matemáticas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Matemática, Centro de Modelamiento Matemático, UMI CNRS 2807, FCFM, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Departamento de Tecnología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Department of Statistics, University of Chicago, United States; Laboratory for Scientific Image Analysis SCIAN-Lab, ICBM, CIMT, BNI, CENS, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Chile
Holocene dust dynamics: Introduction to the special issueDe Vleeschouwer F.; Stuut J.-B.W.; Lambert F.Ciudades Resilientes202010.1177/0959683619892670This article is a brief introduction to the Special Issue on Holocene Dust Dynamics, which brings together recent research on a key aspect of the Earth’s changing climate through its effects on radiative balance, cloud cover and biogeochemical cycles. The aim of the Special Issue is to contribute to a better understanding of the role of dust aerosols by analysing the evolution and climatic impact of atmospheric dust over long and short timescales within the Holocene. Here, we introduce the rationale behind the Special Issue and the eight research papers, which include long-term records of dust deposition from different types of natural archive (e.g. peatlands, ice, loess and lake sediments) as well as present-day multi-annual dust trap records and process studies from various climatic regimes that have global implications. © The Author(s) 2019.Holocene09596836http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0959683619892670489-49130Thomson Reuters SCIEaerosols; atmospheric dust; climate change; holocene; natural archives, nanInstituto Franco-Argentino para el Estudio del Clima y sus Impactos (UMI IFAECI, CNRS, CONICET-UBA-IRD), Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmósfera y los Océanos, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina; Laboratoire écologie fonctionnelle et environnement (EcoLab), Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, France; NIOZ–Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Department of Ocean Systems, Utrecht University, Texel, Netherlands; VU - Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculty of Science, Department of Earth Sciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Millennium Nucleus Paleoclimate, Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Department of Physical Geography, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
Trends and emissions of six perfluorocarbons in the Northern Hemisphere and Southern HemisphereDroste E.S.; Adcock K.E.; Ashfold M.J.; Chou C.; Fleming Z.; Fraser P.J.; Gooch L.J.; Hind A.J.; Langenfelds R.L.; Elvidge E.L.; Hanif N.M.; O'Doherty S.; Oram D.E.; Ou-Yang C.-F.; Panagi M.; Reeves C.E.; Sturges W.T.; Laube J.C.Ciudades Resilientes202010.5194/acp-20-4787-2020Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are potent greenhouse gases with global warming potentials up to several thousand times greater than CO2 on a 100-year time horizon. The lack of any significant sinks for PFCs means that they have long atmospheric lifetimes of the order of thousands of years. Anthropogenic production is thought to be the only source for most PFCs. Here we report an update on the global atmospheric abundances of the following PFCs, most of which have for the first time been analytically separated according to their isomers: coctafluorobutane (c-C4F8), n-decafluorobutane (n-C4F10), ndodecafluoropentane (n-C5F12), n-tetradecafluorohexane (nC6F14), and n-hexadecafluoroheptane (n-C7F16). Additionally, we report the first data set on the atmospheric mixing ratios of perfluoro-2-methylpentane (i-C6F14). The existence and significance of PFC isomers have not been reported before, due to the analytical challenges of separating them. The time series spans a period from 1978 to the present. Several data sets are used to investigate temporal and spatial trends of these PFCs: time series of air samples collected at Cape Grim, Australia, from 1978 to the start of 2018; a time series of air samples collected between July 2015 and April 2017 at Tacolneston, UK; and intensive campaign-based sampling collections from Taiwan. Although the remote "background" Southern Hemispheric Cape Grim time series indicates that recent growth rates of most of these PFCs are lower than in the 1990s, we continue to see significantly increasing mixing ratios that are between 6 % and 27 % higher by the end of 2017 compared to abundances measured in 2010. Air samples from Tacolneston show a positive offset in PFC mixing ratios compared to the Southern Hemisphere baseline. The highest mixing ratios and variability are seen in air samples from Taiwan, which is therefore likely situated much closer to PFC sources, confirming predominantly Northern Hemispheric emissions for most PFCs. Even though these PFCs occur in the atmosphere at levels of parts per trillion molar or less, their total cumulative global emissions translate into 833 million metric tonnes of CO2 equivalent by the end of 2017, 23 % of which has been emitted since 2010. Almost two-thirds of the CO2 equivalent emissions within the last decade are attributable to c-C4F8, which currently also has the highest emission rates that continue to grow. Sources of all PFCs covered in this work remain poorly constrained and reported emissions in global databases do not account for the abundances found in the atmosphere. © 2020 Author(s).Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics16807316https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/20/4787/2020/4787-480720Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, australia; cape grim; tasmania; united kingdom; atmospheric chemistry; concentration (composition); emission control; global warming; greenhouse gas; northern hemisphere; organofluorine; source apportionment; trend analysisCentre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom; School of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Semenyih, 43500, Malaysia; Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 11529, Taiwan; National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Oceans and Atmosphere, Climate Science Centre, Aspendale, Australia; Department of Earth Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, 43600, Malaysia; Department of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom; National Centre for Atmospheric Science, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Institute of Energy and Climate Research-Stratosphere (IEK-7), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbHJ, Jülich, Germany; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
Procurement of camelid fiber in the hyperarid Atacama Desert coast: Insights from stable isotopesGayo E.M.; Martens T.; Stuart-Williams H.; Fenner J.; Santoro C.M.; Carter C.; Cameron J.Ciudades Resilientes202010.1016/j.quaint.2019.12.008Pastoralism and camelid management are traditionally attributed to the sociopolitical, economic and cosmovision of Andean populations, rather than to lowland hunter gatherer societies, living on the Pacific coast where camelid hunting is considered a marginal activity, and husbandry is a difficult enterprise given the hyper-arid conditions of lowland terrestrial ecosystems. Contrary to this interpretative historical view, our stable isotope analyses applied to 48 camelid fiber samples, suggests this highly valued camelid byproduct was obtained from camelids sustained on lomas vegetation formations during the Archaic (ca. 6500-4000 cal yr BP), Formative (ca. 4000-1500 cal yr BP) and Late periods (ca. 660-480 cal yr BP). © 2019Quaternary International10406182https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S104061821930932271-83548Thomson Reuters SCIEexchange patterns; human-animal interaction; mobility; south american camelids; south-central andes, atacama desert; chile; animalia; camelidae; animal husbandry; archaeology; arid environment; byproduct; hunter-gatherer; pastoralism; prehistoric; stable isotope; ungulateFacultad de Medicina y Ciencia, Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas y Quimicas, Universidad San Sebastian, Sede Concepción, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2, FONDAP 15110009), Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Chile; College of Asia and the Pacific, The Australian National University, Canberra, 0200, Australian Capital Territory, Australia; College of Science, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, 0200, Australian Capital Territory, Australia; Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile; Centre for Continuing Education, Australian National University, ACT, Canberra, 0200, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
Mmp-8, trap-5, and opg levels in gcf diagnostic potential to discriminate between healthy patients’, mild and severe periodontitis sitesHernández M.; Baeza M.; Contreras J.; Sorsa T.; Tervahartiala T.; Valdés M.; Chaparro A.; Hernández-Ríos P.Ciudades Resilientes202010.3390/biom10111500Biomarkers represent promising aids in periodontitis, host-mediate diseases of the tooth-supporting tissues. We assessed the diagnostic potential of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5 (TRAP-5), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) to discriminate between healthy patients’, mild and severe periodontitis sites. Thirty-one otherwise healthy volunteers with and without periodontal disease were enrolled at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile. Periodontal parameters were examined and gingival crevicular fluid was sampled from mild periodontitis sites (M; n = 42), severe periodontitis sites (S; n = 59), and healthy volunteer sites (H; n = 30). TRAP-5 and OPG were determined by commercial multiplex assay and MMP-8 by the immunofluorometric (IFMA) method. STATA software was used. All biomarkers showed a good discrimination performance. MMP-8 had the overall best performance in regression models and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, with high discrimination of healthy from periodontitis sites (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.901). OPG showed a very high diagnostic precision (AUC ≥ 0.95) to identify severe periodontitis sites (S versus H + M), while TRAP-5 identified both healthy and severe sites. As conclusions, MMP-8, TRAP-5, and OPG present a high precision potential in the identification of periodontal disease destruction, with MMP-8 as the most accurate diagnostic biomarker. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Biomolecules2218273Xhttps://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/10/11/1500art1500, 1-1410Thomson Reuters SCIEhuman; neutrophil collagenase; osteoprotegerin; tnfrsf11b protein, human; adult; area under the curve; article; clinical article; controlled study; cross-sectional study; diagnostic accuracy; diagnostic test accuracy study; disease severity; female; fluorometry; gingivitis; human; immunoassay; male; middle aged; periodontal disease; periodontal pocket depth; periodontitis; receiver operating characteristic; sensitivity and specificity; time resolved spectroscopy; blood; chronic periodontitis; differential diagnosis; genetics; gingivitis; metabolism; pathology; periodontitis; severity of illness index, adult; biomarkers; chronic periodontitis; diagnosis, differential; female; gingival crevicular fluid; humans; male; matrix metalloproteinase 8; middle aged; osteoprotegerin; periodontitis; severity of illness index; tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase; acid phosphatase tartrate resistant isoenzyme; neutrophil collagenase; osteoprotegerin; tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5; unclassified drug; acid phosphatase tartrate resistant isoenzyme; acp5 protein, biomarkers; gingival crevicular fluid; matrix metalloproteinase-8; osteoprotegerin; periodontitis; tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, human; biological marker; mmp8 proteinLaboratory of Periodontal Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago, 8380544, Chile; Department of Pathology and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago, 8380544, Chile; Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago, 8380544, Chile; School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, 7510040, Chile; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, Helsinki University and University Hospital, Helsinki, 00290, Finland; Department of Oral Diseases, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, 14152, Sweden; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, CR2, University of Chile, Santiago, 7510040, Chile; Department of Periodontology, Centro de Investigación e Innovación Biomédica (CIIB), Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Los Andes, Santiago, 7620001, Chile
Evaluation of anthropogenic air pollutant emission inventories for South America at national and city scaleHuneeus N.; Denier van der Gon H.; Castesana P.; Menares C.; Granier C.; Granier L.; Alonso M.; de Fatima Andrade M.; Dawidowski L.; Gallardo L.; Gomez D.; Klimont Z.; Janssens-Maenhout G.; Osses M.; Puliafito S.E.; Rojas N.; Ccoyllo O.S.; Tolvett S.; Ynoue R.Y.Ciudades Resilientes202010.1016/j.atmosenv.2020.117606The changing composition of the atmosphere, driven by anthropogenic emissions, is the cause of anthropogenic climate change as well as deteriorating air quality. Emission inventories are essential to understand the contribution of various human activities, model and predict the changing atmospheric composition, and design cost-effective mitigation measures. At present, national emission inventories in South America (SA) focus on Greenhouse Gases (GHG) as part of their obligation to the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCC) within the framework of their national communications. Emission inventories other than GHG in SA focus mainly on growing urban areas and megacities. Therefore, studies examining air quality at national, regional or continental scales in SA depend on (down-scaled) global emission inventories. This paper examines the emission estimates of air pollutants from various global inventories for five SA countries, namely Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru. A more detailed analysis is conducted for the EDGAR and ECLIPSE emission inventories, in particular comparing local city-scale inventories of a major city in each country. Although total emissions between down-scaled global inventories and local city inventories are often comparable, large discrepancies exist between the sectoral contributions. This is critical, as the mitigation of poor air quality will depend on addressing the right sources. Potential sources of discrepancies between global and local inventories include the spatial distribution proxies, difference in emission factors used and/or the use of generic statistical country data when estimating emissions. This highlights the importance of using local information when generating national emission inventories, especially for air quality modeling and development of effective mitigation measures. This study represents the first step towards an increased understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of emissions information in SA. © 2020 Elsevier LtdAtmospheric Environment13522310https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S135223102030340Xart117606235Thomson Reuters SCIEair pollutants; anthropogenic emissions; argentina; brazil; chile; city emission inventories; colombia; peru; south america, argentina; brazil; chile; colombia; peru; air quality; atmospheric composition; climate change; cost effectiveness; air pollutant emission; air quality modeling; anthropogenic climate changes; anthropogenic emissions; emission inventories; greenhouse gases (ghg); national emission inventories; sectoral contribution; anthropogenic source; atmospheric pollution; climate change; emission inventory; greenhouse gas; human activity; megacity; pollutant source; united nations framework convention on climate change; air quality; argentina; article; brazil; chile; colombia; greenhouse gas; human; peru; urban area; greenhouse gasesDepartamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas - Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, TNO, Utrecht, Netherlands; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Gerencia Química, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Laboratoire d'Aérologie, CNRS-Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France; CIRES/University of Colorado and NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, Boulder, CO, United States; Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, A-2361, Austria; Directorate Sustainable Resources, European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Via Fermi, 2749, Ispra, 21027, Italy; Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Santiago, Chile; Facultad Regional Mendoza, Universidad Tecnológica Nacional/CONICET, Mendoza, Argentina; Air Quality Research Group, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia; Atmospheric Pollution Research Group, Universidad Nacional Tecnológica de Lima Sur, Lima, Peru; Escuela de Mecánica, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana (UTEM), Santiago, Chile
Soccer games and record-breaking PM2.5 pollution events in Santiago, ChileLapere R.; Menut L.; Mailler S.; Huneeus N.Ciudades Resilientes202010.5194/acp-20-4681-2020In wintertime, high concentrations of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are commonly observed in the metropolitan area of Santiago, Chile. Hourly peaks can be very strong, up to 10 times above average levels, but have barely been studied so far. Based on atmospheric composition measurements and chemistry-transport modeling (WRFCHIMERE), the chemical signature of sporadic skyrocketing wintertime PM2.5 peaks is analyzed. This signature and the timing of such extreme events trace their origin back to massive barbecue cooking by Santiago s inhabitants during international soccer games. The peaks end up evacuated outside Santiago after a few hours but trigger emergency plans for the next day. Decontamination plans in Santiago focus on decreasing emissions from traffic, industry, and residential heating. Thanks to the air quality network of Santiago, this study shows that cultural habits such as barbecue cooking also need to be taken into account. For short-term forecast and emergency management, cultural events such as soccer games seem a good proxy to prognose possible PM2.5 peak events. Not only can this result have an informative value for the Chilean authorities but also a similar methodology could be reproduced for other cases throughout the world in order to estimate the burden on air quality of cultural habits. © 2020 Copernicus GmbH. All rights reserved.Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics16807316https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/20/4681/2020/4681-469420Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, chile; metropolitana; air quality; atmospheric chemistry; atmospheric pollution; concentration (composition); emission inventory; metropolitan area; particulate matter; pollutant source; pollution control; pollution incidence; sport; urban atmosphere; urban pollution; winterLaboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, IPSL, École Polytechnique, Institut Polytechnique de Paris, ENS, Université PSL, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Palaiseau, France; École des Ponts ParisTech, Marne-la-Vallée, France; Department of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research CR2, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Ecology of the collapse of Rapa Nui society: Population collapse of Rapa Nui societyLima M.; Gayo E.M.; Latorre C.; Santoro C.M.; Estay S.A.; Cañellas-Boltà N.; Margalef O.; Giralt S.; Sáez A.; Pla-Rabes S.; Chr. Stenseth N.Ciudades Resilientes202010.1098/rspb.2020.0662Collapses of food producer societies are recurrent events in prehistory and have triggered a growing concern for identifying the underlying causes of convergences/divergences across cultures around the world. One of the most studied and used as a paradigmatic case is the population collapse of the Rapa Nui society. Here, we test different hypotheses about it by developing explicit population dynamic models that integrate feedbacks between climatic, demographic and ecological factors that underpinned the socio-cultural trajectory of these people. We evaluate our model outputs against a reconstruction of past population size based on archaeological radiocarbon dates from the island. The resulting estimated demographic declines of the Rapa Nui people are linked to the long-term effects of climate change on the island's carrying capacity and, in turn, on the 'per-capita food supply'. © 2020 The Authors.Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences09628452https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2020.0662art20200662287Thomson Reuters SCIEeaster island; carrying capacity; climate change; collapse; population decline; population dynamics; population modeling; prehistoric; radiocarbon dating; reconstruction, climate change; collapse; overpopulation; population theory; rapa nuiDepartamento de Ecología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Santiago, Chile; Centro UC Del Desierto de Atacama, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile; Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera (ICTJA-CSIC), Lluís Solé Sabarís s/n, Barcelona, E-08028, Spain; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, 08193, Spain; Department of Earth and Ocean Dynamics, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques s/n, Barcelona, E-08028, Spain; BABVE, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Cerdanyola del Vallès, 08193, Spain; Center for Ecological Research and Forestry Application (CREAF), Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, E-08193, Spain; Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1066, Blindern, Oslo, 0316, Norway
Increasing trends (2001–2018) in photochemical activity and secondary aerosols in Santiago, ChileMenares C.; Gallardo L.; Kanakidou M.; Seguel R.; Huneeus N.Ciudades Resilientes202010.1080/16000889.2020.1821512Despite the decline in partially (PM10) and fully (PM2.5) inhalable particles observed in recent decades, Santiago in Chile shows high levels of particle and ozone pollution. Attainment plans have emphasized measures aimed at curbing primary and, to some extent, secondary particles, but little attention has been paid to photochemical pollution. Nevertheless, ozone hourly mixing ratios in Eastern Santiago regularly exceed 110 ppbv in summer, and in winter maximum mixing ratios often reach 90 ppbv. Moreover, the sum of ozone and nitrogen dioxide shows an increasing trend of more than 3.5 ppbv per decade at 5 out of 8 stations. This trend is driven by increasing NO2, possibly associated with increasing motorization but also with changes in photochemistry. To estimate the fraction of secondary particles in PM2.5 and due to the lack of long-term speciation data for particles, we use carbon monoxide as a proxy of primary particles and ozone daily maxima as a proxy for secondary particle formation. We find a growing fraction of secondary particles due to an increase in the oxidizing capacity of Santiago’s atmosphere. This stresses the need for new curbing measures to tackle photochemical pollution. This is particularly needed in the context of a changing climate. © Tellus B: 2020. © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.Tellus, Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology02806509https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/16000889.2020.18215121-1872Thomson Reuters SCIEempirical method; oxidative capacity; santiago; secondary aerosols; trends, chile; metropolitana; aerosol composition; aerosol formation; atmospheric chemistry; ozone; particulate matter; photochemistry; trend analysisCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
Investigating the regional contributions to air pollution in Beijing: A dispersion modelling study using CO as a tracerPanagi M.; Fleming Z.L.; Monks P.S.; Ashfold M.J.; Wild O.; Hollaway M.; Zhang Q.; Squires F.A.; Vande Hey J.D.Ciudades Resilientes202010.5194/acp-20-2825-2020The rapid urbanization and industrialization of northern China in recent decades has resulted in poor air quality in major cities like Beijing. Transport of air pollution plays a key role in determining the relative influence of local emissions and regional contributions to observed air pollution. In this paper, dispersion modelling (Numerical Atmospheric Modelling Environment, NAME model) is used with emission inventories and in situ ground measurement data to track the pathways of air masses arriving in Beijing. The percentage of time the air masses spent over specific regions during their travel to Beijing is used to assess the effects of regional meteorology on carbon monoxide (CO), a good tracer of anthropogenic emissions. The NAME model is used with the MEIC (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China) emission inventories to determine the amount of pollution that is transported to Beijing from the immediate surrounding areas and regions further away. This approach captures the magnitude and variability of CO over Beijing and reveals that CO is strongly driven by transport processes. This study provides a more detailed understanding of relative contributions to air pollution in Beijing under different regional airflow conditions. Approximately 45 % over a 4-year average (2013-2016) of the total CO pollution that affects Beijing is transported from other regions, and about half of this contribution comes from beyond the Hebei and Tianjin regions that immediately surround Beijing. The industrial sector is the dominant emission source from the surrounding regions and contributes over 20 % of the total CO in Beijing. Finally, using PM2.5 to determine high-pollution days, three pollution classification types of pollution were identified and used to analyse the APHH winter campaign and the 4-year period. The results can inform targeted control measures to be implemented by Beijing and the surrounding provinces to tackle air quality problems that affect Beijing and China. © 2020 Copernicus GmbH. All rights reserved.Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics16807316https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/20/2825/2020/2825-283820Thomson Reuters SCIEbeijing [beijing (ads)]; beijing [china]; china; hebei; tianjin; air mass; air quality; atmospheric modeling; atmospheric pollution; carbon monoxide; emission inventory; meteorology; tracer, nanNational Centre for Atmospheric Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom; Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom; School of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Semenyih, Selangor, 43500, Malaysia; Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; Department of Chemistry, University of York, York, United Kingdom; School of Physics and Astronomy, Earth Observation Science Group, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom; Centre for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Department of Geophysics, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, United Kingdom
Association between coal and firewood combustion and hospital admissions and mortality in Chile 2015 – an ecological approachParedes M.C.; Muñoz M.P.; Salgado M.V.; Maldonado A.K.Ciudades Resilientes202010.26444/aaem/125010Introduction and objective. Burning coal and firewood generates toxic emissions that are associated with respiratory illness, cardiovascular disease, and even death. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between county-level prevalence of household coal and firewood use and health outcomes, including total, respiratory, and cardiovascular mortality, as well as total and respiratory hospitalization rates. Materials and method. The ecological study included data on the use of household coal and firewood in 139 counties obtained from the 2015 Chilean National Socio-economic Characterization Survey. Total, respiratory, and cardiovascular mortality, as well as total and respiratory hospitalization rates, were obtained from the Department of Health Statistics. Poisson models with robust error variance, Pearson linear correlation coefficients, and scatterplots were used to explore associations between household coal and firewood use and morbidity-mortality, stratifying by geographic zone. Results. Total, respiratory, and cardiovascular mortality and total and respiratory hospitalization rates were 5.7 per 1,000, 552 per 100,000, 157 per 100,000, 92.5 per 1000, and 8.8 per 1000 inhabitants, respectively. The median prevalence of coal use for residential cooking, heating, or water heating was 3.64%, while the median prevalence of firewood combustion was 12%. In southern counties, age-and gender-adjusted respiratory mortality increased 2.02 (95% CI: 1.17–3.50), 1.5 (95% CI: 1.11–1.89), and 1.76-fold (95% CI: 1.19–2.60) for each percentage increase in household coal and firewood use for heating, cooking and heating water, respectively. Conclusions. The prevalence of household coal and firewood used for heating and cooking was positively correlated with respiratory mortality and hospitalization in southern zone counties. © 2020, Institute of Agricultural Medicine. All rights reserved.Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine12321966http://www.journalssystem.com/aaem/Association-between-coal-and-firewood-combustion-and-hospital-admission-and-mortality,125010,0,2.html418-42627Thomson Reuters SCIEair pollution; biomass; hospitalization rate; mortality, indoor; cardiovascular diseases; chile; coal; cooking; female; heating; hospital mortality; hospitalization; humans; male; respiratory tract diseases; wood; coal; coal; adult; all cause mortality; article; cardiovascular mortality; chile; combustion; cooking; female; firewood; heating; hospital admission; hospital mortality; hospitalization; household; human; male; morbidity; mortality rate; poverty; prevalence; trend study; wood; adverse event; cardiovascular disease; epidemiology; indoor air pollution; mortality; respiratory tract disease; wood, air pollutionSchool of Public Health. Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Universidad Bernardo O’Higgins, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, Chile
PM2.5 forecasting in Coyhaique, the most polluted city in the AmericasPerez P.; Menares C.; Ramírez C.Ciudades Resilientes202010.1016/j.uclim.2020.100608Coyhaique is a southern Chilean city with a population of approximately 64,000 habitants. In spite of its small size, Coyhaique has been identified as the city with highest annual PM2.5 concentrations of the Americas (including south America, central America and north America). Episodes of high pollution are concentrated on the fall- winter season when meteorological conditions do not favor atmospheric particle dispersion and extended use of wood stoves is responsible for more than 99% of the emissions. In Chile, the 24 h average of PM2.5 concentration is classified in four ranges: fair, bad, very bad and critical. We have developed a neural network model and a linear model aimed to forecast the maximum of the 24 h moving average one day in advance. Input variables for the models are hourly values of PM2.5 at 18 h and 19 h of the present day, measured and forecasted temperature, wind speed and precipitation and measured values of NO2, CO and O3 concentrations. The neural network model is slightly more accurate than the linear model. We are able to anticipate the observed range in 75% of the cases, and critical days in 84% of the cases. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.Urban Climate22120955https://doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2020.100608art10060832Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, air quality forecasting; meteorology forecast; neural networks; particulate matter; pm2.5Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Ecuador 3493, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research - CR2, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geofisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Recent wildfires in Central Chile: Detecting links between burned areas and population exposure in the wildland urban interfaceSarricolea P.; Serrano-Notivoli R.; Fuentealba M.; Hernández-Mora M.; de la Barrera F.; Smith P.; Meseguer-Ruiz Ó.Ciudades Resilientes202010.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135894Wildfires are gaining importance in the Mediterranean regions owing to climate change and landscape changes due to the increasing closeness between urban areas and forests prone to wildfires. We analysed the dry season wildfire occurrences in the Mediterranean region of Central Chile (32°S–39°30′ S) between 2000 and 2017, using satellite images to detect burned areas, their landscape metrics and the land use and covers (vegetal) pre-wildfire, in order to determine the population living in areas that may be affected by wildfires. The existing regulations in western Mediterranean countries (Portugal, Spain, France, and Italy) were used to identify and define the wildland-urban interface (WUI) areas, quantifying the people inhabiting them and estimating the population affected by burned areas from 2001 to 2017. We used the Google Earth Engine to process MODIS products and extract both burned areas and land covers. We detected that 25% of the urban population inhabits WUI areas (i.e. Biobío, Araucanía and Valparaíso regions) where the urban population exposed to burned areas exceeds 40%. Most of the land use and land covers affected by wildfires are anthropogenic land covers, classified as savannas, croplands, evergreen broadleaf forests and woody savannas, representing >70% of the burned areas. Urban areas show only 0.6% of the burned surface from 2001 to 2017. We estimate that 55,680 people are potentially affected by wildfires, and 50% of them are in just one administrative region. These results show the imperative need for public policies as a regulating force for establishing WUI areas with the purpose of identifying wildfire risk in urban areas, such as establishing prevention methods as firewalls and prescribed fires. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.Science of the Total Environment00489697https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969719358899art135894706Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; conservation of natural resources; wildfires; chile; climate change; ecosystems; forestry; geographic information systems; land use; land use and land cover; mediterranean ecosystem; mediterranean region; population exposure; urban population; western mediterranean; wildfire; wildland urban interface; gis; hazard assessment; land cover; land use; modis; risk assessment; satellite imagery; urban population; wildfire; article; chile; cropland; evergreen; forest; france; geographic information system; human; italy; nonhuman; population exposure; portugal; public policy; satellite imagery; savanna; season; spain; urban area; urban population; wildfire; chile; environmental protection; fires, chilean mediterranean ecosystem; geographical information system; urban population; wildfireDepartment of Geography, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (EEAD-CSIC), Zaragoza, Spain; Departamento de Ecología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Alameda, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Geografía de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Centro del Desarrollo Urbano Sustentable, Concepción, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ciencias Históricas y Geográficas, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), Santiago, Chile; Laboratorio Internacional de Cambio Global, LINCGlobal PUC-CSIC, Spain
Two decades of ozone standard exceedances in Santiago de ChileSeguel R.J.; Gallardo L.; Fleming Z.L.; Landeros S.Ciudades Resilientes202010.1007/s11869-020-00822-wA drastic decline of 2.4 ppbv decade−1 in the ozone mixing ratio has been measured in Santiago de Chile during the 2000s. Subsequently, in the 2010s, ozone trends stabilized in downtown and showed upward trends in eastern Santiago. The number of days with an 8-h average ozone mixing ratio above 61 ppbv, deemed harmful to health according to Chilean legislation, has declined significantly both in western and central Santiago. However, in eastern Santiago, one finds a 2010–2018 decade average of 43 days per year above recommended levels. Also, at a Receptor Site located ~ 70 km downwind from Santiago, this number rose to up to 3 months per year. A common denominator for the last two decades has been a steady increase in both gasoline and diesel-powered private cars. In the 2010s, the ozone weekend effect was frequently noted, providing evidence that the ozone formation regime in Santiago is VOC-limited. Nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide (a proxy of anthropogenic VOCs) have increased steadily since 2014 in a relatively constant CO-to-NOx ratio. Therefore, we propose that primary emissions of NOX and VOCs from motor vehicle exhaust have remained as the main driver of the photochemical air pollution in Santiago as well as explaining the weekly variation. Santiago, like other megacities in the world, faces several challenges associated with increasing urbanization as well as the effects of climate change. An increasing population, growth in private car use, and urban sprawl have contributed to maintain high levels of ozone. New threats such as increasing temperatures observed in the central valleys of Chile, along with more frequent occurrences of heat waves, whose number has doubled in the last decade, will require a different approach to manage ozone pollution during the next decade. Santiago will not meet its own goals in the upcoming years without implementing robust, scientifically sound, and cost-effective strategies designed specifically to tackle photochemical pollution. © 2020, Springer Nature B.V.Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health18739318http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11869-020-00822-w593-60513Thomson Reuters SCIEsantiago [metropolitana]; atmospheric pollution; carbon monoxide; climate change; exhaust emission; nitric oxide; ozone; spatiotemporal analysis; urban pollution; urban sprawl; urbanization; volatile organic compound, heat waves; nitrogen dioxide; ozone; photochemical pollution; santiagoCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Differences in the composition of organic aerosols between winter and summer in Beijing: A study by direct-infusion ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometrySteimer S.S.; Patton D.J.; Vu T.V.; Panagi M.; Monks P.S.; Harrison R.M.; Fleming Z.L.; Shi Z.; Kalberer M.Ciudades Resilientes202010.5194/acp-20-13303-2020This study investigates the chemical composition of PM2.5 collected at a central location in Beijing, China, during winter 2016 and summer 2017. The samples were characterised using direct-infusion negative-nano-electrosprayionisation ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry to elucidate the composition and the potential primary and secondary sources of the organic fraction. The samples from the two seasons were compared with those from a road-tunnel site and an urban background site in Birmingham, UK, analysed in the course of an earlier study using the same method. There were strong differences in aerosol particle composition between the seasons, particularly regarding (poly-)aromatic compounds, which were strongly enhanced in winter, likely due to increased fossil fuel and biomass burning for heating. In addition to the seasonal differences, compositional differences between high- and low-pollution conditions were observed, with the contribution of sulfur-containing organic compounds strongly enhanced under high-pollution conditions. There was a correlation of the number of sulfur-containing molecular formulae with the concentration of particulate sulfate, consistent with a particle-phase formation process. © Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics16807316https://acp.copernicus.org/articles/20/13303/2020/art683, 13303-1331820Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, beijing [beijing (ads)]; beijing [china]; birmingham [birmingham (dst)]; birmingham [england]; china; england; united kingdom; aerosol composition; biomass burning; concentration (composition); fossil fuel; mass spectrometry; particulate matter; sulfate; summer; winterDepartment of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1EW, United Kingdom; Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, 4056, Switzerland; Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B1 52TT, United Kingdom; National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Earth Observation Science Group, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom; Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom; Department of Environmental Sciences, Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 106 91, Sweden; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
El Formativo en Tarapacá (3000-1000 aP): Arqueología, naturaleza y cultura en la Pampa del Tamarugal, Desierto de Atacama, norte de ChileUribe M.; Angelo D.; Capriles J.; Castro V.; De Porras M.E.; García M.; Gayo E.; González J.; Herrera M.J.; Izaurieta R.; Maldonado A.; Mandakovic V.; McRostie V.; Razeto J.; Santana F.; Santoro C.; Valenzuela J.; Vidal A.Ciudades Resilientes202010.1017/laq.2019.92En este trabajo se describen las relaciones que las sociedades humanas establecieron con su entorno durante el período Formativo (3000-1000 aP) en la Pampa del Tamarugal, Desierto de Atacama, desde una perspectiva teórico-metodológica que pone el acento en el potencial del registro ecofactual. Éste, al mediar entre lo cultural y lo ambiental, proporciona información vital para una mejor comprensión de la relación entre naturaleza y cultura construida por estas sociedades. Queremos demostrar que este proceso forma parte de una larga historia de racionalización del desierto y de sus recursos silvestres, locales e introducidos, así como de la vivencia particular que tuvieron estas comunidades andinas. Por consiguiente, proponemos que la intervención humana en la Pampa del Tamarugal puede ser entendida como un cambio no sólo ecológico y económico, sino también cosmológico. Copyright © 2020 by the Society for American Archaeology.Latin American Antiquity10456635https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S1045663519000920/type/journal_article81-10231Thomson Reuters SSCI, AHCInan, arqueobotánica; arqueología simétrica; formativo; palabras claveandes centro-sur; tarapacá; zooarqueologíaUniversidad de Chile, Departamento de Antropología, Santiago, Chile
Water markets and social–ecological resilience to water stress in the context of climate change: an analysis of the Limarí Basin, ChileUrquiza A.; Billi M.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes202010.1007/s10668-018-0271-3The paper proposes an analysis of the social–ecological resilience of the Limarí Basin, an agriculture-intensive dryland in the north of Chile, featuring one of the most innovative market-based water managements and the most active water rights market in the country, but concurrently affected by an ongoing water stress situation. The Chilean water market, one of the main examples of the application of neoliberal policies in water management, has received mixed appraisals although, at present, few empirical studies evaluate the social and environmental conditions associated with their operation. This paper, on the contrary, maintains the necessity to assess the capacity of market-based models to face situations of water stress, particularly since mega-drought phenomena are projected to become a recurring and increasing problem during the following decades because of climate change. The study offers a mixed bottom-up and top-down qualitative empirical analysis of how the Chilean water market operates, providing relevant insights into four dimensions of the social–ecological resilience of the watershed: redundancy, diversity and flexibility; connectivity, collaboration and collective action; social–ecological memory and learning; self-organization and governance of system changes. The conclusion is that water scarcity is self-produced: despite the flexibility provided by market-based water management, the combined effect of strong deregulation, of the absence of territorial planning and integrated management of water resources, and of short-term attitudes and generalized mistrust, has led the system to the critical situation it is now facing. © 2018, Springer Nature B.V.Environment, Development and Sustainability1387585Xhttp://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10668-018-0271-31929-195122Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; bottom-up approach; climate change; empirical analysis; environmental conditions; governance approach; innovation; qualitative analysis; self organization; territorial planning; top-down approach; water industry; water management; water planning; water stress, chilean water code; climate change; social–ecological resilience; water governance; water markets; water stressCentre for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2 & Social Sciences Faculty, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; School of Government & Millennium Nucleus Models of Crisis, Universidad Adolfo Ibañez, Peñalolén, Chile
Landscape evolution and the environmental context of human occupation of the southern pampa del tamarugal, Atacama Desert, ChileWorkman T.R.; Rech J.A.; Gayó E.M.; Santoro C.M.; Ugalde P.C.; De Pol-Holz R.; Capriles J.M.; Latorre C.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes202010.1016/j.quascirev.2020.106502As with most living organisms, human populations respond to climatic, environmental, and population pressures by transforming their range and subsistence strategies over space and time. An understanding of human ecology can be gained when the archaeological record is placed within the context of dynamic landscape changes and alterations in natural resource availability. We reconstructed the landscape evolution of the Quebrada Maní fan complex, situated along the west-facing slope of the Central Andes in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert, an area that contains an archaeological record that spans almost 13,000 years. Surficial geologic mapping and dating of three 2–12 km2 study sites, in conjunction with archaeological records and analysis of remotely sensed data for the ∼400 km2 fan complex, was conducted to reconstruct the landscape evolution and the way of life of Paleoindian (ca. 12.8–11.5 ka) and early/late Formative (ca 2.5 to 0.7 ka) social groups. Just prior to any known human occupation, a large pluvial event in the high Andes, regionally referred to as CAPE I, impacted the Quebrada Maní fan complex from ca.18–16.5 ka. During CAPE I, the Maní fan complex was dominated by perennial stream systems that deposited well-sorted conglomerates in the upper reaches of the fan (Unit T2) and perennial wetlands (Unit B1). This pluvial period was followed by the onset of an extreme drought sometime after 15 ka, but before 13 ka, when wetlands desiccated and the distal reaches of the fan deflated. Sand sheets and sand dunes were deposited across broad reaches of the landscape and Quebrada Maní incised 3–5 m into its floodplain. This drought had profound implications for the distribution of natural resources during the subsequent pluvial event (CAPE II) that ensued from ca. 12.5–9.5 ka. Incision along the upper reaches of the fan caused a more restricted floodplain and allowed the deposition of extensive wetlands along the more distal central reaches of the fan where groundwater emerged. Paleoindian residential open-air camps were placed in these areas. Wetlands were replaced by a tree-covered floodplain during the latter portion of this pluvial event (ca. 10.5–9 ka). We found no archaeological evidence for human occupations between ∼8–2.5 ka, suggesting a lack of natural resources and/or very low hunter-gatherer population densities. During this time, Quebrada Maní incised up to 8 m into the floodplain. Mudflow deposition – typical of the present-day fan complex – initiated around 2.5 ka, likely responding to an increase in precipitation. This triggered a re-population of the fan surface by Formative agricultural groups that irrigated and extensively farmed these floodplains. By the end of the Formative, these socio-cultural groups became increasingly vulnerable to climatic changes as cut-and-fill cycles in the drainage necessitated major infrastructure adjustments, until the technologies and social-cultural convention of the epoch could not cope with environmental change and investments were abandoned by ∼0.8 ka. © 2020 Elsevier LtdQuaternary Science Reviews02773791https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0277379120304649art106502243Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; cultural conventions; environmental change; environmental contexts; landscape evolutions; population densities; remotely sensed data; resource availability; archaeological evidence; climate change; drought; floodplain; hunter-gatherer; landscape change; landscape evolution; natural resource; occupation; population density; precipitation (climatology); reconstruction; satellite data; wetland; biology, andes; atacama desert; chile; agricultural robots; banks (bodies of water); deposition; drought; ecology; employment; environmental technology; floods; groundwater; investments; natural resources; population statistics; wetlands; atacama desert, archaeology; atacama; cape; chile; climate change; geoarchaeology; geomorphology; landscape evolution; paleowetlandDepartment of Geology and Environmental Earth Science, Miami University, Oxford, 45056, OH, United States; Facultad de Medicina y Ciencia, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Químicas, Universidad San Sebastian, Concepción, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Chile; Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Antofagasta 1520, Arica, 1001236, Chile; School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, 85721, AZ, United States; GAIA-Antártica, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Department of Anthropology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 16802, PA, United States; Centro UC del Desierto de Atacama & Departamento de Ecología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), Santiago, Chile
Comité Científico de Cambio Climático: Los peligros de la mala calidad de aire,;Gallardo,Laura;Boso,Alex;Barton,Jonathan;Huneeus,Nicolás;Jiménez,Jorge;Jorquera,Héctor;Seguel,Rodrigo;Schueftan,Alejandra;Urquiza,Anahí;Ciudades Resilientes2020https://comitecientifico.minciencia.gob.cl/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/Valdes-aire_10.pdfNot Indexed
ARCLIM Anexo: Piloto Riesgo integrado de Asentamientos Huanos. Conurbación Valparaíso - Viña del MarAmigo,C.;Alamos,N.;Arrieta,D.;Billi,M.;Contreras,M.;Larragubel,C.;Muñoz,A.;Smith,P.;Urquiza,A.;Vargas,M.;Videla,J. T.;Winckler,P.;Agua y Extremos; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes2020Not Indexed
Gobernanza policéntrica para la resiliencia al cambio climático: análisis legislativo comparado y Ley Marco de Cambio en ChileBilli,Marco;Delgado,Verónica;Jiménez,Guadalupe;Morales,Bárbara;Neira,Claudio Ignacio;Silva,María Ignacia;Urquiza,Anahí;Zonas Costeras; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes202010.38178/07183089/1028191015Una gobernanza capaz de dar respuestas eficaces, proactivas y adaptativas frente al cambio climático requiere hacer frente al menos a tres órdenes de desafíos: (1) deberá prestar atención a las particularidades de los contextos locales, sin perder de vista interdependencias globales; (2) deberá coordinar de manera coherente una multiplicidad de perspectivas y actores autónomos; y (3) deberá fomentar la innovación y el aprendizaje mientras mantiene un grado mínimo de estabilidad necesaria para realizar predicciones y tomar decisiones. El artículo argumenta que el enfoque de gobernanza policéntrica, especialmente en su interpretación sistémica, ofrece respuestas efectivas para estos tres desafíos, y emplea dicho enfoque para evaluar las actuales normativas de cambio climático, por medio de un análisis comparado de legislaciones internacionales, y de un estudio de caso del Proyecto de Ley Marco de Cambio Climático de Chile. Se finaliza identificando oportunidades y retos, así como proponiendo recomendaciones de política pública.Estudios Públicos0718-3089, 0716-1115https://www.estudiospublicos.cl/index.php/cep/article/view/19377-53Erih, Latindex
RedPE (2020). Vulnerabilidad Energética Territorial: Desigualdad más allá del hogarCalvo,R.;Amigo,C.;Billi,M.;Fleischmann,M.;Urquiza,A.;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes2020La energía es uno de los recursos fundamentales para el desarrollo económico y humano de
las personas y de las sociedades contemporáneas. Por un lado, el acceso a una energía de
calidad tiene consecuencias en el acceso a educación, empleabilidad, alimentación e incluso
en la salud de las personas (Liddell & Morris, 2010; Nadimi & Tokimatsu, 2018; Robić & Ančić,
2018; Thomson, Snell & Bouzarovski, 2017). Por otro lado, un sistema energético estable y
de calidad habilita el desarrollo económico al permitir la implementación de tecnologías
modernas de producción, ampliar el uso de tecnologías de información y comunicación,
entre otros (Bhatia & Angelou, 2015; Naciones Unidas, 2018; Practical Action, 2017).
En la actualidad, los sistemas energéticos se encuentran tensionados por dos fenómenos
paralelos y relacionados entre sí, sobre todo en los países en vías al desarrollo: el
cambio climático y la necesidad de una transición energética. En primer lugar, el cambio
climático ha puesto en evidencia los efectos negativos de una matriz energética basada
mayoritariamente en combustibles fósiles, debido a los efectos de sus altas emisiones de
Gases de Efecto Invernadero (GEI). A nivel global, la generación de energía contribuye con
un 30% de las emisiones totales de GEI, mientras que el sector energético contribuye un
73% de las emisiones totales (incluyendo transporte, electricidad y calefacción, edificios,
manufacturas y construcción, emisiones fugitivas y combustión de otros combustibles)1
. Por
lo tanto, la matriz de generación de energía debiese transitar hacia la descarbonización en
las siguientes décadas si se desea mantener el calentamiento global por bajo los 1.5ºC y
adaptarse a los límites planetarios (Falk et al., 2019; IPCC, 2019a; Rockström et al., 2009).
Esta radical transformación debiese ser capaz, al mismo tiempo, de asegurar un suministro
energético adecuado al desarrollo económico y humano, adaptándose a las nuevas condiciones climáticas y tecnológicas, necesarias para la transición a una matriz energética
renovable.
http://redesvid.uchile.cl/pobreza-energetica/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/VF_Informe-VET.pdfNot Indexed
ARCLIM Anexo:  Piloto Riesgo integrado. Cuenca del río Cachapoal- Región de O’Higgins en ARClim – Atlas de Riesgo ClimáticoCalvo,R.;Navea,J.;Fleishmann,M.;Barrera,V.;Peña,D.;Billi,M.;Urquiza,A.;Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2020Not Indexed
Mitigación de carbono negro en la actualización de la Contribución Nacionalmente Determinada de Chile: Resumen para tomadores de decisiónGallardo,L.;Basoa,K.;Tolvett,S.;Osses,M.;Huneeus,N.;Bustos,S.;Barraza,J.;Ogaz,G.;Ciudades Resilientes2020En el contexto del Acuerdo de París, Chile está revisando su Contribución Nacionalmente
Determinada (NDC, por sus siglas en inglés). Bajo ese marco, el Centro de Ciencia del Clima
y la Resiliencia (CR2, www.cr2.cl/), de la Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas de la
Universidad de Chile, está apoyando a la Oficina de Cambio Climático del Ministerio del
Medio Ambiente (MMA) en el diseño, evaluación y justificación –mediante la implementación
de un enfoque metodológico— de una meta de reducción cuantificada de carbono negro
(BC, por sus siglas en inglés), integrable y consistente con la meta de reducción de gases
de efecto invernadero (GEI). Para ejecutar este apoyo, se ha suscrito un acuerdo entre las
partes a través del Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente (PNUMA).
El mismo está en el marco de la implementación de iniciativas de acción y planificación
nacional (Supporting National Action and Planning on Short-Lived Climate Pollutants, SNAP)
que promueve la Coalición de Aire Limpio y Clima (CCAC, www.ccacoalition.org/).
Aquí se presenta un resumen para tomadores de decisión, resaltando los aspectos
metodológicos y los resultados más importantes del estudio. Este resumen se complementa
con un informe extendido y anexos que detallan la información y relevan la interacción
entre el grupo ejecutor y el mandante.
https://www.cr2.cl/carbononegro/32Not Indexed
Mitigación de carbono negro en la actualización de la Contribución Nacionalmente Determinada de Chile: Informe extendido y anexos.Gallardo,L.;Basoa,K.;Tolvett,S.;Osses,M.;Huneeus,N.;Bustos,S.;Barraza,J.;Ogaz,G.;Ciudades Resilientes2020En el contexto del Acuerdo de París, Chile está revisando su
Contribución Nacionalmente Determinada (NDC, por sus siglas en
inglés). Bajo ese marco, el Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la
Resiliencia (CR2, https://www.cr2.cl/), de la Facultad de Ciencias
Físicas y Matemáticas de la Universidad de Chile, está apoyando a la
Oficina de Cambio Climático del Ministerio del Medio Ambiente
(MMA) en el diseño, evaluación y justificación –mediante la
implementación de un enfoque metodológico— de una meta de
reducción cuantificada de carbono negro (BC, por sus siglas en
inglés), integrable y consistente con la meta de reducción de gases de
efecto invernadero (GEI). Para ejecutar este apoyo se ha suscrito un
acuerdo entre las partes a través del Programa de las Naciones Unidas
para el Medio Ambiente (PNUMA). El mismo está en el marco de la
implementación de iniciativas de acción y planificación nacional
(Supporting National Action and Planning on Short-Lived Climate
Pollutants, SNAP) que promueve la Coalición de Aire Limpio y
Clima (CCAC, https://www.ccacoalition.org/).
Aquí se presenta un informe extendido y anexos que
complementan el resumen para tomadores de decisiones.
https://www.cr2.cl/carbononegro/116Not Indexed
Informe a las naciones: Incendios en Chile: causas, impactos y resiliencia.González,M. E.;Sapiains A.,R.;Gómez-González,S.;Garreaud,R. D.;Miranda,A.;Galleguillos,M.;Jacques-Coper,M.;Pauchard,A.;Hoyos-Santillan,J.;Cordero,L.;Vasquez-Lavin,F.;Lara,A.;Aldunce,P.;Delgado,V.;Arriagada,R.;Ugarte,A. M.;Sepulveda-Jauregui,A.;Farías,L.;Garcia,R.;Rondanelli,R.;Ponce,R.;Vargas,F.;Rojas,M.;Boisier,J. P.;Carrasco,C.;Little,C.;Osses,M.;Zamorano,C.;Días-Hormazábal,I.;Ceballos,A.;Guerra,E.;Moncada,M.;Castillo,I.;Agua y Extremos; Zonas Costeras; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes2020Los resultados presentados en este informe son parte del trabajo interdisciplinario que realiza el Centro de Ciencia
del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2.
El (CR)2 es un centro de excelencia financiado por el programa FONDAP de CONICYT (Proyecto 15110009) en el cual
participan cerca de 60 científicos asociados a la Universidad de Chile, la Universidad de Concepción y la Universidad
Austral de Chile.
La versión electrónica de este documento está disponible en el sitio web www.cr2.cl/incendios
https://www.cr2.cl/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Informe-CR2-IncendiosforestalesenChile.pdf84Not Indexed
Enhanced chlorinated very short-lived substances in South East Asia: Potential source regions and source typesHanif N.M.; Reeves C.E.; Oram D.E.; Ashfold M.J.; Panagi M.; Fleming Z.L.; Gooch L.J.; Laube J.C.; Samah A.A.; Abdullah A.A.; Sturges W.T.Ciudades Resilientes202010.1088/1755-1315/616/1/012011Enhancements of the mixing ratios of short-lived halogenated gases were observed in air samples collected at Bachok Marine Research Station (BMRS), Peninsular Malaysia during Northern Hemisphere winters in 2013/2014 and 2015/2016. This study investigates the potential source regions and source types that influenced the variability in chlorinated very short-lived substances (Cl-VSLS) [dichloromethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloroethene] and methyl halides [methyl chloride and methyl bromide]. The UK Met Office’s Numerical Atmospheric Modelling Environment (NAME) dispersion model, was used for tracking the origin of air masses arriving at BMRS. For the purpose of identifying possible sources of these compounds, carbon monoxide (CO) emission data taken from the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 were used along with NAME footprints to calculate modelled CO mixing ratios. A correlation analysis between the mixing ratios of measured compounds and the modelled CO from various emission sectors was perform to assess the extent to which emission sectors might be related to the mixing ratios of halogenated gases. The results show that the events of higher mixing ratios were associated with air masses, especially from East China. During the 2013/2014 campaign, the modelled CO from industrial, solvents and agriculture (waste burning on fields) were significantly correlated with the mixing ratios of Cl-VSLS (R > 0.7) and methyl halides (R > 0.40). During the 2015/2016 campaign, the strength of these correlations reduced for Cl-VSLS (R > 0.5) and with no significant correlations for methyl halides. Instead, mixing ratios of methyl halides were correlated (R=0.4) with modelled CO from forest burning. This work provides evidence that East and South East Asia act as important sources of halogenated gases. This is of significant given the proximity of these regions to prevalent deep convection which can rapidly transport these halogen-containing gases into the stratosphere and impact the ozone layer. © 2020 Institute of Physics Publishing. All rights reserved.IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science17551307https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/616/1/012011art012011616Not Indexednan, 2-dichloroethanes; atmospheric modelling; correlation analysis; dispersion modeling; methyl chlorides; northern hemispheres; potential source regions; tetrachloroethene; mixing, agricultural robots; atmospheric movements; carbon monoxide; dichloromethane; environmental technology; halogenation; incineration; ozone layer; 1Department of Earth Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia; Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; National Centre for Atmospheric Science, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; School of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Semenyih, Malaysia; Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom; Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Stratosphere (IEK-7), Forschungszentrum Jü lich GmbHJ, Jülich, Germany; Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Informe a las naciones: El aire que respiramos: pasado, presente y futuro – Contaminación atmosférica por MP2,5 en el centro y sur de ChileHuneeus,N.;Urquiza,A.;Gayo,E. M.;Osses,M.;Arriagada,R.;Valdés,M.;Álamos,N.;Amigo,C.;Arrieta,D.;Basoa,K.;Billi,M.;Blanco,G.;Boisier,J. P.;Calvo,R.;Casielles,I.;Castro,M.;Chahúan,J.;Christie,D. A.;Cordero,L.;Correa,V.;Cortés,J.;Fleming,Z.;Gajardo,N.;Gallardo,L.;Gómez,L.;Insunza,X.;Iriarte,P.;Labraña,J.;Lambert,F.;Muñoz,A.;Opazo,M.;ORyan,R.;Osses,A.;Plass,M.;Rivas,M.;Salinas,S.;Santander,S.;Seguel,R.;Smith,P.;Tolvett,S.;Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Agua y Extremos; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes2020Los resultados presentados en este informe son parte del trabajo interdisciplinario que realiza el Centro de Ciencia
del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2.
El (CR)2 es un centro de excelencia financiado por el programa FONDAP de CONICYT (Proyecto 15110009) en el cual
participan cerca de 60 científicos asociados a la Universidad de Chile, la Universidad de Concepción y la Universidad
Austral de Chile.
La versión electrónica de este documento está disponible en el sitio web www.cr2.cl/incendios
https://www.cr2.cl/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Informe_Contaminacion_Espanol_2020.pdf102Not Indexed
Sedimentation rate of settleable particulate matter in Santiago city, ChileMorales-Casa V.; Barraza F.; Collante E.; Ginocchio R.; Jorquera H.; Lambert F.; Ospina E.; Sáez-Navarrete C.; Varas J.Ciudades Resilientes202010.1002/tqem.21672Settleable particulate matter (SPM) is an atmospheric pollutant harmful to human health and the environment in high concentrations. Despite this fact, no up-to-date information on SPM levels exists for the capital of Chile, Santiago (7 million inhabitants). To address this knowledge gap, SPM sedimentation rates, including soluble and insoluble components, were measured at three different urban sites from July to November of 2016. We compare the measurements with ambient and meteorological information, as well as urban typology settings. Our results indicate SPM deposition rates between 2.5 and 3.9 g/(m2·30 days). Only one site exceeded the national limit of 4.5 g/(m2·30 days), but we found an increasing trend in all three sites. SPM and its insoluble sedimentation rates increased during warm and dry months and presented significant correlations with meteorological parameters. The highest sedimentation rates were measured at the location with the least permeable surfaces and the lowest green spaces, while the lowest sedimentation rates were found in the sites with abundant green spaces and permeable soil. No significant differences were detected in the soluble components. Our results suggest that SPM levels in Santiago are close to the national limit and may increase with climate change and urban expansion. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Environmental Quality Management10881913https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/tqem.2167217-2529Not Indexedair quality management; atmospheric pollution; settleable particulate matter; urban dust; urban pollution, chile; metropolitana; atmospheric pollution; concentration (composition); particulate matter; sedimentation rate; spatiotemporal analysis; urban siteDepartamento de Ingeniería Química y Bioprocesos, Facultad de Ingeniería, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology & Sustainability (CAPES UC), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; School of Geography, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Colegio Villa María Academy, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ecosistemas y Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Desarrollo Urbano Sustentable (CEDEUS), Santiago, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Facultad de Ingeniería Civil y Ambiental, Quito, Ecuador; Centro UC de Energía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Liceo Carmela Silva Donoso, Ñuñoa, Santiago, Chile
ARCLIM Anexo: Exploración de un Índice de Resiliencia Genérica en  ARClim – Atlas de Riesgo ClimáticoNeira,C.;Rauld,J.;Alamos,N.;Billi,M.;Urquiza,A.;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes2020Not Indexed
Informe de resultados Encuesta Internacional de Cambio Climático 2019Sapiains,R.;Ruette,J.A.;Urquiza,A.;Ugarte,A. M.;Rudnick,A.;Inostroza-Lazo,V.;García,M. E.;Bravo,M. T.;Sánchez,G.;Acevedo,J.;Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2020La Encuesta Internacional de Cambio Climático 2019 fue un esfuerzo conjunto entre StatKnows y el Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia, (CR)2.
El estudio es estadísticamente representativo de la población mayor de 18 años de América Latina a noviembre de 2019,

La encuesta incluyó percepciones sobre los siguientes temas: temas prioritarios para cada país; problemas ambientales que más afectan personalmente; relación entre el cambio climático y aspectos de justicia social; causas del cambio climático; emociones predominantes asociadas al concepto de cambio climático; niveles de preocupación por el cambio climático; capacidad de incidencia; responsabilidad por sus causas y solución; nivel de preparación de cada país para hacer frente al cambio climático; y fuentes de información.
https://www.statknows.com/sk-and-cr2-cclatam-resultsreport30Not Indexed
Results Report International Survey on Climate Change 2019Sapiains,R.;Ruette,J.A.;Urquiza,A.;Ugarte,A. M.;Rudnick,A.;Inostroza-Lazo,V.;García,M. E.;Bravo,M. T.;Sánchez,G.;Acevedo,J.;Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2020The International Survey on Climate Change 2019 was a joint effort between StatKnows and the Center for Climate and Resilience Research, (CR)2.

The study is statistically representative of the population over the age of 18 in Latin America as of November 2019,

The survey included perceptions on the following topics: priority issues for each country; environmental issues that most affect personally; relationship between climate change and aspects of social justice; causes of climate change; predominant emotions associated with the concept of climate change; levels of concern about climate change; advocacy capacity; responsibility for its causes and solution; level of preparation of each country to deal with climate change; and information sources.
https://www.statknows.com/sk-and-cr2-cclatam-resultsreport30Not Indexed
Seguridad hídrica y energética en América Latina y el Caribe: definición y aproximación territorial para el análisis de brechas y riesgos de la poblaciónUrquiza,A.;Billi,M.;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes2020La crisis sanitaria provocada por la propagación del COVID-19 se superpone a otros complejos desafíos
ya existentes en América Latina y el Caribe, como poner fin a la pobreza en sus múltiples formas o
la necesidad de adoptar medidas urgentes para combatir el cambio climático y sus efectos. En este
contexto es crucial distinguir cómo estas problemáticas tensionan el funcionamiento de servicios
fundamentales para la salud y el desarrollo humano, como lo son los servicios hídricos y energéticos
en la región. Al respecto, en este informe se abordan al menos tres dimensiones del problema, tal
como se explica a continuación.
https://www.cepal.org/es/publicaciones/46408-seguridad-hidrica-energetica-america-latina-caribe-definicion-aproximacion133Not Indexed
Informe Proyecto ARClim: Asentamientos Humanos. Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia , Red de Pobreza Energética, Iniciativa ENEAS: Energía, Agua y Sustentabilidad y Núcleo de Estudios Sistémicos TransdisciplinariosUrquiza,A.;Billi,M.;Calvo,R.;Amigo,C.;Navea,J.;Monsalve,T.;Álamos,N.;Neira,C.;Rauld,J.;Allendes,Á;Arrieta,D.;Barrera,V.;Basoalto,J.;Cárdenas,M.;Contreras,M.;Fleischmann,M.;Horta,D.;Labraña,J.;Larragubel,C.;Muñoz,A.;Oyarzún,T.;Palacios,G.;Peña,D.;Plass,M.;Prieto,N.;Salinas,S.;Smith,P.;Vargas,J.;Videla,M.;Winckler,P.;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes2020Not Indexed
RedPE (2020). Caracterización del mercado de la leña en Chile y sus barreras para la transición energéticaÁlamos,N.;Amigo,C.;Calvo,R.;Chahúan,J.;Correa,V.;Cortés,J.;Labraña,J.;Urquiza,A.;Ciudades Resilientes2020En Chile más de la mitad de sus habitantes están expuestos a concentraciones de material
particulado fino (MP2,5)1
por sobre los límites recomendados por la Organización Mundial
de la Salud, llegando a la situación que nueve de las quince ciudades más contaminadas
por MP2,5 de América Latina están en el centro y sur del país (IQ Air, 2018). Considerando
este antecedente, el Estado ha actuado generando políticas públicas orientadas a proteger
la salud de la población, fortaleciendo y revisando la normativa ambiental actual y vigilando
la implementación y desarrollo de Planes de Prevención y Descontaminación Atmosférica
(PPDA). En este contexto, se ha prestado atención a la principal fuente emisora causante de
la contaminación atmosférica en la zona centro sur del país: el consumo de leña residencial
http://redesvid.uchile.cl/pobreza-energetica/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/VF.07-dic.Mercado-de-la-len%CC%83a.pdfNot Indexed
Elemental and Mineralogical Composition of the Western Andean Snow (18°S–41°S)Alfonso J.A.; Cordero R.R.; Rowe P.M.; Neshyba S.; Casassa G.; Carrasco J.; MacDonell S.; Lambert F.; Pizarro J.; Fernandoy F.; Feron S.; Damiani A.; Llanillo P.; Sepulveda E.; Jorquera J.; Garcia B.; Carrera J.M.; Oyola P.; Kang C.-M.Ciudades Resilientes201910.1038/s41598-019-44516-5The snowpack is an important source of water for many Andean communities. Because of its importance, elemental and mineralogical composition analysis of the Andean snow is a worthwhile effort. In this study, we conducted a chemical composition analysis (major and trace elements, mineralogy, and chemical enrichment) of surface snow sampled at 21 sites across a transect of about 2,500 km in the Chilean Andes (18–41°S). Our results enabled us to identify five depositional environments: (i) sites 1–3 (in the Atacama Desert, 18–26°S) with relatively high concentrations of metals, high abundance of quartz and low presence of arsenates, (ii) sites 4–8 (in northern Chile, 29–32°S) with relatively high abundance of quartz and low presence of metals and arsenates, (iii) sites 9–12 (in central Chile, 33–35°S) with anthropogenic enrichment of metals, relatively high values of quartz and low abundance of arsenates, (iv) sites 13–14 (also in central Chile, 35–37°S) with relatively high values of quartz and low presence of metals and arsenates, and v) sites 15–21 (in southern Chile, 37–41°S) with relatively high abundance of arsenates and low presence of metals and quartz. We found significant anthropogenic enrichment at sites close to Santiago (a major city of 6 million inhabitants) and in the Atacama Desert (that hosts several major copper mines). © 2019, The Author(s).Scientific Reports20452322http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-44516-5art81309Thomson Reuters SCIEUniversidad de Santiago, Av. B. O’Higgins, Santiago, 3363, Chile; Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Apartado 20632, Caracas, 20632, Venezuela; NorthWest Research Associates, Redmond, United States; Department of Chemistry, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, United States; Unidad de Glaciología y Nieves, Ministerio de Obras Públicas, Santiago, Chile; Centro GAIA Antártica, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), La Serena, Chile; Department of Physical Geography, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Universidad Nacional Andrés Bello, Viña del Mar, Chile; School of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, United States; Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan; Centro Mario Molina, Antonio Bellet 292, Santiago, Chile; Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH), Boston, MA, United States
Dietary diverstiy in the Atacama desert during the Late intermediate period of northern ChileAlfonso-Durruty M.P.; Gayo E.M.; Standen V.; Castro V.; Latorre C.; Santoro C.M.; Valenzuela D.Ciudades Resilientes201910.1016/j.quascirev.2019.04.022The Pacific Ocean that flanks the hyperarid Atacama Desert of Northern Chile is one of the richest biomass producers around the world. Thus, it is considered a key factor for the subsistence of prehistoric societies (including mixed-economy groups), that inhabited its coastal ecosystems as well as the neighboring inland areas. This study assesses the Arica Culture groups' diet (Late Intermediate Period; 1000–1530 CE), through stable isotope (on bone-collagen; δ13C and δ15N)and dental pathology data. Seventy-seven (n = 77)individuals from two inland (LLU54 and AZ8)and one coastal (CAM8)archaeological sites were studied. Results show an important, but lower than predicted by earlier studies, contribution of marine resources in the diet of all three groups. Dental pathologies and stable isotopes indicate that these groups' diet varied in correlation with their distance to the Pacific Ocean as well as group and individual preferences. The results challenge the idea that Arica Culture groups depended heavily on marine resources for their subsistence. In contrast, this study shows both that the Arica Culture groups’ diet was diverse, and that the terrestrial resources consumed were mostly contributed by C3/CAM plants instead of maize. © 2019 Elsevier LtdQuaternary Science Reviews02773791https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S027737911930035654-67214Thomson Reuters SCIEatacama desert; chile; pacific ocean; zea mays; ecosystems; isotopes; landforms; marine biology; natural resources; pathology; archaeological site; atacama desert; coastal ecosystems; individual preference; intermediate periods; marine resources; stable isotopes; terrestrial resources; archaeology; biomass; marine resource; pathology; prehistoric; stable isotope; oceanography, atacama desert; dental pathologies; late intermediate period; stable isotopesSociology, Anthropology and Social Work Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, United States; Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción & Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Concepción, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad Alberto Hurtado, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ecología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile
The Anthropocene in ChileBauer,Catalina;Correa,Catalina;Gallardo,Laura;González,Gabriel;Guridi,Román;Latorre,Claudio;Navarrete,Sergio;Pommier,Eric;Riffo,Sebastián;Saavedra,Bárbara;Simonetti,Christián;Tironi,Manuel;Ciudades Resilientes201910.1215/22011919-7754578[No abstract available]Environmental Humanities22011919https://read.dukeupress.edu/environmental-humanities/article/11/2/467/140786/The-Anthropocene-in-ChileToward-a-New-Pact-of467-47611Thomson Reuters ESCI
A statistical physics approach to perform fast highly-resolved air quality simulations – A new step towards the meta-modelling of chemistry transport modelsBessagnet B.; Couvidat F.; Lemaire V.Ciudades Resilientes201910.1016/j.envsoft.2019.02.017A methodology rested on model-based machine learning using simple linear regressions and the parameterizations of the main physics and chemistry processes has been developed to perform highly-resolved air quality simulations. The training of the methodology is (i) completed over a 6-month period using the outputs of the chemical transport model CHIMERE, and (ii) then applied over the subsequent 6 months. Despite rough assumptions, this new methodology performs as well as the raw CHIMERE simulation for daily mean concentrations of the main criteria air pollutants (NO2, Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5) with correlations ranging from 0.75 to 0.83 for the particulate matter and up to 0.86 for the maximum ozone concentrations. Some improvements are investigated to expand this methodology to several other uses, but at this stage the method can be used for air quality forecasting, analysis of pollution episodes and mapping. This study also confirms that including a minimum set of selected physical parameterizations brings a high added value on machine learning processes. © 2019Environmental Modelling and Software13648152https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S136481521830896X100-109116Thomson Reuters SCIEair quality; linear regression; machine learning; optical resolving power; ozone; statistics; air quality forecasting; air quality modelling; chemical transport models; chemistry transport model; criteria air pollutants; increment; meta model; simple linear regression; air quality; atmospheric modeling; atmospheric pollution; machine learning; methodology; ozone; particulate matter; regression analysis; simulation; statistical analysis; statistical physics, air quality modelling; increment; linear regression; metamodel; resolution; statisticsNational Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks, Parc Technologique ALATA, Verneuil-en-Halatte, 60550, France; Hangzhou Futuris Environmental Technology Co. Ltd, Zhejiang Overseas High-Level Talent Innovation Park, No. 998 WenYi Road, Hangzhou, 311121, Zhejiang, China; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Departamento de Geofísica, U. de Chile Blanco Encalada, Santiago, 2002, Chile
What is the ‘Social’ in Climate Change Research? A Case Study on Scientific Representations from ChileBilli M.; Blanco G.; Urquiza A.Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política201910.1007/s11024-019-09369-2Over the last few decades climate change has been gaining importance in international scientific and political debates. However, the social sciences, especially in Latin America, have only lately become interested in the subject and their approach is still vague. Scientific understanding of global environmental change and the process of designing public policies to face them are characterized by their complexity as well as by epistemic and normative uncertainties. This makes it necessary to problematize the way in which research efforts understand ‘the social’ of climate change. How do ‘the climate’ and ‘the social’ interpenetrate as scientific objects? What does the resulting field look like? Is the combination capable of promoting reflexivity and collaboration on the issue, or does it merely become dispersed with diffuse boundaries? Our paper seeks to answer these and other related questions using Chile as a case study and examining peer-reviewed scientific research on the topic. By combining in-depth qualitative content analysis of each paper with a statistical meta-analysis, we were able to: characterize the key content and forms of such literature; identify divisions and patterns within it; and, discuss some factors and trends that may help explain these. We conclude that the literature displays two competing trends: while it is inclined to become fragmented beyond the scope of the ‘mitigation’ black box, it also tends to cluster along the lines of methodological distinctions traditionally contested within the social sciences. This, in turn, highlights the persistence of disciplinary divisions within an allegedly interdisciplinary field. © 2019, The Author(s).Minerva00264695http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11024-019-09369-2293-31557Thomson Reuters SSCInan, chile; climate change; literature meta-analysis; scientific black boxes; scientific representations; social dimensionsCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Av. Blanco Encalada 2002, piso 4, Santiago de Chile, Chile; Escuela de Gobierno y Centro de Estudios Modelos de Crisis, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago de Chile, Chile; Centro de Investigación en Dinámica de Ecosistemas Marinos de Altas Latitudes, Universidad Austral de Chile, Campus Isla Teja, Casilla 567, Valdivia, Chile; Instituto de Historia y Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Campus Isla Teja, Casilla 567, Valdivia, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Chile, Av. Capitán Ignacio Carrera Pinto 1045, Ñuñoa, Santiago de Chile, Chile
Dynamical downscaling over the complex terrain of southwest South America: present climate conditions and added value analysisBozkurt D.; Rojas M.; Boisier J.P.; Rondanelli R.; Garreaud R.; Gallardo L.Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Zonas Costeras; Agua y Extremos201910.1007/s00382-019-04959-yThis study evaluates hindcast simulations performed with a regional climate model (RCM, RegCM4) driven by reanalysis data (ERA-Interim) over the Pacific coast and Andes Cordillera of extratropical South America. A nested domain configuration at 0. 44 ∘ (∼ 50 km) and 0. 09 ∘ (∼ 10 km) spatial resolutions is used for the simulations. RegCM4 is also driven by a global climate model (GCM, MPI-ESM-MR) on the same domain configuration to asses the added values for temperature and precipitation (historical simulations). Overall, both 10 km hindcast and historical simulation results are promising and exhibit a better representation of near-surface air temperature and precipitation variability compared to the 50 km simulations. High-resolution simulations suppress an overestimation of precipitation over the Andes Cordillera of northern Chile found with the 50 km simulations. The simulated daily temperature and precipitation extreme indices from 10 km hindcast simulation show a closer estimation of the observed fields. A persistent warm bias (∼+4∘C) over the Atacama Desert in 10 km hindcast simulation reveals the complexity in representing land surface and radiative processes over the desert. Difficulties in capturing the temperature trend in northern Chile are notable for both hindcast simulations. Both resolutions exhibit added values for temperature and precipitation over large parts of Chile, in particular, the 10 km resolves the coastal-valley Andes transitions over central Chile. Our results highlight that resolutions coarser than 50 km (e.g., GCMs and reanalysis) miss important climate gradients imposed by complex topography. Given that the highest spatial resolution of the current regional simulations over the South America is about 50 km, higher resolutions are important to improve our understanding of the dynamical processes that determine climate over complex terrain and extreme environments. © 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.Climate Dynamics09307575http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00382-019-04959-y6745-676753Thomson Reuters SCIEatacama desert; chile; climate variability; model evaluation; patagonia; temporal-spatial scale analysis, andes; atacama desert; chile; patagonia; equus asinus; climate conditions; climate modeling; climate variation; complex terrain; downscaling; regional climate; spatial analysis; temporal analysisCenter for Climate and Resilience Research, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Geophysics, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
Geohistorical records of the Anthropocene in ChileGayo E.M.; McRostie V.B.; Campbell R.; Flores C.; Maldonado A.; Uribe-Rodriguez M.; Moreno P.I.; Santoro C.M.; Christie D.A.; Muñoz A.A.; Gallardo L.Agua y Extremos; Ciudades Resilientes201910.1525/elementa.353The deep-time dynamics of coupled socio-ecological systems at different spatial scales is viewed as a key framework to understand trends and mechanisms that have led to the Anthropocene. By integrating archeological and paleoenvironmental records, we test the hypothesis that Chilean societies progressively escalated their capacity to shape national biophysical systems as socio-cultural complexity and pressures on natural resources increased over the last three millennia. We demonstrate that Pre-Columbian societies intentionally transformed Chile’s northern and central regions by continuously adjusting socio-cultural practices and/or incorporating technologies that guaranteed resource access and social wealth. The fact that past human activities led to cumulative impacts on diverse biophysical processes, not only contradicts the notion of pristine pre-Industrial Revolution landscapes, but suggests that the Anthropocene derives from long-term processes that have operated uninterruptedly since Pre-Columbian times. Moreover, our synthesis suggests that most of present-day symptoms that describe the Anthropocene are rooted in pre-Columbian processes that scaled up in intensity over the last 3000 years, accelerating after the Spanish colonization and, more intensely, in recent decades. The most striking trend is the observed coevolution between the intensity of metallurgy and heavy-metal anthropogenic emissions. This entails that the Anthropocene cannot be viewed as a universal imprint of human actions that has arisen as an exclusive consequence of modern industrial societies. In the Chilean case, this phenomenon is intrinsically tied to historically and geographically diverse configurations in society-environment feedback relationships. Taken collectively with other case studies, the patterns revealed here could contribute to the discussion about how the Anthropocene is defined globally, in terms of chronology, stratigraphic markers and attributes. Furthermore, this deep-time narrative can potentially become a science-based instrument to shape better-informed discourses about the socio-environmental history in Chile. More importantly, however, this research provides crucial “baselines” to delineate safe operating spaces for future socio-ecological systems. © 2019 University of California Press. All rights reserved.Elementa23251026https://www.elementascience.org/article/10.1525/elementa.353/art157Thomson Reuters SCIEanthropogenic landscapes; archeological records; historical ecology; niche construction; paleoenvironmental records; socio-ecological systems, anthropocene; anthropogenic source; archaeology; biophysics; coevolution; colonization; complexity; heavy metal; historical record; landscape; metallurgy; paleoenvironment; social changeCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2, FONDAP, 15110009), Chile; Laboratory for Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry, Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Chile; Programa de Antropología, Instituto de Sociología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), La Serena, Chile; Instituto de Investigación Multidisciplinario en Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad de La Serena, La Serena, Chile; Departamento de Biología Marina, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile; Instituto de Conservación Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Institute of Geography, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaiso, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Spiky fluctuations and scaling in high-resolution EPICA ice core dust fluxesLovejoy S.; Lambert F.Ciudades Resilientes201910.5194/cp-15-1999-2019Atmospheric variability as a function of scale has been divided in various dynamical regimes with alternating increasing and decreasing fluctuations: weather, macroweather, climate, macroclimate, and megaclimate. Although a vast amount of data are available at small scales, the larger picture is not well constrained due to the scarcity and low resolution of long paleoclimatic time series. Using statistical techniques originally developed for the study of turbulence, we analyse the fluctuations of a centimetricresolution dust flux time series from the EPICA Dome C ice core in Antarctica that spans the past 800 000 years. The temporal resolution ranges from annual at the top of the core to 25 years at the bottom, enabling the detailed statistical analysis and comparison of eight glaciation cycles and the subdivision of each cycle into eight consecutive phases. The unique span and resolution of the dataset allows us to analyse the macroweather and climate scales in detail. We find that the interglacial and glacial maximum phases of each cycle showed particularly large macroweather to climate transition scale τc (around 2 kyr), whereas midglacial phases feature centennial transition scales (average of 300 years). This suggests that interglacials and glacial maxima are exceptionally stable when compared with the rest of a glacial cycle. The Holocene (with τc ≈ 7:9 kyr) had a particularly large τc, but it was not an outlier when compared with the phases 1 and 2 of other cycles. We hypothesize that dust variability at larger (climate) scales appears to be predominantly driven by slow changes in glaciers and vegetation cover, whereas at small (macroweather) scales atmospheric processes and changes in the hydrological cycles are the main drivers. For each phase, we quantified the drift, intermittency, amplitude, and extremeness of the variability. Phases close to the interglacials (1, 2, 8) show low drift, moderate intermittency, and strong extremes, while the "glacial" middle phases 3-7 display strong drift, weak intermittency, and weaker extremes. In other words, our results suggest that glacial maxima, interglacials, and glacial inceptions were characterized by relatively stable atmospheric conditions but punctuated by frequent and severe droughts, whereas the mid-glacial climate was inherently more unstable. © 2019 Royal Society of Chemistry. All rights reserved.Climate of the Past18149324https://www.clim-past.net/15/1999/2019/1999-201715Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, antarctica; dome concordia; east antarctica; dust; extreme event; flux measurement; glaciation; hydrological cycle; ice core; interglacial; last glacial maximum; paleoclimate; resolution; scale effect; time series analysisPhysics Department, McGill University, 3600 University St., Montréal, H3A 2T8, QC, Canada; Department of Physical Geography, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago, Chile; Millennium Nucleus Paleoclimate, Santiago, Chile
Integrating socio-ecological dynamics into land use policy outcomes: A spatial scenario approach for native forest conservation in south-central ChileManuschevich D.; Sarricolea P.; Galleguillos M.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes; Agua y Extremos201910.1016/j.landusepol.2019.01.042Chile is one of the first documented nations to undergo a forest transition dominated by tree farm expansion. Scenario modelling can inform the possible outcomes of forest conservation policies, especially when the scenarios are rooted in the political dynamics that shaped the current legislation. In Chile, tree farms of non-native Radiata Pine and Eucalyptus provide a fast return on investment. Today, fast-growing plantations compete for land area with forest conservation, putting the unique bundle of ecosystem services provided by the latter at risk. Based on a previous political analysis, we propose scenarios projected to 2030 to compare a business-as-usual scenario with A) a conservation scenario based on strict land use restrictions B) an optimistic conservation scenario; C) an unrestricted industrial land use scenario; and D) a restricted industrial land use scenario. The scenarios differ in terms of the implemented policy instruments and the land area required for each land use. We compared these scenarios in terms of carbon stock, control of erosion and wood production, all of which are relevant in the current Chilean political debate. A conservation scenario (A), that combines incentives and restrictions, would imply the largest increase in native forest and regulation services, namely carbon stock and erosion control. In contrast, an unrestricted industrial land use scenario (C) leads to the worst outcomes in terms of erosion compared to a business-as-usual scenario. This study seeks to link political and economic processes underpinning land use change to environmental outcomes, while contributing to the larger discussion on forest policy, forest transitions and environmental outcomes. © 2019Land Use Policy02648377https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S026483771830751831-4284Thomson Reuters SSCIchile; eucalyptus; radiata; conservation planning; ecosystem service; forest management; forestry policy; land use planning; nature conservation; policy implementation; policy making; spatial analysis, dyna-clue; forest transitions; invest; socio-ecological; tree farmsEscuela de Geografía, Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Condell 343. Edificio A, quinto piso. Providencia, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, University of Chile, Av. Portugal 84, Región Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile; Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Chile, Av. Santa Rosa N° 11315. La Pintana, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate Resilience Research (CR2), University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
The complex definition of the socioenvironmental problem: Rationalities and controversies; [La compleja definición del problema socioambiental: Racionalidades y controversias]Morales B.; Aliste E.; Neira C.I.; Urquiza A.Ciudades Resilientes201910.5354/0719-0527.2019.54834Drawing from a qualitative approach, this article addresses some of the elements that allow thematizing the socioenvironmental problem from its own complexity, and considering the point of view of different actors, which are part of this discussion in the Chilean context, and giving special emphasis on the controversies generated around the terms "development" and "sustainability." First, we address the elements - theoretical and empirical - that allow thematizing the complexity of the socioenvironmental problem. Second, we discuss a number of definitions given to "development" and their link to the origins of the problem. Third, we present options proposed by actors to move towards sustainability. The article concludes with reflections oriented to multiple perspectives about this issue. © 2019 Universidad de Chile. All rights reserved.Revista Mad07180527https://doi.org/10.5354/0719-0527.2019.5483443-5140Thomson Reuters ESCInan, chile; complexity; development; socio-environmental problems; sustainabilityCentro del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR2), Universidad de Chile, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Núcleo de Sistemas Territoriales Complejos, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Chile, Chile
Multidecadal environmental pollution in a mega-industrial area in central Chile registered by tree ringsMuñoz A.A.; Klock-Barría K.; Sheppard P.R.; Aguilera-Betti I.; Toledo-Guerrero I.; Christie D.A.; Gorena T.; Gallardo L.; González-Reyes Á.; Lara A.; Lambert F.; Gayo E.; Barraza F.; Chávez R.O.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes; Agua y Extremos201910.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133915One of the most polluted areas in Chile is the Ventanas Industrial Area (VIA; 32.74°S / 71.48°W), which started in 1958 and today comprises around 16 industries in an area of ca. 4 km2. A lack of consistent long-term instrumental records precludes assessing the history of contamination in the area and also limits the evaluation of mitigation actions taken since the late 1980s. Here, we use dendrochemistry as an environmental proxy to analyze environmental changes over several decades at the VIA. We present chemical measurements of tree rings from planted, exotic Cupressus macrocarpa growing near the VIA with 4-year resolution over a period of 52 years (1960–2011). These data provide unprecedented information on regional anthropogenic pollution and are compared with a tree-ring elemental record of 48 years (1964–2011) from the Isla Negra (INE) control site not exposed to VIA emissions. For the 48 years of overlap between both sites, higher concentrations of Zn, V, Co, Cd, Ag, Fe, Cr, and Al were especially registered after the year 2000 at VIA compared to INE for the periods under study. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, As, Fe, Mo, Cr, and Zn increased through time, particularly over the period 1980–1990. Decontamination plans activated in 1992 appear to have had a positive effect on the amount of some elements, but the chemical concentration in the tree rings suggest continued accumulation of pollutants in the environment. Only after several years of implementation of the mitigation measures have some elements tended to decrease in concentration, especially at the end of the evaluated period. Dendrochemistry is a useful tool to provide a long-term perspective of the dynamics of trace metal pollution and represents a powerful approach to monitor air quality variability to extend the instrumental records back in time. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.Science of the Total Environment00489697https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969719338653art133915696Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; environmental monitoring; environmental pollution; industry; trees; chile; cupressus macrocarpa; air quality; aluminum alloys; pollution control; trace elements; trees (mathematics); aluminum; arsenic; cadmium; chromium; cobalt; copper; iron; lead; molybdenum; silver; trace metal; vanadium; zinc; baseline; dendrochemistry; industrial pollution; macrocarpa; trace metal; anthropogenic source; concentration (composition); decadal variation; dendrochronology; environmental change; soil pollution; soil quality; trace metal; tree ring; air monitoring; air pollution; air quality; article; biochemistry; chemical composition; chile; comparative study; controlled study; cupressus; cupressus macrocarpa; dendrochemistry; environmental impact; geographic distribution; human activities; industrial area; plant structures; priority journal; temporal analysis; tree ring; chemistry; environmental monitoring; industry; pollution; procedures; tree; forestry, baseline; cupressus macrocarpa; dendrochemistry; industrial pollution; trace metalsLaboratorio de Dendrocronología y Estudios Ambientales, Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Brasil 2241, Valparaíso, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, United States; Centro Transdisciplinario de Estudios Ambientales y Desarrollo Humano Sostenible (CEAM), Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Cambio Global, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Centro de Tecnologías Ambientales, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Laboratorio de Geo-Información y Percepción Remota, Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile; Fundación Centro de los Bosques Nativos FORECOS, Valdivia, Chile; Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Hémera Centro de Observación de la Tierra, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Mayor, Chile
Rare calcium chloride-rich soil and implications for the existence of liquid water in a hyperarid environmentPfeiffer M.; Latorre C.; Gayo E.; Amundson R.Ciudades Resilientes201910.1130/G45642.1 We discovered permanently hydrated CaCl 2 -rich soils in Earth's driest region, the Atacama Desert. The soils contain up to ~15% CaCl 2 . X-ray diffraction indicates the rare minerals sinjarite, schoenite, and tachyhydrite. When water is added, the CaCl 2 crust immediately turns white due to an apparent mineralogical phase change from sinjarite to a brine. The surfaces are nearly continuously wet due to the salt's hygroscopicity. The Ca-enriched soils occur in rare exposures, possibly from shallow groundwater. Unlike the surface of adjacent abundant halite crusts, the CaCl 2 outcrops remain continuously wet, with up to 12% water under modern, and essentially rainless, climatic conditions. The wet surface stabilizes the land surface and acts as a dust trap. The sediment began accumulating at ca. 14 ka, contains trace quantities of organic carbon, and has total nitrogen that isotopically reflects significant biologically mediated gaseous losses. These deliquescent salts are unique habitats for life within the climatic limits of life on Earth, and are a potential analog for transient liquidwater sources for microorganisms in Martian soils. © 2019 Geological Society of America.Geology00917613https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article/47/2/163/568106/Rare-calcium-chloriderich-soil-and-implications163-16647Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, atacama desert; chile; calcium chloride; groundwater; organic carbon; sodium chloride; atacama desert; climatic conditions; land surface; liquid water; martian soils; shallow groundwater; total nitrogen; wet surfaces; arid environment; climate conditions; mineral; mineralogy; soil water; soilsDepartment of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, 94720, CA, United States; Departamento de Ingeniería y Suelos, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Santa Rosa, La Pintana, 11315, Chile; Departamento de Ecología and Centro UC Desierto de Atacama, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Oceanografía, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2, Av. Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, Chile
Emergence of robust precipitation changes across crop production areas in the 21st centuryRojas M.; Lambert F.; Ramirez-Villegas J.; Challinor A.J.Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política201910.1073/pnas.1811463116A warming climate will affect regional precipitation and hence food supply. However, only a few regions around the world are currently undergoing precipitation changes that can be attributed to climate change. Knowing when such changes are projected to emerge outside natural variability—the time of emergence (TOE)—is critical for taking effective adaptation measures. Using ensemble climate projections, we determine the TOE of regional precipitation changes globally and in particular for the growing areas of four major crops. We find relatively early (<2040) emergence of precipitation trends for all four crops. Reduced (increased) precipitation trends encompass 1–14% (3–31%) of global production of maize, wheat, rice, and soybean. Comparing results for RCP8.5 and RCP2.6 clearly shows that emissions compatible with the Paris Agreement result in far less cropped land experiencing novel climates. However, the existence of a TOE, even under the lowest emission scenario, and a small probability for early emergence emphasize the urgent need for adaptation measures. We also show how both the urgency of adaptation and the extent of mitigation vary geographically. © 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All Rights Reserved.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America00278424http://www.pnas.org/lookup/doi/10.1073/pnas.18114631166673-6678116Thomson Reuters SCIEadaptation, development and aging, biological; article; climate change; crop production; france; maize; nonhuman; precipitation; probability; rice; soybean; wheat; adaptation; biological model; crop; growth, physiological; climate change; crop production; crops, agriculture; climate change; cmip5; natural variability; precipitation, agricultural; modelsDepartment of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, CR2, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Department of Physical Geography, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom; CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security, CIAT, Cali, 763537, Colombia; International Center for Tropical Agriculture, CIAT, Cali, 763537, Colombia
Black carbon and other light-absorbing impurities in snow in the Chilean AndesRowe P.M.; Cordero R.R.; Warren S.G.; Stewart E.; Doherty S.J.; Pankow A.; Schrempf M.; Casassa G.; Carrasco J.; Pizarro J.; MacDonell S.; Damiani A.; Lambert F.; Rondanelli R.; Huneeus N.; Fernandoy F.; Neshyba S.Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes201910.1038/s41598-019-39312-0 Vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) and other light-absorbing impurities were measured in seasonal snow and permanent snowfields in the Chilean Andes during Austral winters 2015 and 2016, at 22 sites between latitudes 18°S and 41°S. The samples were analyzed for spectrally-resolved visible light absorption. For surface snow, the average mass mixing ratio of BC was 15 ng/g in northern Chile (18–33°S), 28 ng/g near Santiago (a major city near latitude 33°S, where urban pollution plays a significant role), and 13 ng/g in southern Chile (33–41°S). The regional average vertically-integrated loading of BC was 207 µg/m 2 in the north, 780 µg/m 2 near Santiago, and 2500 µg/m 2 in the south, where the snow season was longer and the snow was deeper. For samples collected at locations where there had been no new snowfall for a week or more, the BC concentration in surface snow was high (~10–100 ng/g) and the sub-surface snow was comparatively clean, indicating the dominance of dry deposition of BC. Mean albedo reductions due to light-absorbing impurities were 0.0150, 0.0160, and 0.0077 for snow grain radii of 100 µm for northern Chile, the region near Santiago, and southern Chile; respective mean radiative forcings for the winter months were 2.8, 1.4, and 0.6 W/m 2 . In northern Chile, our measurements indicate that light-absorption by impurities in snow was dominated by dust rather than BC. © 2019, The Author(s).Scientific Reports20452322http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-39312-0art40089Thomson Reuters SCIEUniversidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, Chile; NorthWest Research Associates, Redmond, WA, United States; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States; University of Puget Sound, Department of Chemistry, Tacoma, WA, United States; Joint Institute for the Study of Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States; Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institute of Meteorology and Climatology, Hannover, Germany; Unidad de Glaciología y Nieves, Dirección General de Aguas (DGA), Ministerio de Obras Públicas (MOP), Santiago, Chile; Centro de Investigación GAIA Antártica, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), La Serena, Chile; Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan; Department of Physical Geography, Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research CR2, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Laboratorio de Análisis Isotópico, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Andrés Bello, Viña del Mar, Chile
Glacier decline in the Central Andes (33°S): Context and magnitude from satellite and historical dataRuiz Pereira S.F.; Veettil B.K.Ciudades Resilientes201910.1016/j.jsames.2019.102249Central Andes (33°S) represent a water-scarce region. During arid years, glacier runoff may constitute the main hydrological input at warm season and hence a steadfast deglacierization may represent a decrease in the regional water-budget. Ice-retreat enables landscape transitions from proglacial towards a paraglacial environment, allowing the formation of newly formed cryogenic deposits. Ice-surface changes in the Central Andes (33°S), including the high-mountain areas from Aconcagua, Mendoza and Maipo basins (Argentina and Chile), were studied using digitalized maps, aerial photographs, Landsat (1–8) and Sentinel-2A data for the period between 1956 and 2015. Band ratio and Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) methods were tested using Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2A data for comparison. Geomorphological changes were assessed at Monos de Agua catchment (2750–4000 m a.s.l.) in the Aconcagua basin (Chile) as a regionally representative landscape transition case. Regional glacier shrinkage of 46 ± 5% between 1956 and 2016 was observed for the Central Andean sub-basins in both Argentina and Chile at 33°S. Overall, 107.1 ± 5 km2 of newly exposed surfaces are subject to permafrost conditions. Such insights raise concern in terms of current and future environmental assessments for newly formed cryospheric elements in water scarce regions. © 2019 Elsevier LtdJournal of South American Earth Sciences08959811https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0895981119301026art10224994Thomson Reuters SCIEcentral andes; deglacierization; historical maps; mountain cryosphere; sentinel-2, andes; cryosphere; deglaciation; geological mapping; glacier; mountain region; satellite data; sentinelInstituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam; Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
From the Pacific to the tropical forests: Networks of social interaction in the Atacama Desert, late in the PleistoceneSantoro C.M.; Gayo E.M.; Capriles J.M.; Rivadeneira M.M.; Herrera K.A.; Mandakovic V.; Rallo M.; Rech J.A.; Cases B.; Briones L.; Olguín L.; Valenzuela D.; Borrero L.A.; Ugalde P.C.; Rothhammer F.; Latorre C.; Szpak P.Ciudades Resilientes201910.4067/S0717-73562019005000602The social groups that initially inhabited the hyper arid core of the Atacama Desert of northern Chile during the late Pleistocene integrated a wide range of local, regional and supra regional goods and ideas for their social reproduction as suggested by the archaeological evidence contained in several open camps in Pampa del Tamarugal (PdT). Local resources for maintaining their every-day life, included stone raw material, wood, plant and animal fibers, game, and fresh water acquired within a radius of -30 km (ca. 1-2 days journey). At a regional scale, some goods were introduced from the Pacific coast (60-80 km to the west, ca. 3-4 days journey), including elongated rounded cobbles used as hammer stones in lithic production, and shells, especially from non-edible species of mollusks. From the Andes (ranging 80-150 km to the east, ca. 5-8 days of journey), they obtained camelid fiber, obsidian and a high-quality chalcedony, in addition to sharing knowledge on projectile point designs (Patapatane and Tuina type forms). Pieces of wood of a tropical forest tree species (Ceiba spp.) from the east Andean lowlands (600 km away, ca. 30 days of journey) were also brought to the PdT. While local goods were procured by the circulation of people within the PdT, the small number of foreign items would have been acquired through some sort of exchange networks that integrated dispersed local communities throughout several ecosystems. These networks may have been a key factor behind the success exhibited by these early hunter-gatherers in the hyper arid ecosystems of the Atacama Desert at the end of the Pleistocene. Different lines of archaeological evidence including open camps, workshop-quarries, lithic artifacts, archaeofaunal remains, plant and animal fibers and textiles, archaeobotanical remains, and paleoecological data show that people of the PdT managed a wide range of cultural items from the Pacific coast, the Andean highland and the tropical forest, that were integrated with resources gathered locally within the socio-cultural systems established by the end of the Pleistocene. These results are interpreted as material expressions of multi-scalar networking for resource management and other social material and immaterial requirements, which in other words, means that these people were actively connected to regional (coastal and highland), and supra-regional (trans-Andean) exchange networks from and out of the PdT. © 2019, Universidad de Tarapaca.; Los grupos sociales que inicialmente habitaban el núcleo hiperárido del Desierto de Atacama en el norte de Chile durante el Pleistoceno tardío integraron una amplia gama de bienes e ideas, locales, regionales y supra regionales, para su reproducción social, como lo sugieren las evidencias arqueológicas materiales recuperadas en varios campamentos al aire libre en Pampa del Tamarugal (PdT). Los recursos locales para mantener su vida diaria, incluían materias primas líticas, fibras de plantas y animales, presas de caza y agua dulce adquiridos en un radio de ~30 km (ca. 1-2 días de viaje). A escala regional, se introdujeron algunos elementos desde la costa del Pacífico (60-80 km hacia el oeste, ca. 3 a 4 días de viaje), incluidos rodados redondeados alargados, utilizados como percutores en la producción lítica y conchas, especialmente de especies no comestibles de moluscos. Desde los Andes (80-150 km al este, ca. 5-8 días de viaje), obtuvieron fibra de camélido, obsidiana y una calcedonia de alta calidad, además de compartir conocimientos sobre diseños de puntas de proyectil (tipo Patapatane y Tuina). También se llevaron a la PdT trozos de madera de una especie de árbol de los bosques tropicales (Ceiba spp.) de las tierras bajas al este de los Andes (600 km de distancia, ca. 30 días de viaje). Mientras que los bienes locales fueron adquiridos por la circulación de personas dentro de la PdT, el pequeño número de artículos foráneos se adquirieron a través de redes de intercambio que integraron comunidades locales dispersas en varios ecosistemas; lo que debió ser un factor clave detrás del éxito demostrado por estos primeros cazadores-recolectores en los ecosistemas hiperáridos del Desierto de Atacama hacia el final del Pleistoceno. Diferentes líneas de evidencia arqueológica que incluyen campamentos al aire libre, talleres, canteras, artefactos líticos, restos arqueofaunales, fibras y textiles de plantas y animales, restos arqueobotánicos y datos paleoecológicos, muestran que la gente de la PdT manejaron una amplia gama de elementos culturales desde la costa del Pacífico, el altiplano andino y el bosque tropical, que se integraron a los recursos recolectados localmente dentro de los sistemas socioculturales establecidos al final del Pleistoceno. Estos resultados se interpretan como una expresión material de una red de múltiples escalas para la gestión de recursos y otros requisitos sociales e inmateriales, lo que en otras palabras, significaría que estos grupos sociales estaban conectados activamente con redes de interacción regionales (costa y tierras altas) y supra-regionales (transandinas) desde y hacia la PdT. © 2019, Universidad de Tarapaca.Chungara07161182http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-73562019005000602&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en5-2551Thomson Reuters SSCInan, andes; andes; atacama desert; bosque tropical; costa del pacífico; desierto de atacama; local; pacific coast; redes de interacción locales; regional and pan-andean networks of interaction; regionales y pan-andinas; tropical forestInstituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile; Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Department of Anthropology, The Pennsylvania State University, PA, United States; Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas áridas (CEAZA), Coquimbo, Chile; Departamento de Biología Marina, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile; Departamento de Biología, Universidad de La Serena, La Serena, Chile; Laboratoire de Préhistoire et Technologie, Université Paris Nanterre, Paris, France; Camino al Volcán 33411, San José de Maipo, Región Metropolitana, Chile; Décima Avenida 1230, depto. 47, San Miguel, Santiago, Chile; Department of Geology and Environmental Earth Science, Miami University, Oxford, OH, United States; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile; Museo Municipalidad de Pica, Pica, Chile; Programa Doctorado en Antropología UCN-UTA, Universidad Católica del Norte, San Pedro de Atacama, Chile; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina; School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, United States; Departamento de Ecología and Centro UC Desierto de Atacama, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad (IEB), Santiago, Chile; Department of Anthropology, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, Canada
A perched, high-elevation wetland complex in the atacama desert (northern Chile) and its implications for past human settlementSitzia L.; Gayo E.M.; Sepulveda M.; González J.S.; Ibañez L.; Queffelec A.; De Pol-Holz R.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes201910.1017/qua.2018.144A previously undocumented type of wetland is described from the Atacama Desert in northern Chile (3000 m above sea level), sustained exclusively by direct precipitation and perched above the regional water table. Geomorphological mapping, pedostratigraphy, geochemistry, and analysis of contemporary vegetation is used to understand wetland formation and dynamics during historical and present time periods. The paleowetland deposits overlie a Miocene tuff that acts as an impermeable barrier to water transfer and creates conditions for local shallow ground water. These deposits include several paleosols that were formed during periods when precipitation increased regionally at 7755-7300, 1270, 545, and 400-300 cal yr BP. The similarity in timing with other palaeohydrological records for the Atacama implies that paleosols from this wetland are proxies for reconstructing past changes in local and regional hydrological cycle. Archaeological investigations have revealed the presence of two small farms from the Late Intermediate period, i.e., during the earliest wetter phase represented by the paleosols. Both farms are located near the paleowetland deposits, which suggests that local inhabitants exploited these water sources during late pre-Hispanic times. Results of this study improve knowledge of settlement patterns during this and earlier cultural periods. © University of Washington. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2019.Quaternary Research (United States)00335894https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0033589418001448/type/journal_article33-5292Thomson Reuters SCIEatacama desert; central andes; desert wetlands; holocene; late intermediate period; perched wetlands; tuff; volcanic ash, andes; atacama desert; chile; deposits; groundwater; sea level; volcanoes; atacama desert; central andes; holocenes; intermediate periods; tuff; volcanic ash; formation mechanism; holocene; paleohydrology; paleosol; prehistoric; settlement pattern; tuff; volcanic ash; wetland; wetlandsUniversidad de Tarapacá, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas, Arica, 1000000, Chile; Laboratorio de Análisis e Investigaciones Arqueométricas, Museo Universidad de Tarapacá San Miguel de Azapa XV, Región de Arica y Parinacota, Camino a Azapa Km 12, Arica, 1000000, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research and Departamento de Oceanografía, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, 4030000, Chile; Laboratorio de Análisis e Investigaciones Arqueométricas, Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Antofagasta 1520, Casilla 6-D, Arica, 1000236, Chile; Unité Mixte de Recherche 8096 Archéologie des Amériques, France; Independent Researcher, United States; Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Miguel Lillo 205, Tucumán, 4000, Argentina; PACEA (De la Préhistoire À l'Actuel : Culture, Environnement et Anthropologie), Unité Mixte de Recherche 5199, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Pessac Cedex, 33615, France; Center for Climate and Resilience Research and GAIA-Antarctica, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, 6200000, Chile
Perception of thermal comfort in outdoor public spaces in the medium-sized city of Chillán, Chile, during a warm summerSmith P.; Henríquez C.Ciudades Resilientes201910.1016/j.uclim.2019.100525The study of thermal comfort in Latin American cities has been gaining great relevance for urban environmental planning. Some studies have evaluated the relationship between environmental and perceived comfort; however, the causes and social determinants of the different perceptions of the population have not been explored. The perception of thermal comfort in public spaces in the city of Chillán (Chile), which has an inland Mediterranean climate, is discussed in this context. First, we measured the environmental thermal comfort, adapting the Actual Sensation Vote index. A survey of 362 users of the five selected public spaces was carried out between 29 January and 01 February 2016 to obtain perceived comfort and relate it to the individual climatic history, use of public space and place of residence in the city. The results show that perceived thermal discomfort dominates over comfort on summer days; however, those users who visit public spaces for recreational purposes feel more comfortable, as well as those living in low socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods. On the other hand, users living in areas with higher socioeconomic status, have higher expectations regarding thermal environmental conditions. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.Urban Climate22120955https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212095518301962art10052530Thomson Reuters SCIEenvironmental comfort; perceived thermal comfort; public space; socioeconomic status, nanDepartment of Geography and Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Institute of Geography, Centre for Sustainable Urban Development (CEDEUS) and Centro de Cambio Global UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile
Public Spaces as Climate Justice Places? Climate Quality in the City of Chillán, ChileSmith P.; Henríquez C.Ciudades Resilientes201910.1089/env.2018.0041The transformations brought about by climate change and the continued growth of cities are having an impact on urban climate. In urban spaces, especially in public spaces, environmental conditions are becoming more uncomfortable and this is affecting the health and quality of life of city dwellers. This study of climate quality in the city of Chillán revealed that there are insufficient public spaces to provide acceptable environmental quality for the entire population. It also showed that high-income areas, located in the peri-urban zones of the city, enjoy a better climate, environment, and air quality. This article analyzes urban climate injustice, as evidenced by the sharp socioeconomic differences in the quality of environment to which urban residents are exposed, and highlights the need for public spaces to improve the environmental quality for residents. © 2019, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.Environmental Justice19394071https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/env.2018.0041164-17312Thomson Reuters ESCIclimate injustice; climate quality; public space; urban climate; urban planning, bio bio; chile; chillan; climate change; environmental conditions; environmental quality; periurban area; public space; quality of life; socioeconomic conditions; urban climate; urban growth; urban planning; urban populationDepartamento de Geografía, Universidad de Chile, Portugal 84, Santiago, 8331051, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Analysis of exposure to fine particulate matter using passive data from public transportTrewhela B.; Huneeus N.; Munizaga M.; Mazzeo A.; Menut L.; Mailler S.; Valari M.; Ordoñez C.Ciudades Resilientes201910.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.116878The city of Santiago experiences extreme pollution events during winter due to particulate matter and the associated health impact depends on the exposure to this pollutant, particularly to PM2.5. We present and apply a method that estimates the exposure of users of the public transport system of Santiago by combining smart card mobility data with measured surface concentrations from the monitoring network of Santiago and simulated concentrations by the CHIMERE model. The method was applied between July 20th and 24th of 2015 to 105,588 users corresponding to 12% of the frequent users of the public transport system and approximately 2% of the total population of Santiago. During those five days, estimated exposure based on measured concentrations varied between 44 and 75 μg/m3 while exposure based on simulated concentrations varied between 45 and 89 μg/m3. Furthermore, including socioeconomic conditions suggests an inverse relationship between exposure and income when measured concentrations are used, i.e. the lower the income the higher the exposure, whereas no such relationship is observed when using simulated concentrations. Although only exposure to PM2.5 was considered in this study, the method can also be applied to estimate exposure to other urban pollutant such as ozone. © 2019 Elsevier LtdAtmospheric Environment13522310https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1352231019305084art116878215Thomson Reuters SCIEair quality; carrier mobility; inverse problems; smart cards; ozone; exposure; extreme pollution events; fine particulate matter; pm2.5; public transport; public transport systems; socio-economic conditions; surface concentration; air exposure; air quality; concentration (composition); health impact; ozone; particulate matter; public transport; socioeconomic conditions; air monitoring; air pollutant; air quality; article; chile; concentration (parameter); environmental exposure; income; model; particle size; particulate matter; population; priority journal; traffic and transport; urban area; particles (particulate matter), air quality; exposure; mobility; pm2.5; public transport usersDepartamento de Ingeniería Civil, División Transporte, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas - Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas - Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, IPSL Research University, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Université Paris-Saclay, Sorbonne UniversitéÉcole des Ponts parisTech, Paris, France
In-stream wetland deposits, megadroughts, and cultural change in the northern Atacama Desert, ChileTully C.D.; Rech J.A.; Workman T.R.; Santoro C.M.; Capriles J.M.; Gayo E.M.; Latorre C.Ciudades Resilientes201910.1017/qua.2018.122A key concern regarding current and future climate change is the possibility of sustained droughts that can have profound impacts on societies. As such, multiple paleoclimatic proxies are needed to identify megadroughts, the synoptic climatology responsible for these droughts, and their impacts on past and future societies. In the hyperarid Atacama Desert of northern Chile, many streams are characterized by perennial flow and support dense in-stream wetlands. These streams possess sequences of wetland deposits as fluvial terraces that record past changes in the water table. We mapped and radiocarbon dated a well-preserved sequence of in-stream wetland deposits along a 4.3-km reach of the Río San Salvador in the Calama basin to determine the relationship between regional climate change and the incision of in-stream wetlands. The Río San Salvador supported dense wetlands from 11.1 to 9.8, 6.4 to 3.5, 2.8 to 1.3, and 1.0 to 0.5 ka and incised at the end of each of these intervals. Comparison with other in-stream wetland sequences in the Atacama Desert, and with regional paleoclimatic archives, indicates that in-stream wetlands responded similarly to climatic changes by incising during periods of extended drought at ∼9.8, 3.5, 1.3, and 0.5 ka. © 2019 University of Washington. Published by Cambridge University Press.Quaternary Research (United States)00335894https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0033589418001229/type/journal_article63-8091Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; chile; climatic changes; cultural changes; megadroughts; regional climate changes; synoptic climatology; climate variation; climatology; cultural change; drought; fluvial deposit; paleoclimate; wetland; climate change, atacama; chile; climate and cultural change; in-stream wetlands; megadroughts, atacama desert; chile; deposits; drought; groundwater; wetlands; atacama; atacama desertDepartment of Geology and Environmental Earth Science, Miami University, Oxford, 45056, OH, United States; Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Antofagasta 1520, Arica, 00236, Chile; Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 16802, PA, United States; Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, 4070386, Chile; Center for Climate Change and Resilience Research (CR2, Santiago, 8370415, Chile; Centro UC Del Desierto de Atacama and Departamento de Ecología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Alameda 340, Santiago, 6513677, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), Casilla 653, Santiago, 6513677, Chile
Quality as a hidden dimension of energy poverty in middle-development countries. Literature review and case study from ChileUrquiza A.; Amigo C.; Billi M.; Calvo R.; Labraña J.; Oyarzún T.; Valencia F.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes201910.1016/j.enbuild.2019.109463The paper proposes a literature review and meta-analysis on different dimensions and approaches with respect to energy poverty and examines Chile as a case study for its manifestations in middle development countries. This phenomenon has acquired greater relevance, with a variety of definitions, indicators and methodologies being used to measure it. However, most of them are focused on either quantifying the lack of access to modern energy services in poor countries or assessing the inequality produced by the costs of accessing such services in developed countries. This results in the lack of a proper toolbox to tackle middle development countries, such as Chile: where access-based measures assign thresholds that are too low, so that almost nobody is energy poor; conversely, equality-based measures deploy excessively high ones, so that a very large proportion of the population is energy poor. The paper argues that this deficit is caused by the understanding of quality in terms of “standards” in access- and equality-based measures, which restricts its potential in economically, culturally, and geographically diverse territories. A context-sensitive three-dimensional framework to assess energy poverty is then proposed, and its policy implications are briefly discussed. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.Energy and Buildings03787788https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378778818319790art109463204Thomson Reuters SCIEpublic policy; chile; development countries; energy access; energy equity; energy poverties; energy quality; developing countries, chile; energy access; energy equity; energy poverty; energy quality; middle-development countryEnergy Poverty Network, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Social Sciences Faculty, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; School of Government, Adolfo Ibáñez University, Santiago, Chile; Centre of Comparative Educational Policies, Diego Portales University, Santiago, Chile; Energy Research Centre (SERC-Chile), Energy Centre, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Nucleo de Estudios Sistémicos Transdisciplinarios (NEST), Universidad de Chile, Chile
Andean caravan ceremonialism in the lowlands of the Atacama Desert: The Cruces de Molinos archaeological site, northern ChileValenzuela D.; Cartajena I.; Santoro C.M.; Castro V.; Gayo E.M.Ciudades Resilientes201910.1016/j.quaint.2018.09.016Camelid caravans have played a key role in the complex systems of interregional social interaction that characterizes Andean history. In the northernmost region of Chile, the most frequent archaeological indicators of these caravan systems are trails and rock art images. Cruces de Molinos (LL-43), a rock art site in the Lluta valley, 1100 masl, 40 km from the Pacific littoral, expands the ceremonial role of rock art sites, materialized, not only as regards the iconography portrayed and alluding to these practices, but also in terms of articulated carcass remains and detached anatomical units of camelids, intentionally deposited in a cache beneath one of the engraved blocks. This paper analyzes the site considering the visual imagery, spatial location, archaeological deposits and features associated with rock art. Based on the predominance of camelid and caravan motifs in rock art images, the extraordinary setting and location of the site on the valley's upper slopes, which is far removed from local settlements, but closely connected with a llama caravan trade network linking the chaupiyunga ecozone with the highlands (sierra and Altiplano ecozones), we suggest that Cruces de Molinos was not a rest stop for caravanners, but a ceremonial place, and not for local farmers, but for highland herders. According to seven accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates that place the occupation between cal. 1060–1190 CE in the Late Intermediate period. © 2018Quaternary International10406182https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S104061821830110137-47533Thomson Reuters SCIEcamelid; caravan; ceremonialism; ch'arki; rock art, atacama desert; chile; camelidae; lama (mammal); archaeological evidence; iconography; mammal; rock art; settlement history; spatiotemporal analysisDepartamento de Antropología, Universidad de Tarapacá, Cardenal Caro # 348, Arica, 1010068, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de Chile, Av. Ignacio Carrera Pinto #1045, Ñuñoa, Santiago, Chile; Laboratorio de Arqueología y Paleoambiente, Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Antofagasta #1520, Arica, 1001236, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad Alberto Hurtado, Almirante Barroso # 10, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2 & Laboratory for Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry, Universidad de Concepción, Chile
Estimation of atmospheric total organic carbon (TOC) - Paving the path towards carbon budget closureYang M.; Fleming Z.L.Ciudades Resilientes201910.5194/acp-19-459-2019The atmosphere contains a rich variety of reactive organic compounds, including gaseous volatile organic carbon (VOCs), carbonaceous aerosols, and other organic compounds at varying volatility. Here we present a novel and simple approach to measure atmospheric non-methane total organic carbon (TOC) based on catalytic oxidation of organics in bulk air to carbon dioxide. This method shows little sensitivity towards humidity and near 100 % oxidation efficiencies for all VOCs tested. We estimate a best-case hourly precision of 8 ppb C during times of low ambient variability in carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide (CO). As proof of concept of this approach, we show measurements of TOC + CO during August-September 2016 from a coastal city in the southwest United Kingdom. TOC + CO was substantially elevated during the day on weekdays (occasionally over 2 ppm C) as a result of local anthropogenic activity. On weekends and holidays, with a mean (standard error) of 102 (8) ppb C, TOC + CO was lower and showed much less diurnal variability. TOC + CO was significantly lower when winds were coming off the Atlantic Ocean than when winds were coming off land if we exclude the weekday daytime. By subtracting the estimated CO from TOC + CO, we constrain the mean (uncertainty) TOC in Atlantic-dominated air masses to be around 23 (± ≥ 8) ppb C during this period. A proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was deployed at the same time, detecting a large range of organic compounds (oxygenated VOCs, biogenic VOCs, aromatics, dimethyl sulfide). The total speciated VOCs from the PTR-MS, denoted here as Sum(VOC), amounted to a mean (uncertainty) of 12 (± ≤ 3) ppb C in marine air. Possible contributions from a number of known organic compounds present in marine air that were not detected by the PTR-MS are assessed within the context of the TOC budget. Finally, we note that the use of a short, heated sample tube can improve the transmission of organics to the analyzer, while operating our system alternately with and without a particle filter should enable a better separation of semi-volatile and particulate organics from the VOCs within the TOC budget. Future concurrent measurements of TOC, CO, and a more comprehensive range of speciated VOCs would enable a better characterization and understanding of the atmospheric organic carbon budget. © Author(s) 2019.Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics16807316https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/19/459/2019/459-47119Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, united kingdom; aerosol; atmospheric chemistry; carbon budget; estimation method; human activity; oxidation; total organic carbon; volatile organic compoundPlymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, United Kingdom; National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Comité Científico COP25: Criósfera y Cambio Climático 50 preguntas y respuestasAldunce,P.;Andrade,C.;Anicama,J.;Arana,P.;Azócar,G.;Cabrol,L.;Carrasco,J.;Casanova-Katny,A.;Cavieres,L.;Cereceda-Balic,F.;Christie,D.;Cid-Agüero,P.;Cordero,R. R.;Crespo,S.;Damiani,A.;Dussaillant-Jones,A.;Fernández,A.;Fernández,C.;Fernandoy,F.;Frangopulos,M.;Fuentes,F.;Garcés-Vargas,J.;García,A.;Giesecke,R.;Godoi,M. A.;Gómez,I.;González,I.;González,H. E.;Höfer,J.;Iriarte,J. L.;Iribarren,P.;Lambert,F.;Leppe,M.;MacDonell,S.;Matus,F.;McPhee,J.;Mestre,M.;Navarro,J.;Navarro,N.;Pardo,L. M.;Pizarro,G.;P...Ciudades Resilientes; Agua y Extremos2019La criósfera comprende las partes de la Tierra donde encontramos agua en estado sólido: nieve, glaciares, hielo marino, mantos de hielo y suelos congelados (permafrost). El territorio chileno posee todos estos componentes, pero de ellos, los más relevantes son los glaciares, con alrededor de 24 000 km2 (3 % del área mundial). Sin embargo, los glaciares están en franco retroceso debido al cambio climático. Su distribución varía con la altitud y latitud, con un gradiente desde los Andes Norte y Centro (4.4 %), a la región centro-sur (6.2 %) hasta alcanzar su mayor extensión en la zona de la Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego (89.3 %). La pérdida de masa de hielo en la cordillera de los Andes ha sido de 23 gigatoneladas en los últimos veinte años. Preocupante aspecto, por ser el recurso agua uno de los que está más amenazado actualmente en la zona centro-norte del país. En el marco del cambio climático, la Antártica presenta procesos antagónicos y sinérgicos. Las aguas muy frías del océano tienen una gran capacidad para exportar carbono desde la atmósfera y ejercer un importante control sobre el clima regional y global. No obstante, el calentamiento global está derritiendo una parte de la cobertura de hielo, lo cual libera el hierro atrapado en su interior y potencia la productividad y exportación de carbono al fondo del océano (que estaba originalmente como CO2 en la atmósfera). Sin embargo, esta capacidad del océano de capturar CO2 se contrapone con el riesgo de incrementar su acidificación.https://www.minciencia.gob.cl/comitecientifico/documentos/mesa-criosfera-y-antartica/12.Criosfera-y-cambio-climatico.pdfNot Indexed
Does energy poverty have a female face in Chile?; [Será que a pobreza energética tem uma face feminina no Chile?]; [¿La pobreza energética tiene una cara femenina en Chile?]Amigo-Jorquera C.; Guerrero-González M.J.; Sannazzaro J.; Urquiza-Gómez A.Ciudades Resilientes201910.1080/25729861.2019.1608038The relationship between gender inequalities (GI) and energy poverty (EP) has not been discussed as a whole in worldwide recent debates, although feminist analyses have demonstrated that GI have had an impact on the everyday life of women, men, and their dependents. This research paper addresses the relationship between GI and EP through an analysis of relevant secondary sources on poverty and people’s use of time, in order to understand how GI affect women’s access to energy in Latin America, particularly in Chile. Moreover, it seems that there are reasons to believe that EP has a female face. Therefore, this study looks into strategic policies for ensuring safe and affordable energy for women. Likewise, this research paper presents how these efforts would contribute to deal with some other key issues, such as energy transition and a sustainable development process. To sum up, this investigation identifies the possible benefits that improving energy access would bring to women, as well as how those improvements would consistently help to meet the goals established by international treaties that aim to seek equality for women through ending poverty and by giving them access to energy. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.Tapuya: Latin American Science, Technology and Society25729861https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/25729861.2019.1608038378-3902Not Indexedcare; energy poverty; gender; unpaid work; women, nanFaculty of Social Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Sociology, Alberto Hurtado University, Santiago, Chile; Millennium Nucleus Center of Energy and Society Research (NUMIES), Santiago, Chile; Climate Science and Resilience, (CR2, Fondap), Santiago, Chile
Comentarios Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2 a la consulta ciudadana de primera actualización 2019 de la Contribución Determinada a Nivel Nacional (NDC) de Chile. Diciembre 2019Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2,;Agua y Extremos; Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2019https://www.cr2.cl/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Resumen-Comentarios-CR2_NDC-2019_02122019.pdfNot Indexed
Comité Científico COP25: Nueve medidas basadas en el océano para las Contribuciones Determinadas a nivel Nacional de ChileFarías,Laura;Ubilla,Karen;Aguirre,Catalina;Bedriñana,Luis;Cienfugos,Rodrigo;Delgado,Verónica;Fernández,Camila;Fernández,Miriam;Gaxiola,Aurora;González,Humberto;Hucke-Gaete,Rodrigo;Marquet,Pablo;Montencino,Vivian;Morales,Carmen;Narváez,Diego;Osses,Mauricio;Peceño,Begoña;Quiroga,Eduardo;Ramajo,Laura;Sepúlveda,Hector H.;Soto,Doris;Vargas,Enrique;Viddi,Francisco;Valencia,Javiera;Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes2019Las Contribuciones Determinadas a nivel Nacional (NDC, por sus siglas en inglés) se han convertido en un
instrumento clave para comprometer principalmente metas de mitigación y adaptación al cambio climático.
Gestadas en el Acuerdo de París (2015) aspiran a cumplir dos de sus objetivos más ambiciosos: mantener el
incremento de la temperatura global muy por debajo de los 2°C, respecto a la era preindustrial, y fortalecer y
aumentar la capacidad de adaptación y resiliencia a los efectos adversos del cambio climático.
La actualización de las NDC el año 2020 las llevará a convertirse en un instrumento ambicioso y con trazabilidad, luego de la declaración de limitar a 1.5 °C el incremento de temperatura al 2030 (IPCC, 2018) y la
cumbre del clima de Katowice (COP24). Chile, ejerciendo la presidencia de la COP25, se debe comprometer
a metas más ambiciosas, transparentes y progresivas, entre ellas, la carbono- neutralidad, la COP azul y la
economía circular.
La mesa Océanos del Comité Científico COP25, a partir de una metodología participativa y colaborativa,
propone nueve medidas basadas en el océano, para contribuir a la meta de reducción de sus emisiones, y
realiza un análisis de los alcances que tiene la primera propuesta de actualización de las NDC (2020) en el
tema océano. Las medidas propuestas en este informe colindan con acciones que: 1) favorecen el secuestro
de carbono, como soluciones basada en naturaleza (carbono azul); 2) reducen las emisiones de gases con
efecto invernadero (GEI) en la economía del océano; y 3) abordan la vulnerabilidad, riesgos e impactos del
cambio climático en el sector pesca y acuicultura, enfocándose en la inequidad social y de género, y la construcción de capacidades relativa a implementar un sistema observación del océano y reducir brechas en su
conocimiento, gestión y administración.
Se refuerza en el concepto de entierro de carbono como el resultado del funcionamiento a largo plazo
de una compleja red de procesos del ciclo del carbono, donde los sedimentos marinos y suelos costeros se
constituyen como el mayor reservorio de largo aliento de carbono en el planeta. Al respecto, se reúnen antecedentes de la ventaja competitiva que tiene Chile respecto a la protección de fondos marinos, marismas y
bosques de algas pardas; ecosistemas de fundamental importancia para la mitigación del cambio climático,
pero, específicamente, vulnerables a su impacto y a la acción humana.
Respecto a la economía del océano, la reducción de la emisión de GEI por parte de actividades como
el transporte marítimo, acuicultura y el uso de energías marinas son medidas muy factibles e internacionalmente comprobadas, cuyos costos-beneficios van en directa relación con los compromisos y mercados
internacionales. Este es especialmente relevante para la acuicultura y la economía circular. Finalmente, para
adaptarse deben existir capacidades en un Sistema Integrado de Observación del Océano Chileno (SIOOC)
que incluya alertas ambientales tempranas y proyecciones, de modo de reducir riesgos y conflictividades
ambientales y sociales, y disminuir las brechas de conocimiento, de gobernanza y económicas respecto al
océano.
Lo que importa es transformar los compromisos en acciones/medidas trazables, y al respecto, dada su
vocación oceánica y su dependencia a este medio, Chile debe tener unas NDC ambiciosas que incluyan los
hábitats y ecosistemas marinos (carbono azul) en los presupuestos de carbono nacional (además de las
contribuciones en materia de cambio de uso de la tierra y silvicultura, UTCUTS), declarar co-beneficios, dar
valoración económica de los servicios ecosistémicos ambientales, y formular políticas públicas dirigidas a la
conservación.
El presente informe releva la necesidad de generar voluntad política para fortalecer el marco normativo
y/o legislativo que permita proteger a los sistemas costeros que cumplen importantes funciones para el cambio climático; fortalecer la capacidad adaptativa de las comunidades pesqueras y acuicultoras, y comprometer Áreas Marinas Protegidas con planes de manejo al corto plazo de modo de aumentar el nivel de ambición
y alcanzar la carbono neutralidad.
https://www.cr2.cl/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Nueve-soluciones-para-NDC.pdf1-93Not Indexed
Informe a las naciones: El Antropoceno en Chile: evidencias y formas de avanzarGallardo,Laura;Rudnick,Andrea;Barraza,José;Fleming,Zoë L.;Rojas,Maisa;Gayo,Eugenia M.;Aguirre,Catalina;Farías,Laura;Boisier,Juan Pablo;Garreaud,René;Barría,Pilar;Miranda,Alejandro;Lara,Antonio;Gómez-González,Susana;Arriagada,Rodrigo;Agua y Extremos; Zonas Costeras; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes2019En el siglo XXI, el desarrollo de Chile está en juego debido a las amenazas planteadas por el Antropoceno. Esta época se caracteriza por la influencia humana sobre el sistema terrestre. Sin embargo, si se enfrenta con audacia, ofrece una oportunidad para un desarrollo sostenible. Independientemente de si hemos entrado en una nueva era geológica, el Antropoceno cuestiona nuestra forma de vivir en el planeta azul del sistema solar. O, dicho de otra manera, la forma de entender el progreso y el desarrollo. En un país con grandes desigualdades sociales, altamente vulnerable al cambio global, enfrentar este desafío es de crucial importancia y puede ofrecer nuevas oportunidades.https://www.cr2.cl/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Informe-Antropoceno-castellano.pdf40Not Indexed
Circulation of Objects and Raw Material in the Atacama Desert, Northern Chile by the End of the PleistoceneHerrera K.A.; Pelegrin J.; Gayo E.; Santoro C.M.Ciudades Resilientes201910.1080/20555563.2019.1697999About 13,000 calendar years ago, the Atacama Desert (18–26°S) was occupied by some of the human groups who had begun to populate South America. The archaeological evidence from six sites located in Pampa del Tamarugal (PdT) it the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert, including different objects and raw materials, shows a connection with different geographical areas within and outside PdT: (a) local circuits to acquire resources from the Pampa; (b) regional displacements that covered the coast and the Andes, more than 70 km away from PdT; and (c) displacements or interactions at a supra-regional level that connected PdT with the tropical and subtropical forests of South America, more than 600 km away. We propose a preliminary model for the local circuits that covers displacements from 40 minutes to 13 hours walking distance from residential locations to obtain fresh water, wood, rocks for knapping, and hunting activities. © 2019, © 2019 Center for the Study of the First Americans.PaleoAmerica20555563https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/20555563.2019.1697999335-3485Thomson Reuters ESCInan, hunter-gatherer; lithic technology; mobility; south americaLaboratorio de Arqueología y Paleoambiente, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile; Préhistoire et Technologie, Université Paris Nanterre, Paris, France; Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas y Quimicas, Universidad de San Sebastian, Concepción, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2, FONDAP 15110009), Santiago, Chile
Comité Científico COP25: Ciudades y cambio climático en Chile: Recomendaciones desde la evidencia científicaMuñoz,J. C.;Barton,J.;Frías,D.;Godoy,A.;Bustamante,W.;Cortés,S.;Munizaga,M.;Rojas,C.;Wagemann,E.;Smith,P.;Gallardo,L.;,;Ciudades Resilientes2019En el marco de las preparaciones del Gobierno de Chile frente a la COP25, y como parte de las actividades del Comité Científico COP25 establecido por el Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología, Conocimiento e Innovación, este documento tiene tres propósitos. El primero es reunir información de varios documentos de política pública relacionados con ciudades y cambio climático en Chile. El segundo es destacar la situación urbana en Chile en relación con los temas de mitigación (movilidad; edificación, equipamiento y energía; residuos y economía circular), adaptación (riesgos y desastres; infraestructura y espacios verdes; vulnerabilidad y salud) y gobernanza. El tercero es presentar propuestas de acción en formato de fichas que pretenden contribuir a reducir las emisiones que surgen desde ciudades y reducir la vulnerabilidad en los asentamientos humanos en Chile frente al cambio climático. Estas propuestas se han estructurado en torno a metas, identificando instituciones que debieran participar de ellas, sugiriendo plazos posibles en que estas medidas podrían implementarse, caracterizando beneficios que estas medidas generarían y destacando evidencia científica que las avala. Dada la complejidad propia de la gobernanza urbana, estas medidas debieran considerarse en coordinación entre la sociedad civil, el sector público y el sector privado. La mesa Ciudades reúne los aportes de más de cincuenta académicos de diez universidades con el objeto de contribuir desde múltiples disciplinas a opciones de acción urbana frente a los desafíos del cambio climático.https://www.minciencia.gob.cl/comitecientifico/documentos/mesa-ciudades/Ciudades-y-CC-en-Chile-Recomendaciones-desde-evidencia-cientifica.pdfNot Indexed
Comité Científico COP25: Chilean NDC mitigation proposal: Methodological approach and supporting ambition. Mitigation and energy working group reportPalma-Behnke,R.;Barría,C.;Basoa,K.;Benavente,D.;Benavides,C.;Campos,B.;de la Maza,N.;Farías,L.;Gallardo,L.;García,M. J.;Gonzales,L. E.;Guarda,F.;Guzmán,R.;Jofré,A.;Mager,J.;Martínez,R.;Montedonico,M.;Morán,L.;Muñoz,L.;Osses,M.;Pica,A.;Rojas,M.;Rudnick,A.;SanMartín,J. P.;Santander,A.;Silva,C.;Tolvett,S.;Torres,R.;Urquiza,A.;Valdivia,P.;Vicuña,S.;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes2019This paper analyses the Chilean Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) proposal for the mitigation component. The methodological approach and the supporting ambition of a process carried out by the Chilean Government are assessed based on the scientific evidence available and local context. The analysis is developed by representatives of four ministries and a group of 21 researchers from six universities and research centers throughout the country. This exchange experience between the Government and the scientific community enables the identification of future challenges and opportunities for the Chilean transition in terms of mitigation. This process emerges from a bridging approach led by the recently assumed Minister of Science, Technology, Knowledge and Innovation under the presidency of the Government of Chile in the Conference of the Parties (COP25) for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). After a description of the methodological approach, key topics that have an impact on the NDC definition are identified and analyzed. These topics include technical, economical, and socio-environmental issues along with a description of the current socio-political context in the country. Additionally, the major uncertainties that would have the highest potential to modify the results and conclusions of this work are identified. Finally, a summary with the main conclusions and recommendations is presented. The analysis framework and key aspects identified in this exercise may be of value for other countries with similar institutional contexts.https://comitecientifico.minciencia.gob.cl/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/The_Chilean_Potential_for_Exporting_Renewable_Energy_web.pdfNot Indexed
Gobernanza policéntrica y problemas ambientales en el siglo XXI: desafíos de coordinación social para la distribución de recursos hídricos en ChileUrquiza,Anahí;Amigo,Catalina;Billi,Marco;Cortés,Julián;Labraña,Julio;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes2019La sociedad contemporánea debe lidiar con importantes transformaciones en su entorno biofísico, impulsando una reflexión en las ciencias sociales y ecológicas sobre las características que deben tener los procesos de gobernanza ambiental, especialmente frente a aquellos bienes que adolecen de límites de propiedad y dominio haciendo surgir problemas de coordinación (por ejemplo la ‘tragedia de los comunes’). La literatura al respecto destaca la existencia de distintos niveles organizacionales y escalas territoriales que deberían ser articulados (coordinación vertical). Si bien este tipo de gobernanza, denominada policéntrica, ha tenido un creciente impacto en la discusión científica, en este artículo se argumenta que los análisis omiten un atributo central de la sociedad moderna –las racionalidades comunicativas autónomas (coordinación horizontal)– cuya consideración es necesaria para diseñar formas efectivas de gobernanza ambiental. Para sostener esta tesis, se analiza la institucionalidad relacionada con la gobernanza hídrica en Chile, discutiendo la clásica polarización entre Estado y mercado, e identificando esfuerzos policéntricos. Paralelamente se analizan los principios teóricos que establecen la necesidad de considerar distintas racionalidades comunicativas al momento de diseñar políticas enfocadas en el tratamiento de problemas ambientales. Finalmente, se identifican inciativas ya existentes en esta línea y desafíos relacionados con su aplicación a la gobernanza hídrica.Persona y Sociedad0719-0883https://personaysociedad.uahurtado.cl/index.php/ps/article/view/258133-16033Latindex
Climate change governance in the anthropocene: Emergence of polycentrism in ChileArriagada R.; Aldunce P.; Blanco G.; Ibarra C.; Moraga P.; Nahuelhual L.; O'Ryan R.; Urquiza A.; Gallardo L.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes; Agua y Extremos201810.1525/elementa.329Multilateral efforts are essential to an effective response to climate change, but individual nations define climate action policy by translating local and global objectives into adaptation and mitigation actions. We propose a conceptual framework to explore opportunities for polycentric climate governance, understanding polycentricity as a property that encompasses the potential for coordinating multiple centers of semiautonomous decision-making. We assert that polycentrism engages a diverse array of public and private actors for a more effective approach to reducing the threat of climate change. In this way, polycentrism may provide an appropriate strategy for addressing the many challenges of climate governance in the Anthropocene. We review two Chilean case studies: Chile's Nationally Determined Contribution on Climate Change and the Chilean National Climate Change Action Plan. Our examination demonstrates that Chile has included a diversity of actors and directed significant financial resources to both processes. The central government coordinated both of these processes, showing the key role of interventions at higher jurisdictional levels in orienting institutional change to improve strategic planning and better address climate change. Both processes also provide some evidence of knowledge co-production, while at the same time remaining primarily driven by state agencies and directed by technical experts. Efforts to overcome governance weaknesses should focus on further strengthening existing practices for climate change responses, establishing new institutions, and promoting decision-making that incorporates diverse social actors and multiple levels of governance. In particular, stronger inclusion of local level actors provides an opportunity to enhance polycentric modes of governance and improve climate change responses. Fully capitalizing on this opportunity requires establishing durable communication channels between different levels of governance. © 2018 The Author(s).Elementa23251026https://www.elementascience.org/article/10.1525/elementa.329/art686Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; action plan; adaptive management; anthropocene; climate change; conceptual framework; decision making; environmental policy; financial system; governance approach; mitigation; strategic approach, chile; climate change; governance; polycentrism; public consultationCenter for Climate and Resilience Research, CR2, FONDAP15110009, Santiago, CL, United States; Departamento de Ecosistemas y Medioambiente, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, CL, United States; Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales y Recursos Naturales Renovables, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, CL, United States; Instituto de Historia y Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, CL, United States; Centro de Derecho Ambiental, Facultad de Derecho, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, CL, United States; Instituto de Economía Agraria, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, CL, United States; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, CL, United States; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, CL, United States; Millennium Nucleus Center for the Socioeconomic Impact of Environmental Policies (CESIEP), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, CL, United States; Programa de Reducción de Riesgos y Desastres (CITRID), Santiago, CL, United States; Centro de Investigación en Dinámica de Ecosistemas Marinos de Altas Latitudes, IDEAL, FONDAP15150003, Santiago, CL, United States; Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, CL, United States
Status and future of numerical atmospheric aerosol prediction with a focus on data requirementsBenedetti A.; Reid J.S.; Knippertz P.; Marsham J.H.; Di Giuseppe F.; Rémy S.; Basart S.; Boucher O.; Brooks I.M.; Menut L.; Mona L.; Laj P.; Pappalardo G.; Wiedensohler A.; Baklanov A.; Brooks M.; Colarco P.R.; Cuevas E.; Da Silva A.; Escribano J.; Flemming J.; Huneeus N.; Jorba O.; Kazadzis S.; Kinne S.; Popp T.; Quinn P.K.; Sekiyama T.T.; Tanaka T.; Terradellas E.Ciudades Resilientes201810.5194/acp-18-10615-2018Numerical prediction of aerosol particle properties has become an important activity at many research and operational weather centers. This development is due to growing interest from a diverse set of stakeholders, such as air quality regulatory bodies, aviation and military authorities, solar energy plant managers, climate services providers, and health professionals. Owing to the complexity of atmospheric aerosol processes and their sensitivity to the underlying meteorological conditions, the prediction of aerosol particle concentrations and properties in the numerical weather prediction (NWP) framework faces a number of challenges. The modeling of numerous aerosol-related parameters increases computational expense. Errors in aerosol prediction concern all processes involved in the aerosol life cycle including (a) errors on the source terms (for both anthropogenic and natural emissions), (b) errors directly dependent on the meteorology (e.g., mixing, transport, scavenging by precipitation), and (c) errors related to aerosol chemistry (e.g., nucleation, gas-aerosol partitioning, chemical transformation and growth, hygroscopicity). Finally, there are fundamental uncertainties and significant processing overhead in the diverse observations used for verification and assimilation within these systems. Indeed, a significant component of aerosol forecast development consists in streamlining aerosol-related observations and reducing the most important errors through model development and data assimilation. Aerosol particle observations from satellite- and ground-based platforms have been crucial to guide model development of the recent years and have been made more readily available for model evaluation and assimilation. However, for the sustainability of the aerosol particle prediction activities around the globe, it is crucial that quality aerosol observations continue to be made available from different platforms (space, near surface, and aircraft) and freely shared. This paper reviews current requirements for aerosol observations in the context of the operational activities carried out at various global and regional centers. While some of the requirements are equally applicable to aerosol-climate, the focus here is on global operational prediction of aerosol properties such as mass concentrations and optical parameters. It is also recognized that the term "requirements" is loosely used here given the diversity in global aerosol observing systems and that utilized data are typically not from operational sources. Most operational models are based on bulk schemes that do not predict the size distribution of the aerosol particles. Others are based on a mix of "bin" and bulk schemes with limited capability of simulating the size information. However the next generation of aerosol operational models will output both mass and number density concentration to provide a more complete description of the aerosol population. A brief overview of the state of the art is provided with an introduction on the importance of aerosol prediction activities. The criteria on which the requirements for aerosol observations are based are also outlined. Assimilation and evaluation aspects are discussed from the perspective of the user requirements. © 2018 Author(s).Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics16807316https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/18/10615/2018/10615-1064318Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, aerosol; aerosol formation; concentration (composition); data assimilation; numerical model; particle size; predictionEuropean Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom; Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, CA, United States; World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), Barcelona, Spain; Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France; University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; UK Met Office, Exeter, United Kingdom; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, United States; Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre, AEMET, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain; Geophysics Department, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, World Radiation Center, Switzerland, Davos, Switzerland; National Observatory of Athens, Greece; Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany; Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany; Univ. Grenoble-alpes, IGE, CNRS, IRD, Grenoble INP, Grenoble, France; National Centre for Atmospheric Science, Leeds, United Kingdom; Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Ecole Polytechnique, IPSL Research University, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Université Paris-Saclay, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Palaiseau, France; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Metodologie per l'Analisi Ambientale (CNR-IMAA), C. da S. Loja, Tito Scalo (PZ), Italy; German Aerospace Center (DLR), German Remote Sensing Data Center Atmosphere, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germ...
Anthropogenic drying in central-southern Chile evidenced by long-term observations and climate model simulationsBoisier J.P.; Alvarez-Garreton C.; Cordero R.R.; Damiani A.; Gallardo L.; Garreaud R.D.; Lambert F.; Ramallo C.; Rojas M.; Rondanelli R.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Zonas Costeras; Ciudades Resilientes; Agua y Extremos201810.1525/elementa.328The socio-ecological sensitivity to water deficits makes Chile highly vulnerable to global change. New evidence of a multi-decadal drying trend and the impacts of a persistent drought that since 2010 has affected several regions of the country, reinforce the need for clear diagnoses of the hydro-climate changes in Chile. Based on the analysis of long-term records (50+ years) of precipitation and streamflow, we confirm a tendency toward a dryer condition in central-southern Chile (30-48°S). We describe the geographical and seasonal character of this trend, as well as the associated large-scale circulation patterns. When a large ensemble of climate model simulations is contrasted to observations, anthropogenic forcing appears as the leading factor of precipitation change. In addition to a drying trend driven by greenhouse gas forcing in all seasons, our results indicate that the Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletion has played a major role in the summer rainfall decline. Although average model results agree well with the drying trend's seasonal character, the observed change magnitude is two to three times larger than that simulated, indicating a potential underestimation of future projections for this region. Under present-day carbon emission rates, the drying pathway in Chile will likely prevail during the next decades, although the summer signal should weaken as a result of the gradual ozone layer recovery. The trends and scenarios shown here pose substantial stress on Chilean society and its institutions, and call for urgent action regarding adaptation measures. © 2018 The Author(s).Elementa23251026https://www.elementascience.org/article/10.1525/elementa.328/art746Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; anthropogenic effect; carbon emission; climate modeling; drought; greenhouse gas; long-term change; ozone depletion; simulation; streamflow; trend analysis; vulnerability, chile; climate change; drought; drying trends; greenhouse gas and ozone depletion; southern annular modeCenter for Climate and Resilience Research, CR2, FONDAP 15110009, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Department of Physics, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Environment Remote Sensing, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan; Department of Physical Geography, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
ENSO influence on coastal fog-water yield in the atacama desert, ChileDel Río C.; Garcia J.-L.; Osses P.; Zanetta N.; Lambert F.; Rivera D.; Siegmund A.; Wolf N.; Cereceda P.; Larraín H.; Lobos F.Ciudades Resilientes201810.4209/aaqr.2017.01.0022Fog water represents an alternative, abundant and currently unexploited fresh water resource in the coastal Atacama Desert (~20°S). Here, the stratocumulus clouds meet the Coastal Cordillera, producing highly dynamic advective marine fog, a major feature of the local climate that provides water to a hyper-arid environment. One of the main issues that arises in harvesting fog water is our limited understanding of the spatial and inter-annual variability of fog clouds and their associated water content. Here we assess the role of regional-wide El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forcing on local inter-annual fog-water yields along the coast of Atacama. We contrast 17 years of continuous fog-water data, with local and regional atmospheric and oceanographic variables to determine the link between them and the inter-annual dynamics of fog in northern Chile. Sea surface temperature (SST) in ENSO zone 1 + 2 shows significant correlations with offshore and coastal Atacama SST, as well as with local low cloud cover and fog water yields, which go beyond the annual cycle beat, exposing a potential causal link and influence of ENSO on fog along the Atacama. On the inter-annual time scale, we found that when ENSO 3 + 4 zone SST, specifically during summer, overcome a > 1°C temperature threshold, they incite significantly higher summer fog water yields and explain 79% of the fog variability. Furthermore, satellite images displaying regional extent Sc cloud and fog presence during ENSO extremes reveal higher cloud abundance during El Niño at this latitude. However, 75% of the yearly fog water is collected during winter, and does not appear to be affected in a significant manner by Pacific oscillations. Thus, our results suggest that the utilization of fog as a fresh water resource may be sustainable in the future, regardless of ENSO-induced variability in the region. © Taiwan Association for Aerosol Research.Aerosol and Air Quality Research16808584http://www.aaqr.org/doi/10.4209/aaqr.2017.01.0022127-14418Thomson Reuters SCIEel niño southern oscillation (enso); estación atacama uc oasis de niebla alto patache; fog-water; southeast pacific (sep); stratocumulus cloud, atacama desert; chile; coastal cordillera; atmospheric pressure; climatology; clouds; fog; nickel; oceanography; scandium; surface waters; water; atacama; fog water; southeast pacific (sep); southern oscillation; stratocumulus clouds; annual cycle; arid environment; cloud cover; correlation; el nino-southern oscillation; fog; satellite imagery; spatial variation; stratocumulus; sustainability; water resource; water resourcesInstituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro UC Desierto de Atacama, Santiago, Chile; Heidelberg Center for the Environment & Institute for Geography, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, 69120, Germany; Research Group for Earth Observation (rgeo), Department of Geography, Heidelberg University of Education, Heidelberg, 69115, Germany
New insights into the use of stable water isotopes at the northern Antarctic Peninsula as a tool for regional climate studiesFernandoy F.; Tetzner D.; Meyer H.; Gacitúa G.; Hoffmann K.; Falk U.; Lambert F.; MacDonell S.Ciudades Resilientes201810.5194/tc-12-1069-2018Due to recent atmospheric and oceanic warming, the Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most challenging regions of Antarctica to understand in terms of both local-and regional-scale climate signals. Steep topography and a lack of long-term and in situ meteorological observations complicate the extrapolation of existing climate models to the sub-regional scale. Therefore, new techniques must be developed to better understand processes operating in the region. Isotope signals are traditionally related mainly to atmospheric conditions, but a detailed analysis of individual components can give new insight into oceanic and atmospheric processes. This paper aims to use new isotopic records collected from snow and firn cores in conjunction with existing meteorological and oceanic datasets to determine changes at the climatic scale in the northern extent of the Antarctic Peninsula. In particular, a discernible effect of sea ice cover on local temperatures and the expression of climatic modes, especially the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), is demonstrated. In years with a large sea ice extension in winter (negative SAM anomaly), an inversion layer in the lower troposphere develops at the coastal zone. Therefore, an isotope-temperature relationship (δ-T) valid for all periods cannot be obtained, and instead the δ-T depends on the seasonal variability of oceanic conditions. Comparatively, transitional seasons (autumn and spring) have a consistent isotope-temperature gradient of +0.69 °C-1. As shown by firn core analysis, the near-surface temperature in the northern-most portion of the Antarctic Peninsula shows a decreasing trend (-0.33°Cyear-1) between 2008 and 2014. In addition, the deuterium excess (dexcess) is demonstrated to be a reliable indicator of seasonal oceanic conditions, and therefore suitable to improve a firn age model based on seasonal dexcess variability. The annual accumulation rate in this region is highly variable, ranging between 1060 and 2470kgm-2year-1 from 2008 to 2014. The combination of isotopic and meteorological data in areas where data exist is key to reconstruct climatic conditions with a high temporal resolution in polar regions where no direct observations exist. © 2018 Author(s).Cryosphere19940416https://www.the-cryosphere.net/12/1069/2018/1069-109012Thomson Reuters SCIEantarctic peninsula; antarctica; west antarctica; accumulation rate; climate modeling; climate signal; data set; deuterium; ice cover; meteorology; regional climate; sea ice; stable isotope; surface temperature; topography; troposphere; warming, nanFacultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Andres Bello, Viña del Mar, 2531015, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8370361, Chile; Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Research Unit Potsdam, Telegrafenberg A43, Potsdam, 14473, Germany; Programa GAIA-Antártica, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, 6210427, Chile; Climate Lab, Geography Department, University Bremen, Bremen, 28334, Germany; Department of Physical Geography, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), La Serena, Chile
δ18O of Fissurella maxima as a proxy for reconstructing Early Holocene sea surface temperatures in the coastal Atacama desert (25°S)Flores C.; Gayo E.M.; Salazar D.; Broitman B.R.Ciudades Resilientes201810.1016/j.palaeo.2018.03.031Fissurella maxima is a keyhole limpet that is abundant and well preserved in archaeological shell midden sites along the coast of Chile, making it an appropriate species to use for reconstructions of past sea surface temperature (SST). In the present study we evaluate the potential of F. maxima shells as a proxy of SST by analysing δ18O of modern shells collected alive from the Atacama desert (area of Taltal, 25°S) and archaeological shells from two Early Holocene rockshelter sites: 224A and Paposo Norte 9. Reconstructed SST from modern F. maxima shells were related to SST obtained from in situ thermometers, supporting the use of this mollusc species as a paleotemperature archive. Mean SST reconstructed from Early Holocene archaeological shells (14.13 °C) was 2.86 °C cooler than mean temperature recorded in modern shells (16.99 °C). Mean SST reconstructed from modern shells was ~1.04 °C warmer than the mean temperature of in situ thermometers (15.95°C). Hence the paleo–SST data from archaeological sites 224A and Paposo Norte 9 enrich the Early Holocene nearshore paleoceanographic scenario of the Pacific coast of South America, with mean SST cooler than present-day SST. Our results validate the use of F. maxima shells as a SST proxy and contribute to a better understanding of the latitudinal distribution of the coastal upwelling regime during the Early Holocene, temporal changes in the structure of the Humboldt Current along the Holocene, and its influence on human adaptation through the prehistory of South America. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology00310182http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S003101821730874X22-34499Thomson Reuters SCIEatacama desert; chile; humboldt current; pacific coast [chile]; pacific coast [south america]; pacific ocean; pacific ocean (southeast); fissurella maxima; mollusca; archaeological evidence; calibration; carbonate; coastal zone; gastropod; holocene; in situ measurement; midden; oxygen isotope; paleoceanography; paleotemperature; proxy climate record; reconstruction; sea surface temperature; shell; stable isotope; thermometry, fissurella maxima; oxygen stable isotope; paleotemperature calibration; shell carbonate; south–east pacific coast; temperature reconstructionCentro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Ossandón 877, Coquimbo, Chile; Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resilencia (CR2), Barrio Universitario s/n, Concepción, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de Chile, Ignacio Carrera Pinto 1045, Santiago, Chile
Synchronization of energy consumption by human societies throughout the HoloceneFreeman J.; Baggio J.A.; Robinson E.; Byers D.A.; Gayo E.; Finley J.B.; Meyer J.A.; Kelly R.L.; Anderies J.M.Ciudades Resilientes201810.1073/pnas.1802859115We conduct a global comparison of the consumption of energy by human populations throughout the Holocene and statistically quantify coincident changes in the consumption of energy over space and time-an ecological phenomenon known as synchrony. When populations synchronize, adverse changes in ecosystems and social systems may cascade from society to society. Thus, to develop policies that favor the sustained use of resources, we must understand the processes that cause the synchrony of human populations. To date, it is not clear whether human societies display long-term synchrony or, if they do, the potential causes. Our analysis begins to fill this knowledge gap by quantifying the long-term synchrony of human societies, and we hypothesize that the synchrony of human populations results from (i) the creation of social ties that couple populations over smaller scales and (ii) much larger scale, globally convergent trajectories of cultural evolution toward more energy-consuming political economies with higher carrying capacities. Our results suggest that the process of globalization is a natural consequence of evolutionary trajectories that increase the carrying capacities of human societies. © 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America00278424http://www.pnas.org/lookup/doi/10.1073/pnas.18028591159962-9967115Thomson Reuters SCIEarchaeology; ecosystem; fossil fuels; history, globalization; human ecology; radiocarbon; sustainability; synchrony, ancient; humans; social change; socioeconomic factors; sociology; fossil fuel; article; bioenergy; biomass conversion; controlled study; cultural anthropology; environmental change; environmental sustainability; evolution; holocene; nonhuman; politics; population research; priority journal; social aspect; socioeconomics; archeology; ecosystem; history; human; social change; sociologyDepartment of Sociology Social Work, and Anthropology, Utah State University, Logan, 84322, UT, United States; Ecology Center, Utah State University, Logan, 84322, UT, United States; Department of Political Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, 32816, FL, United States; National Center for Integrated Coastal Research, Sustainable Coastal Cluster, Orlando, 32816, FL, United States; Department of Anthropology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, 82071, WY, United States; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago, 8370449, Chile; Far Western Anthropological Research Group Inc., Davis, 95618, CA, United States; School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, 85287, AZ, United States
Evolution of air quality in Santiago: The role of mobility and lessons from the science-policy interfaceGallardo L.; Barraza F.; Ceballos A.; Galleguillos M.; Huneeus N.; Lambert F.; Ibarra C.; Munizaga M.; O'Ryan R.; Osses M.; Tolvett S.; Urquiza A.; Véliz K.D.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes201810.1525/elementa.293Worldwide, urbanization constitutes a major and growing driver of global change and a distinctive feature of the Anthropocene. Thus, urban development paths present opportunities for technological and societal transformations towards energy efficiency and decarbonization, with benefits for both greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollution mitigation. This requires a better understanding of the intertwined dynamics of urban energy and land use, emissions, demographics, governance, and societal and biophysical processes. In this study, we address several characteristics of urbanization in Santiago (33.5°S, 70.5°W, 500 m a.s.l.), the capital city of Chile. Specifically, we focus on the multiple links between mobility and air quality, describe the evolution of these two aspects over the past 30 years, and review the role scientific knowledge has played in policy-making. We show evidence of how technological measures (e.g., fuel quality, three-way catalytic converters, diesel particle filters) have been successful in decreasing coarse mode aerosol (PM10) concentrations in Santiago despite increasing urbanization (e.g., population, motorization, urban sprawl). However, we also show that such measures will likely be insufficient if behavioral changes do not achieve an increase in the use of public transportation. Our investigation seeks to inform urban development in the Anthropocene, and our results may be useful for other developing countries, particularly in Latin America and the Caribbean where more than 80% of the population is urban. © 2018 The Author(s).Elementa23251026https://www.elementascience.org/article/10.1525/elementa.293/art386Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; latin america; aerosol; air quality; anthropocene; atmospheric pollution; capital city; climate change; developing world; energy efficiency; global change; greenhouse gas; mobility; particulate matter; policy making; pollution control; urban development; urban population; urban sprawl; urbanization, air quality; chile; climate mitigation; mobility; policy-science interface; urbanizationCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2, FONDAP15110009), Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, Chile; Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, Chile; Departmento de Ingeniería Civil, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas de la Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, Chile; Complex Engineering System Institute (ISCI), Santiago, Región Metropolitana, Chile; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias and Centro Earth, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, Chile; Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Escuela de Ingeniería Industrial, Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, Chile
Spatial and temporal disaggregation of the on-road vehicle emission inventory in a medium-sized Andean city. Comparison of GIS-based top-down methodologiesGómez C.D.; González C.M.; Osses M.; Aristizábal B.H.Ciudades Resilientes201810.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.01.049Emission data is an essential tool for understanding environmental problems associated with sources and dynamics of air pollutants in urban environments, especially those emitted from vehicular sources. There is a lack of knowledge about the estimation of air pollutant emissions and particularly its spatial and temporal distribution in South America, mainly in medium-sized cities with population less than one million inhabitants. This work performed the spatial and temporal disaggregation of the on-road vehicle emission inventory (EI) in the medium-sized Andean city of Manizales, Colombia, with a spatial resolution of 1 km × 1 km and a temporal resolution of 1 h. A reported top-down methodology, based on the analysis of traffic flow levels and road network distribution, was applied. Results obtained allowed the identification of several hotspots of emission at the downtown zone and the residential and commercial area of Manizales. Downtown exhibited the highest percentage contribution of emissions normalized by its total area, with values equal to 6% and 5% of total CO and PM10 emissions per km2 respectively. These indexes were higher than those obtained in residential-commercial area with values of 2%/km2 for both pollutants. Temporal distribution showed strong relationship with driving patterns at rush hours, as well as an important influence of passenger cars and motorcycles in emissions of CO both at downtown and residential-commercial areas, and the impact of public transport in PM10 emissions in the residential-commercial zone. Considering that detailed information about traffic counts and road network distribution is not always available in medium-sized cities, this work compares other simplified top-down methods for spatially assessing the on-road vehicle EI. Results suggested that simplified methods could underestimate the spatial allocation of downtown emissions, a zone dominated by high traffic of vehicles. The comparison between simplified methods based on total traffic counts and road density distribution suggested that the use of total traffic counts in a simplified form could enhance higher uncertainties in the spatial disaggregation of emissions. Results obtained could add new information that help to improve the air pollution management system in the city and contribute to local public policy decisions. Additionally, this work provides appropriate resolution emission fluxes for ongoing research in atmospheric modeling in the city, with the aim to improve the understanding of transport, transformation and impacts of pollutant emissions in urban air quality. © 2018 Elsevier LtdAtmospheric Environment13522310http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1352231018300633142-155179Thomson Reuters SCIEandes; caldas; colombia; manizales; south america; air quality; decision making; geographic information systems; housing; information management; particles (particulate matter); pollution; roads and streets; spatial distribution; traffic control; urban transportation; vehicles; emission inventories; medium-sized cities; on-road vehicle emissions; public policy decisions; spatial and temporal distribution; spatial disaggregation; top-down methods; vehicular emission; air quality; atmospheric modeling; comparative study; emission inventory; gis; pollutant source; public transport; spatiotemporal analysis; top-down approach; traffic emission; urban pollution; air quality; article; car driving; colombia; geographic information system; industrial area; motorcycle; particulate matter; priority journal; traffic; air pollution, emission inventories; geographic information systems; medium-sized cities; on-road vehicular emissions; top-down methodsHydraulic Engineering and Environmental Research Group, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Cra 27 64-60 Bloque H Palogrande, Manizales, Colombia; Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Vicuña Mackenna 3939, Santiago, Chile
VEIN v0.2.2: an R package for bottom-up vehicular emissions inventoriesIbarra-Espinosa S.; Ynoue R.; O'sullivan S.; Pebesma E.; De Fátima Andrade M.; Osses M.Ciudades Resilientes201810.5194/gmd-11-2209-2018Emission inventories are the quantification of pollutants from different sources. They provide important information not only for climate and weather studies but also for urban planning and environmental health protection. We developed an open-source model (called Vehicular Emissions Inventory-VEIN v0.2.2) that provides high-resolution vehicular emissions inventories for different fields of studies. We focused on vehicular sources at street and hourly levels due to the current lack of information about these sources, mainly in developing countries. The type of emissions covered by VEIN are exhaust (hot and cold) and evaporative considering the deterioration of the factors. VEIN also performs speciation and incorporates functions to generate and spatially allocate emissions databases. It allows users to load their own emission factors, but it also provides emission factors from the road transport model (Copert), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian databases. The VEIN model reads, distributes by age of use and extrapolates hourly traffic data, and it estimates emissions hourly and spatially. Based on our knowledge, VEIN is the first bottom-up vehicle emissions software that allows input to the WRF-Chem model. Therefore, the VEIN model provides an important, easy and fast way of elaborating or analyzing vehicular emissions inventories under different scenarios. The VEIN results can be used as an input for atmospheric models, health studies, air quality standardizations and decision making. © 2018 Author(s).Geoscientific Model Development1991959Xhttps://www.geosci-model-dev.net/11/2209/2018/2209-222911Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, brazil; united states; developing world; emission inventory; environmental protection; pollutant source; road transport; traffic emission; urban planningDepartment of Atmospheric Sciences, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Department of Pathology, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo 455, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Institute for Geoinformatics, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Heisenbergstrasse 2, D-Münster, 48149, Germany; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Vicuña Mackenna, Santiago, 3939, Chile
Indoor PM2.5 in an urban zone with heavy wood smoke pollution: The case of Temuco, ChileJorquera H.; Barraza F.; Heyer J.; Valdivia G.; Schiappacasse L.N.; Montoya L.D.Ciudades Resilientes201810.1016/j.envpol.2018.01.085Temuco is a mid-size city representative of severe wood smoke pollution in southern Chile; however, little is known about the indoor air quality in this region. A field measurement campaign at 63 households in the Temuco urban area was conducted in winter 2014 and is reported here. In this study, indoor and outdoor (24-hr) PM2.5 and its elemental composition were measured and compared. Infiltration parameters and outdoor/indoor contributions to indoor PM2.5 were also determined. A statistical evaluation of how various air quality interventions and household features influence indoor PM2.5 was also performed. This study determined median indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations of 44.4 and 41.8 μg/m3, respectively. An average infiltration factor (0.62 ± 0.06) was estimated using sulfur as a tracer species. Using a simple mass balance approach, median indoor and outdoor contributions to indoor PM2.5 concentrations were then estimated as 12.5 and 26.5 μg/m3, respectively; therefore, 68% of indoor PM2.5 comes from outdoor infiltration. This high percentage is due to high outdoor pollution and relatively high household air exchange rates (median: 1.06 h−1). This study found that S, Br and Rb were dominated by outdoor contributions, while Si, Ca, Ti, Fe and As originated from indoor sources. Using continuous indoor and outdoor PM2.5 measurements, a median indoor source strength of 75 μg PM2.5/min was estimated for the diurnal period, similar to literature results. For the evening period, the median estimate rose to 135 μg PM2.5/min, reflecting a more intense wood burning associated to cooking and space heating at night. Statistical test results (at the 90% confidence level) support the ongoing woodstove replacement program (reducing emissions) and household weatherization subsidies (reducing heating demand) for improving indoor air quality in southern Chile, and suggest that a cookstove improvement program might be helpful as well. In the city of Temuco, southern Chile, 68% of indoor PM2.5 comes from severe outdoor pollution due to intensive wood burning, enhanced by poor household building standards and fuel poverty. © 2018 Elsevier LtdEnvironmental Pollution02697491https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29414372477-487236Thomson Reuters SCIEhousehold infiltration; indoor air quality; sustainable urban development; woodstove replacement program, air pollutants; air pollution; air pollution, indoor; chile; cities; cooking; environmental monitoring; heating; humans; particulate matter; seasons; wood; araucania; chile; temuco; building codes; heating; indoor air pollution; smoke; software testing; urban growth; wood; arsenic; bromine; calcium; iron; rubidium; silicon; sulfur; titanium; elemental compositions; indoor air quality; infiltration factor; infiltration parameters; pm2.5 concentration; statistical evaluation; sustainable urban development; woodstove; air quality; cooking appliance; indoor air; infiltration; mass balance; particulate matter; smoke; sustainable development; urban atmosphere; wood; adult; air quality control; air sampling; ambient air; article; chemical composition; chile; circadian rhythm; cohort analysis; combustion; concentration (parameters); controlled study; cooking; environmental exposure; heating; household; human; indoor air pollution; night; particulate matter; smoke; urban area; winter; wood; air pollutant; air pollution; analysis; city; cooking; environmental monitoring; indoor air pollution; particulate matter; season; statistics and numerical data; air qualityDepartmento de Ingeniería Química y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; Departamento de Salud Pública, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Marcoleta 340, Santiago, 8330033, Chile; Núcleo de Energías Renovables, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Chile; Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, UCB 428, CO, United States
The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 - Part 1: Overview and over-arching analysis planKageyama M.; Braconnot P.; Harrison S.P.; Haywood A.M.; Jungclaus J.H.; Otto-Bliesner B.L.; Abe-Ouchi A.; Albani S.; Bartlein P.J.; Brierley C.; Crucifix M.; Dolan A.; Fernandez-Donado L.L.; Fischer H.; Hopcroft P.O.; Ivanovic R.F.; Lambert F.; Lunt D.J.; Mahowald N.M.; Richard Peltier W.; Phipps S.J.; Roche D.M.; Schmidt G.A.; Tarasov L.; Valdes P.J.; Zhang Q.; Zhou T.Ciudades Resilientes201810.5194/gmd-11-1033-2018This paper is the first of a series of four GMD papers on the PMIP4-CMIP6 experiments. Part 2 (Otto-Bliesner et al., 2017) gives details about the two PMIP4-CMIP6 interglacial experiments, Part 3 (Jungclaus et al., 2017) about the last millennium experiment, and Part 4 (Kageyama et al., 2017) about the Last Glacial Maximum experiment. The mid-Pliocene Warm Period experiment is part of the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) - Phase 2, detailed in Haywood et al. (2016).

The goal of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) is to understand the response of the climate system to different climate forcings for documented climatic states very different from the present and historical climates. Through comparison with observations of the environmental impact of these climate changes, or with climate reconstructions based on physical, chemical, or biological records, PMIP also addresses the issue of how well state-of-the-art numerical models simulate climate change. Climate models are usually developed using the present and historical climates as references, but climate projections show that future climates will lie well outside these conditions. Palaeoclimates very different from these reference states therefore provide stringent tests for state-of-the-art models and a way to assess whether their sensitivity to forcings is compatible with palaeoclimatic evidence. Simulations of five different periods have been designed to address the objectives of the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6): the millennium prior to the industrial epoch (CMIP6 name: past1000); the mid-Holocene, 6000 years ago (midHolocene); the Last Glacial Maximum, 21ĝ€000 years ago (lgm); the Last Interglacial, 127ĝ€000 years ago (lig127k); and the mid-Pliocene Warm Period, 3.2 million years ago (midPliocene-eoi400). These climatic periods are well documented by palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental records, with climate and environmental changes relevant for the study and projection of future climate changes. This paper describes the motivation for the choice of these periods and the design of the numerical experiments and database requests, with a focus on their novel features compared to the experiments performed in previous phases of PMIP and CMIP. It also outlines the analysis plan that takes advantage of the comparisons of the results across periods and across CMIP6 in collaboration with other MIPs. © Author(s) 2018.
Geoscientific Model Development1991959Xhttps://www.geosci-model-dev.net/11/1033/2018/1033-105711Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, climate change; climate forcing; climate prediction; climate variation; cmip; environmental impact; holocene; last glacial maximum; last interglacial; paleoclimate; paleoenvironment; plioceneLaboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91191, France; Centre for Past Climate Change and School of Archaeology, Geography and Environmental Science (SAGES) University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6AH, United Kingdom; School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom; Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstrasse 53, Hamburg, 20146, Germany; National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1850 Table Mesa Drive, Boulder, 80305, CO, United States; Atmosphere Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, 277-8564, Japan; Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showamachi, Kanazawa, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 236-0001, Japan; Institute for Geophysics and Meteorology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; Department of Geography, University of Oregon, Eugene, 97403-1251, OR, United States; University College London, Department of Geography, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom; Université Catholique de Louvain, Earth and Life Institute, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Dpto. Física de la Tierra, Astronomía y Astrofísica II, Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC-UCM), Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain; Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, Bern, 3012, Switzerland; School of Geographical Sciences, Un...
Towards an environmental education for a complex society. an analysis from the social systems theory; [Hacia una educación ambiental para una sociedad compleja. Un análisis desde la teoría de sistemas sociales]Labraña J.; Amigo C.; Cortés J.; Gómez E.; Moreno J.; Muñoz M.C.Ciudades Resilientes201810.5354/0719-0527.2018.53283As a result of the multiple ecological problems affecting contemporary society, environmental education has become increasingly important in recent decades. However, despite its importance, this concern does not seem to have gone hand in hand with the consideration of environmental education within the framework of a complex enought sociological theory. As we will argue in this article, this has had important effects in the conceptualization of environmental education, which is hence generally described as a process of ethical socialization with the aim of improving society. Using the distinctions of Luhmann's social systems theory of social systems between a) psychic and social systems and b) different functional systems, we will propose an understanding of environmental education as an intentional effort to socialize about the relationship between society and its physical environment, which, as part of the communications of a specialized system, reflect society's form of differentiation. Once this definition is proposed, we will propose a model of environmental education for a functionally differentiated society, taking Chile as example. The article closes with a summary, future lines of research and policy recommendations. © 2018 Universidad de Chile. All rights reserved.Revista Mad07180527https://doi.org/10.5354/0719-0527.2018.5328313-45Thomson Reuters ESCInan, ecological rationality; environment; environmental education; social systems theory; socializationCentro de Políticas Comparadas de Educación, Universidad Diego Portales, Chile; Red de Pobreza Energética, Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Red de Pobreza Energética, Programa de Riesgo Sísmico (PRS), Universidad de Chile, Chile; Facultad de Economía y Empresa, Universidad Diego Portales, Chile; Área Trabajo Social, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de Chile, Chile
Impact of residential combustion and transport emissions on air pollution in Santiago during winterMazzeo A.; Huneeus N.; Ordoñez C.; Orfanoz-Cheuquelaf A.; Menut L.; Mailler S.; Valari M.; Denier van der Gon H.; Gallardo L.; Muñoz R.; Donoso R.; Galleguillos M.; Osses M.; Tolvett S.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes201810.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.06.043Santiago (33.5°S, 70.5°W), the capital of Chile, is frequently affected by extreme air pollution events during wintertime deteriorating air quality (AQ) and thus affecting the health of its population. Intense residential heating and on-road transport emissions combined with poor circulation and vertical mixing are the main factors responsible for these events. A modelling system composed of a chemistry-transport model (CHIMERE) and a meteorological model (WRF) was implemented to assess the AQ impacts of residential and transportation sources in the Santiago basin. A two-week period of July 2015 with various days with poor AQ was simulated focusing on the impact on AQ with respect to fully inhalable particles (PM2.5) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Three emission scenarios, within the range of targeted reductions of the decontamination plan of Santiago, were tested; namely 50% reduction of residential emission, 50% reduction of transport emissions and the combination of both. An additional scenario decreasing transport emissions in 10% was carried out to examine whether a linear dependence of surface concentrations on changes in emissions exists. The system was validated against surface and vertically resolved meteorological measurements. The model reproduces the daily surface concentration variability from the AQ monitoring network of Santiago. However, the model not fully captures the emissions variations inferred from the observations which may be due to missing sources such as resuspension of dust. Results show that, during the period studied, although both residential and transportation sources contribute to observed AQ levels in Santiago, reducing transport emissions is more effective in terms of reducing the number of days with pollution events than decreasing residential combustion. This difference in impact is largely due to the spatial distribution of the emission sources. While most of the residential combustion is emitted in the outskirts of the city, most of the transport emissions occur within the city, where most of the stations from AQ monitoring network of Santiago are located. As can be expected, the largest improvement of AQ in Santiago is achieved by the combined reduction of emissions in both sectors. Sensitivity analysis with 10% reduction in transport emissions reveals a linear behavior between emissions and concentrations for NOX and approximate linear behavior for PM2.5. The absence of secondary aerosols formation and dust resuspension in the current simulation could explain this deviation from linearity for fine particles. Nevertheless, it suggests that the results can be used for mitigation policies with emissions reductions below the 50% used in this study. © 2018 Elsevier LtdAtmospheric Environment13522310https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1352231018304345195-208190Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; metropolitana; air quality; combustion; dust; housing; nitrogen oxides; roads and streets; sensitivity analysis; nitrogen oxide; chemistry transport model; meteorological measurements; meteorological modeling; mitigation policies; on-road emissions; pm2.5; residential emissions; road transport emissions; air quality; atmospheric modeling; atmospheric pollution; climate modeling; combustion; environmental factor; extreme event; mitigation; nitrogen oxides; particulate matter; pollutant source; pollutant transport; pollution effect; pollution monitoring; pollution policy; public health; residential location; road traffic; spatial distribution; traffic emission; winter; air pollution; airborne particle; article; chile; combustion; concentration (parameters); exhaust gas; meteorology; model; particle size; priority journal; residential area; surface property; traffic and transport; winter; atmospheric movements, air quality; mitigation policies; nox; on-road emissions; pm2.5; residential emissionsCenter for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, FONDAP 1511009, Departamento de Geofísica, U. de Chile Blanco Encalada, Santiago, 2002, Chile; Departamento de Geofísica, Faculdad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Ecole Polytechnique, IPSL Research University, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Université, Paris-Saclay, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Paris, France; Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, TNO Utrecht, Netherlands; Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Santiago, Chile; Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Maria, Santiago, Chile; Escuela de Mecánica, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana (UTEM), Santiago, Chile
Co-construction of energy solutions: Lessons learned from experiences in ChileMontedonico M.; Herrera-Neira F.; Marconi A.; Urquiza A.; Palma-Behnke R.Ciudades Resilientes201810.1016/j.erss.2018.08.004The Energy Center has developed a co-construction methodology to address the challenges of technology transfer-based on distributed generation projects- in the context of energy transitions in isolated locations. Based on the experiences developed between 2010 and 2017, this paper analyses the process of preparing the Co-construction methodology. New tools were identified under the light of a theoretical-methodological reflection and a new version of co-construction methodology is proposed from this discussion. This learning process combines academic research and applied projects. It has provided Energy Center with an improved set of tools for current projects, and also contributed to a theoretical-methodological discussion based on new research activities. The main problems of method faced are presented during interdisciplinary work, such as: common understanding of fundamental concepts (sustainability, participation, community); the domination of one discipline over the others; the different visions of the priorities within the same project. And those problems given by the participation process under the paradox of “framing-overflowing” where the constraints of actual projects (deadlines, budget, and specific KPIs) could limit the possibility of performing in depth diagnostics and building trust. One of the main challenges identified is that an actual impact on the overall experience is only feasible if lessons can be translated into concrete products (best practices, guidelines, tools), so can be adopted by future project developers. © 2018 Elsevier LtdEnergy Research and Social Science22146296https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2214629618308351173-18345Thomson Reuters SSCInan, co-construction; interdisciplinarity; participation; sociotechnical systemsEnergy Center, University of Chile, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, University of Chile, Chile; Energy Center, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Chile, Chile
Onset and Evolution of Southern Annular Mode-Like Changes at Centennial TimescaleMoreno P.I.; Vilanova I.; Villa-Martínez R.; Dunbar R.B.; Mucciarone D.A.; Kaplan M.R.; Garreaud R.D.; Rojas M.; Moy C.M.; De Pol-Holz R.; Lambert F.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes; Agua y Extremos201810.1038/s41598-018-21836-6The Southern Westerly Winds (SWW) are the surface expression of geostrophic winds that encircle the southern mid-latitudes. In conjunction with the Southern Ocean, they establish a coupled system that not only controls climate in the southern third of the world, but is also closely connected to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and CO2 degassing from the deep ocean. Paradoxically, little is known about their behavior since the last ice age and relationships with mid-latitude glacier history and tropical climate variability. Here we present a lake sediment record from Chilean Patagonia (51°S) that reveals fluctuations of the low-level SWW at mid-latitudes, including strong westerlies during the Antarctic Cold Reversal, anomalously low intensity during the early Holocene, which was unfavorable for glacier growth, and strong SWW since ∼7.5 ka. We detect nine positive Southern Annular Mode-like events at centennial timescale since ∼5.8 ka that alternate with cold/wet intervals favorable for glacier expansions (Neoglaciations) in southern Patagonia. The correspondence of key features of mid-latitude atmospheric circulation with shifts in tropical climate since ∼10 ka suggests that coherent climatic shifts in these regions have driven climate change in vast sectors of the Southern Hemisphere at centennial and millennial timescales. © 2018 The Author(s).Scientific Reports20452322http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-21836-6art34588Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, antarctica; article; climate change; cold stress; glaciation; holocene; lake sediment; latitude; southern hemisphere; tropic climate; writingDepartamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; CONICET, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires, Argentina; GAIA, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; School of Earth Energy and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States; Department of Geochemistry, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY, United States; Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Geology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Departamento de Geografiá Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Chronology, stratigraphy and hydrological modelling of extensive wetlands and paleolakes in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert during the late quaternaryPfeiffer M.; Latorre C.; Santoro C.M.; Gayo E.M.; Rojas R.; Carrevedo M.L.; McRostie V.B.; Finstad K.M.; Heimsath A.; Jungers M.C.; De Pol-Holz R.; Amundson R.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes201810.1016/j.quascirev.2018.08.001The halite-encrusted salt pans (salars) present at low elevations in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile are unique features of one of the driest and possibly oldest deserts on Earth. Here we show that these landscapes were shallow freshwater lakes and wetlands during the last glacial period and formed periodically between ∼46.9 ka and 7.7 ka. The moisture appears to have been sourced from increased Andean runoff and most of our chronologies for these deposits were coeval with the Central Andean Pluvial Event (17.5–14.2 ka and 13.8–9.7 ka), but we also find evidence for older as well as slightly younger wet phases. These environments supported a diverse hygrophytic-halophytic vegetation, as well as an array of diatoms and gastropods. Using a regional hydrological model, we estimate that recharge rates from 1.5 to 4 times present were required to activate and maintain these wetlands in the past. Activation in the late Pleistocene was part of a regional enhancement of water resources, extending from the Andes, downstream and through riparian corridors, to the lowest and most arid portions of the desert itself. This fundamentally unique environment was encountered by the earliest human explorers in the region, and most likely facilitated migration and encampments on a landscape that at present lacks macroscopic life on its surface. © 2018 Elsevier LtdQuaternary Science Reviews02773791https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0277379117310521224-245197Thomson Reuters SCIEatacama desert; hyperaridity; late quaternary; paleogeography; sedimentology; south america; wetlands, andes; atacama desert; chile; chile; bacillariophyta; gastropoda; arid regions; hydrology; sedimentology; sodium chloride; stratigraphy; water resources; atacama desert; hyperaridity; late quaternary; paleogeography; south america; arid region; aridity; chronology; gastropod; hydrological modeling; lake; paleoclimate; paleogeography; pleistocene; recharge; salt pan; sedimentology; stratigraphy; wetland; wetlandsDepartment of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California Berkeley, 130 Mulford Hall, Berkeley, 94720, CA, United States; Departamento de Ingeniería y Suelos, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Santa Rosa, 11315, La Pintana, Chile; Departamento de Ecología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro UC del Desierto de Atacama, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Casilla 6-D, Antofagasta, 1520, Arica, Chile; Laboratory for Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry, Departamento de Oceanografía, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile; , Chile; CSIRO Land & Water, Po Box 2583, Brisbane, 4001, QLD, Australia; Departamento de Antropología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, 94550, CA, United States; School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, ISTB4, Room 795, 781 E. Terrace Road, Tempe, 85287, AZ, United States; Department of Geosciences, 306 Olin Science Hall, Denison College, 100 West College Street, Granville, 43023, OH, United States; GAIA-Antártica, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile
Local and remote black carbon sources in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos AiresResquin M.D.; Santágata D.; Gallardo L.; Gómez D.; Rössler C.; Dawidowski L.Ciudades Resilientes201810.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.03.018Equivalent black carbon (EBC) mass concentrations in the fine inhalable fraction of airborne particles (PM2.5) were determined using a 7-wavelength Aethalometer for 17 months, between November 2014 and March 2016, for a suburban location of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA), Argentina. In addition to describing seasonal and diurnal black carbon (BC) cycles for the first time in this region, the relative contributions of fossil fuel and remote and local biomass burning were determined by distinguishing different carbonaceous components based on their effect on light attenuation for different wavelengths. Trajectory analyses and satellite-based fire products were used to illustrate the impact of long-range transport of particles emitted by non-local sources. EBC data showed a marked diurnal cycle, largely modulated by traffic variations and the height of the boundary layer, and a seasonal cycle with monthly median EBC concentrations (in μg/m3) ranging from 1.5 (February) to 3.4 (June). Maximum values were found during winter due to the combination of prevailingly stable atmospheric conditions and the increase of fossil fuel emissions, derived primarily from traffic and biomass burning from the domestic use of wood for heating. The use of charcoal grills was also detected and concentrated during weekends. The average contribution of fossil fuel combustion sources to EBC concentrations was 96%, with the remaining 4% corresponding to local and regional biomass burning. During the entire study period, only two events were identified during which EBC concentrations attributed to regional biomass burning accounted for over 50% of total EBC; these events demonstrate the relevance of agricultural and forestry activities that take place far from the city yet whose emissions can affect the urban atmosphere of the MABA. © 2018 The AuthorsAtmospheric Environment13522310http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1352231018301560105-114182Thomson Reuters SCIEargentina; buenos aires [argentina]; aerosols; biomass; boundary layers; carbon; charcoal; black carbon; equivalent black carbon; fossil fuel; unclassified drug; atmospheric conditions; biomass-burning; black carbon; carbonaceous components; fossil fuel combustion; fossil fuel emissions; megacities; relative contribution; aerosol; anthropogenic source; biomass burning; black carbon; boundary layer; concentration (composition); diurnal variation; fossil fuel; long range transport; metropolitan area; particle size; pollutant transport; seasonal variation; wavelength; aerosol; agriculture; airborne particle; argentina; article; atmospheric transport; attenuation; autumn; biomass burning; boundary layer; carbon source; circadian rhythm; combustion; concentration (parameters); exhaust gas; fire and fire related phenomena; forestry; heating; light; mass; particulate matter; priority journal; satellite imagery; seasonal variation; spatiotemporal analysis; spring; suburban area; summer; traffic; winter; wood; fossil fuels, aerosols; biomass burning; black carbon; fossil fuels; megacityComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Gerencia Química, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín, B1650KNA, Pcia. Buenos Aires, Argentina; Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av Paseo Colón 850, Buenos Aires, C1063ACV, Argentina; Blanco Encalada, Santiago, 2002, Chile; Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental, 25 de Mayo y Francia, San Martín, B1650KNA, Pcia. Buenos Aires, Argentina; Departamento de Geofísica, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada, Santiago, 2002, Chile
The tarapacá declaration: "A waterless people is a dead people"; [Acta de tarapacá: "Pueblo sin agua, pueblo muerto"]Santoro C.M.; Castro V.; Capriles J.M.; Barraza J.; Correa J.; Marquet P.A.; McRostie V.; Gayo E.M.; Latorre C.; Valenzuela D.; Uribe M.; de Porras M.E.; Standen V.G.; Angelo D.; Maldonado A.; Hamamé E.; Jofré D.Ciudades Resilientes201810.4067/S0717-73562018000200169[No abstract available]Chungara07161182http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-73562018000200169&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en169-17450Thomson Reuters SSCIInstituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad Alberto Hurtado, Santiago, Chile; Department of Anthropology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, United States; Departamento de Ecología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Laboratorio Internacional en Cambio Global (LINCGlobal), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad (IEB), Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centro UC Desierto de Atacama, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Laboratory for Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry, Universidad de Concepción, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile; Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA - CCT CONICET Mendoza), Argentina; Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas áridas (CEAZA), Universidad de La Serena, La Serena, Chile; Escuela de Ciencia Política, Instituto Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Chile
In and out of glacial extremes by way of dust−climate feedbacksShaffer G.; Lambert F.Ciudades Resilientes201810.1073/pnas.1708174115Mineral dust aerosols cool Earth directly by scattering incoming solar radiation and indirectly by affecting clouds and biogeochemical cycles. Recent Earth history has featured quasi-100,000-y, glacial−interglacial climate cycles with lower/higher temperatures and greenhouse gas concentrations during glacials/interglacials. Global average, glacial maxima dust levels were more than 3 times higher than during interglacials, thereby contributing to glacial cooling. However, the timing, strength, and overall role of dust−climate feedbacks over these cycles remain unclear. Here we use dust deposition data and temperature reconstructions from ice sheet, ocean sediment, and land archives to construct dust−climate relationships. Although absolute dust deposition rates vary greatly among these archives, they all exhibit striking, nonlinear increases toward coldest glacial conditions. From these relationships and reconstructed temperature time series, we diagnose glacial−interglacial time series of dust radiative forcing and iron fertilization of ocean biota, and use these time series to force Earth system model simulations. The results of these simulations show that dust−climate feedbacks, perhaps set off by orbital forcing, push the system in and out of extreme cold conditions such as glacial maxima. Without these dust effects, glacial temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations would have been much more stable at higher, intermediate glacial levels. The structure of residual anomalies over the glacial−interglacial climate cycles after subtraction of dust effects provides constraints for the strength and timing of other processes governing these cycles.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America00278424http://www.pnas.org/lookup/doi/10.1073/pnas.17081741152026-2031115Thomson Reuters SCIEcarbon dioxide; ice; atmospheric deposition; climate; cold; concentration (parameters); conference paper; controlled study; dust; dust radiative forcing; environmental parameters; glacial maxima; glacial period; glaciation; interglacial; iron fertilization forcing; land use; priority journal; sea; sediment; simulation; temperature; time series analysis, carbon cycling; dust forcing; earth system modeling; glacial−interglacial climate cyclesGAIA, Antartica Research Center, University of Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen OE, 2100, Denmark; Department of Physical Geography, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
Metalogue as a transdisciplinary collaboration tool; [Metálogo como herramienta de colaboración transdisciplinaria]Urquiza A.; Amigo C.; Billi M.; Brandão G.; Morales B.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes201810.4067/S0717-554X2018000200182Contemporary society shows an increasing demand for participatory instances able to effectively foster the collaboration of diverse organizational, disciplinary and socio-cultural areas. The challenges intrinsic to such participatory instances require the development of methodologies that may allow for the insertion of reflexivity within the dialogical interaction, while also promoting the collective construction of "boundary objects": such objects, in turn, by serving as a common reference for the different perspectives involved in the dialogue, have the potential of facilitating the future collaboration among such perspectives. To respond to these demands -and inspired by the notion of metalogue originally introduced by Gregory Bateson- this paper elaborates a systemic-constructivist proposal of observation and contextual intervention, aimed at fostering reflexivity within dialogical-participatory instances by inducing their participants to perform a second-order observation of the distinctions mobilized within the interaction. Building upon this reflexivity, the metalogue pursues the co-construction of documents able to coordinate the perspectives of the participants and the expectations of the structural and organizational arrangements in which they operate. In addition to justifying and describing the technique of the metalogue, the paper highlights some lessons learned, good practices and proposals derived from its application in various transdisciplinary experiences in Chile. © 2018 Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales. All rights reserved.Cinta de Moebio0717554Xhttps://doi.org/10.4067/S0717-554X2018000200182182-19862Thomson Reuters ESCIconstructivist; contextual intervention; interface; policy; reflexivity; science; transdiscipline, nanCentro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Análisis Sistémico aplicado a la Sociedad, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Escuela de Gobierno, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, Chile; Núcleo de Innovación Tecnológica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Espaciales, São José dos Campos, Brazil
Participatory energy transitions as boundary objects: The case of Chile's Energía2050Urquiza A.; Amigo C.; Billi M.; Espinosa P.Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes201810.3389/fenrg.2018.00134This paper analyzes the use of "participatory futures" within the context of energy transition, paying special attention to the case of Chile's long-term energy policy. Our main aim is to question the role of "participation" in such a context and particularly, to decouple the operative function of participation from its normative function. Structurally, we argue that the construction of a joint vision of desired energy futures must be understood as a deliberate attempt at governing the energy transition by way of governing the expectations of the actors and systems involved in it. Participatory approaches can promote the co-construction of such energy futures in the form of a boundary-object, able to resonate with and provide a common reference to the actors participating in its creation. On the other hand, participatory approaches can also be a way to make transitions more democratic, subjecting it to a broader influence and control from the citizenship. These two functions of "participation" are always potentially at odds with one another. Democratizing the transition, in fact, would require producing plural, dynamical imaginaries that are responsive and accountable to the public. On the contrary, the need to make transitions governable may close-up such imaginaries and narrow-down the participatory efforts to foster their normalization and acceptability on the part of the most influential actors in the self-government of the transition. To refine and exemplify our proposal, we perform a qualitative, exploratory case study of Chile's E2050 energy policy. Our findings show that "participation" may indeed have been used in the case to align partially conflicting expectations around a collectively-defined boundary object which may then act as a form of contextual, anticipatory and polycentric governance of the transition. However, from a democratic perspective, E2050 appears as a tokenization of the public in support of a pre-eminently technical and monolithic vision enacted by the Energy Ministry and the Consultative Committee. Within this context, the actual influence of the public on the policy and the possibility for political contestation are much more questionable. © 2018 Urquiza, Amigo, Billi and Espinosa.Frontiers in Energy Research2296598Xhttps://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fenrg.2018.00134/fullart1346Thomson Reuters SCIEboundary object; chile; deliberative democracy; energy transitions; energía2050; polycentric governance; public participation, energy policy; boundary objects; chile; deliberative democracy; energy transitions; polycentric governance; public participation; public policySocial Sciences Faculty, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Centre for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Energy Poverty Network, Santiago, Chile; School of Government, Adolfo Ibáñez University, Santiago, Chile; Earth System Governance Project, Lund, Sweden
Megafires in Chile 2017: Monitoring multiscale environmental impacts of burned ecosystemsde la Barrera F.; Barraza F.; Favier P.; Ruiz V.; Quense J.Ciudades Resilientes201810.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.05.119During the summer of 2017, several megafires in South-Central Chile burned down forest plantations, native forests, shrublands and human settlements. National authorities identified the relevant effects of the wildfires on infrastructure and ecosystems. However, other indirect effects such as the risk of flooding or, increased air pollution were not assessed. The present study assesses: i) the geographic characterization of wildfires, ii) amount of damage to ecosystems and the severity of wildfires, iii) the effects of megafires on air quality in nearby and distant urban areas, and iv) identification of cities potentially exposed to landslides and flooding. We ran remote sensing analyses based on the Normalized Burn Ratio taken from Landsat imagery, “active fires” from MODIS, and ASTER GDEM. The particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) levels measured on 34 Chilean's municipalities were correlated with the burning area/distance ratio by Spearman correlation. Socionatural hazards were evaluated using multi-criteria analyses combining proximity to burned areas, severity, potential flow of water and sediments as indicated by the Digital Elevation Model, drainage networks and the location of human settlements. 91 burned areas were identified, covering 529,794 ha. The most affected ecosystems were forest plantations and native shrublands. We found significant correlations between burned area/distance ratios and PM2.5 and PM10 levels, leading to increased levels over the Chilean air quality standard in the most populated cities. 37 human settlements were at increased risk of landslides and flooding hazards after fires and eleven could now be characterized as dangerously exposed. The 2017 wildfires in Chile have had an impact at both a small and large scale, with far-reaching air pollutants dispersing and affecting >74% of the Chilean population. The impact of the wildfires was also extended over time, creating future potential for landslides and flooding, with the risk increasing in rainy seasons. © 2018Science of the Total Environment00489697http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00489697183176011526-1536637-638Thomson Reuters SCIEchile; air pollution; air quality; damage detection; fires; floods; forestry; hazards; landslides; particles (particulate matter); remote sensing; risk assessment; digital elevation model; ecosystem services; impact of wildfires; multi criteria analysis; natural hazard; particulate matter; remote sensing analysis; spearman correlation; air quality; atmospheric pollution; ecosystem service; environmental impact assessment; environmental monitoring; geographical variation; remote sensing; risk assessment; wildfire; air pollution; air quality; article; atmospheric dispersion; chile; city; ecosystem health; environmental impact assessment; environmental monitoring; flooding; forest; hazard assessment; land drainage; landslide; particle size; particulate matter; priority journal; remote sensing; scrub; sediment; spatial analysis; urban area; water flow; wildfire; ecosystems, air pollution; ecosystem services; ecosystems; impact of wildfires; risk assessment; socio-natural hazardsFaculty of Architecture, Urbanism and Geography, University of Concepcion, Chile; Center for Sustainable Urban Development (CEDEUS), Chile; Institute of Geography, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Chile; Research Center for Integrated Disaster Risk Management (CIGIDEN), Chile
Economía de la Pobreza Energética ¿Por qué y cómo garantizar un acceso universal y equitativo a la energía?Billi,Marco;Amigo,Catalina;Calvo,Rubén;Urquiza,Anahí;Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política201810.15691./07194714.2018.006The aspiration to guarantee a universal and equitable access to modern and nonpolluting energies, and specifically the notion of ‘energy poverty’, have lately been gaining increasing relevance as objectives of social policy. However, there lacks a profound reflection on the economic justifications and considerations that could motivate and guide public initiatives in this direction, especially for what concerns Chile. Although the existence of failures in the private provision of energy can lay the foundations for a public intervention in the sector, they are not enough to justify minimum consumption standards as those required by the idea of e nergy poverty. Such standards, on the contrary, are consistent with an understanding of energy as a merit good, a good whose consumption should be propitiated independently of the preferences of its beneficiaries. The above observation is enhanced considering the growing emphasis placed by the specialized literature on transiting from definitions of energy poverty limited to the lack of economic or technological opportunities for the access to energy, towards more comprehensive and multidimensional understandings of the phenomenon. Within the latter, energy poverty must be understood in relation with the effective capacity of every person and household to access energy services adequate to meet their needs. In turn, this places a new emphasis on the equalization of the effective benefits that energy provides to its users –as opposed to, the mere equalization of the opportunity of gaining access to the energy services that the market provides. This shift in attention should lead to give increased relevance to the incorporation of recent findings from behavioural economics, regarding the understanding and intervention of the contexts, habits and consumption decisions from which those benefits depend.Economía y Política0719-4803http://www.economiaypolitica.cl/index.php/eyp/article/view/58/6335-655Not Indexed
Co-construcción en proyectos de generación distribuida con energía solar: participación de la comunidad en el proyecto Ayllu SolarMontedonico,Marcia;Herrera-Neira,Francisca;Marconi,Andrés;Urquiza,Anahí;Ciudades Resilientes2018The level of participation of communities in distributed generation projects is a fundamental challenge for energy transition processes. Based on the experience of the Ayllu Solar project in the implementation of the co-construction methodology, this article debate on the participation of the communities in the development of energy projects, identifying learning and challenges. In this context, it is emphasized that for the success of the participatory processes it is necessary to have a thorough diagnosis of the territory; develop a proposal with sociocultural relevance; establish clear rules for the operation of work teams; work with organizations previously constituted, among others key aspects. In turn, it was possible to identify four types of barriers for the implementation of the Methodology in the territory: temporal, territorial, educational and sociocultural. Finally. two critical aspects were identified for the development of projects of this type: the tension caused by the existence of several understandings in the multidisciplinary teams on the scope of local participation, on the other hand, the contradictions and difficulties marked by the distrust generated by projects that are promoted local development, but based on the development of extractive industry. Both aspects pose great challenges for the participation and sustainability of this type of projects.Revista Estudios Avanzados0718-5014https://www.revistas.usach.cl/ojs/index.php/ideas/article/view/33974-22Thomson Reuters ESCI
Informe final Océano y NDCMoraga Sariego,Pilar;Farías,Laura;Delgado,Verónica;Urquiza,Anahí;Morales,Bárbara;Ciudades Resilientes; Zonas Costeras; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2018El Acuerdo de París sobre Cambio Climático establece como obligación para los países firmantes presentar una Contribución Nacionalmente Determinada (Nationally Determined Contributions, o NDCs) y revisarla cada cinco años. Es por esta razón que la NDC de Chile está siendo sometida a un proceso de revisión con el propósito de identificar oportunidades de actualización y refinamiento de su primera versión. El Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, responsable de llevar a cabo esta actualización, se ha propuesto incorporar la protección y conservación del océano en dicho proceso, en conformidad con los objetivos planteados en la declaración “Because the Ocean”, así como en el “Ocean Pathway Platform” lanzado por la Presidencia de la COP23. Para ello se estableció un marco de colaboración técnica entre el Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, el Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2 y el Centro de Derecho Ambiental (CDA) de la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de Chile, entre los meses de diciembre de 2017 y abril de 2018, con el objeto de generar un informe sobre la incorporación del océano en la NDC de Chile, a la luz de la agenda oceánica y en concordancia con los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sustentable (ODS).https://www.cr2.cl/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/informe_oceano_NDC.pdfNot Indexed
Vulnerabilidad de las Mujeres Indígenas del norte de Chile frente al Cambio ClimáticoONU Mujeres,;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes2018Este documento, elaborado en el marco del Programa “Origi-
narias: Empoderamiento de Mujeres Indígenas del Norte de
Chile para el Desarrollo Sostenible” de ONU Mujeres Chile y
apoyado por Teck Resources, presenta un análisis con enfo-
que de género de las percepciones de riesgo y vulnerabilidad
ante el cambio climático de las mujeres indígenas de la ma-
crozona del norte de Chile, específicamente de las regiones
de Tarapacá, Antofagasta y Atacama, incorporando en este
análisis las condiciones actuales y proyecciones futuras del
clima en esta macrozona.
La Convención Marco de Naciones Unidades para el Cam-
bio Climático en su 22a Conferencia de las Partes, reiteró su
compromiso de incorporar el enfoque de género en la acción
climática y los mecanismos de financiamiento, debido por
una parte, a que las desigualdades de género existentes pro-
bablemente se verán exacerbadas por el cambio climático y
por otra, a que la capacidad de agencia, el conocimiento y el
liderazgo de las mujeres en la acción climática para la miti-
gación, la adaptación, el manejo de desastres y su capacidad
de resiliencia, se reconocen como factores esenciales para el
logro de los objetivos del Convenio.
https://www.cr2.cl/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/ONU-Mujeres-Vulnerabilidad-mujeres-indigenas-norte-Chile-CC.pdfNot Indexed
Simulaciones climáticas regionalesRojas,Maisa;Gallardo,Laura;Bozkurt,Deniz;Agua y Extremos; Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2018El Ministerio del Medio Ambiente contrató en 2016 el presente estudio a un equipo multidisciplinario del Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2 a través de la Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas de la Universidad de Chile, el que fue desarrollado durante el año 2017. El propósito del proyecto fue generar proyecciones climáticas para Chile a través de la modelación climática a escala regional. Dicha información busca aportar a la correcta estimación de la vulnerabilidad del país, y está disponible en una plataforma interactiva que permite apoyar el diseño de políticas públicas. Este informe de síntesis presenta los resultados del análisis de los estudios de vulnerabilidad socio-ambiental del país, y plantea una propuesta conceptual y un protocolo de estandarización para este tipo de estudios, además de algunas consideraciones generales y recomendaciones basadas en la revisión de la literatura existente sobre la vulnerabilidad de distintos sectores y ámbitos territoriales y tecnológicos del país frente al cambio climático, así como las principales vulnerabilidades institucionales y brechas de conocimiento.https://cambioclimatico.mma.gob.cl/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Simulaciones-climaticas-regionales-2018.pdf27Not Indexed
Guía de referencia para la plataforma de visualización de simulaciones climáticasRojas,Maisa;Gallardo,Laura;Muñoz,Francisca;Valdebenito,Nancy;Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2018El Ministerio del Medio Ambiente contrató en 2016 el presente estudio a un equipo multidisciplinario del Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2 a través de la Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas de la Universidad de Chile, el que fue desarrollado durante el año 2017. El propósito del estudio consistió en generar información de proyecciones climáticas para Chile a través de la modelación climática a escala regional para la correcta estimación de la vulnerabilidad del país, y que, a su vez, esté disponible en una plataforma interactiva que permita apoyar el diseño de políticas públicas del país. Este informe de síntesis sirve como guía de referencia para el uso de la plataforma de visualización de simulaciones (http://simulaciones.cr2.cl). El objetivo principal de la plataforma es proveer información de proyecciones climáticas a distintas instituciones de gobierno, comunidad científica y otros actores que lo requieran. La compilación y organización de las bases de datos grillados se realiza en la plataforma de almacenamiento del (CR)2 y es accesible de forma abierta en http://simulaciones.cr2.cl/descargas. La plataforma de visualización incluye resultados de simulaciones climáticas globales y regionales, realizadas por grupos en Chile y el extranjero, así como datos observacionales en formato grillado desarrollados por el (CR)2 y otros grupos e instituciones. La plataforma genera mapas, tablas, gráficos y series de tiempo para el dominio de Sudamérica, Chile y macrozonas de Chile predefinidas, así como para polígonos o puntos definidos en forma dinámica. Las palabras claves y algunos conceptos (marcados en color rojo) se definen en la sección IV: ‘Glosario de conceptos’, en tanto que las siglas (en azul) se encuentran en la sección V: ‘Siglas y acrónimos’. Las referencias bibliográficas se listan en la sección VI: ‘Referencias Bibliográficas’.https://cambioclimatico.mma.gob.cl/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Guia-para-la-Plataforma-de-visualizacion-de-simulaciones-climaticas.pdf38Not Indexed
Marco de evaluación de la vulnerabilidadRojas,Maisa;Gallardo,Laura;Urquiza,Anahí;Billi,Marco;Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política2018El Ministerio del Medio Ambiente contrató en 2016 el presente estudio a un equipo multidisciplinario del Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2 a través de la Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas de la Universidad de Chile, el que fue desarrollado durante el año 2017. El propósito del proyecto fue generar proyecciones climáticas para Chile a través de la modelación climática a escala regional. Dicha información busca aportar a la correcta estimación de la vulnerabilidad del país, y está disponible en una plataforma interactiva que permite apoyar el diseño de políticas públicas. Este informe de síntesis presenta los resultados del análisis de los estudios de vulnerabilidad socio-ambiental del país, y plantea una propuesta conceptual y un protocolo de estandarización para este tipo de estudios, además de algunas consideraciones generales y recomendaciones basadas en la revisión de la literatura existente sobre la vulnerabilidad de distintos sectores y ámbitos territoriales y tecnológicos del país frente al cambio climático, así como las principales vulnerabilidades institucionales y brechas de conocimiento.https://cambioclimatico.mma.gob.cl/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Marco-de-evaluacion-de-vulnerabilidad.pdf30Not Indexed
Sociología económica y teoría de sistemas: Sobre La economía de la sociedad de Niklas LuhmannUrquiza Gómez,A;Ciudades Resilientes2018Cuadernos de Teoría Socialhttp://culturadigital.udp.cl/index.php/documento/cuaderno-de-teoria-social-n6-la-inquietud-en-los-conceptos-teoria-social-en-primera-persona/3Not Indexed
The Role of Qualitative Approaches in Developing Long-Term StrategiesUrquiza,A.;Ciudades Resilientes2018Climate change is an unprecedented global problem that forces global society to confront the unexpected consequences of its own development. It is a problem whose complexity manifests in at least three dimensions.

First, climate change encompasses many variables (atmospheric, geological, demographic, economic, etc.) with different qualities: qualitative (dichotomous or polysomic, nominal or ordinal), quantitative (discrete or continuous), intervening, moderating, independent, or dependent. Each requires the implementation of diverse strategies in different and even opposed areas.

Second, the relationships between these variables are selective, that is, when looking at the problem, it has not been feasible (and hardly ever is) to consider all the possible variables, much less to establish inclusion or exclusion criteria for them. Thus, for example, we have phenomena whose independent variables are global (such as global warming) but whose dependent variables are distributed unequally on the planet (such as local disasters). We find the same, nolens volens, for local independent variables (such as the dumping of waste in the seas) whose impacts cross national borders.

Third, climate change is a problem that manifests itself differently but simultaneously on the planet. It requires longer time horizons than those that frame economic or political decisions, as well as coordination between different sectors of the society.

In short, the dimensions in which climate change manifests the diversity of elements, the selectivity of relationships, and the differentiation in social systems, they configure it as a complex problem. (Luhmann 1986).

The accumulation of quantitative measurements of climate change has fed a rich discussion, but little progress has been made in complementing these measurements with qualitative methods of research and social intervention, which in other contexts have shown their usefulness in collecting relevant information to surmount obstacles of social coordination or lack of reflexivity. In this sense, the social sciences deserve special attention, given that they have been overlooked in the past and possess qualities that can fruitfully support the global response to climate change.

This essay will address this issue by considering the areas exposed and visualizing how these tools can contribute to the development of long-term visions that confront one of the greatest challenges facing humanity in the 21st century.
World Resources Institutetemporal and spatial evaluationNot Indexed
Local perception of drought impacts in a changing climate: The mega-drought in central ChileAldunce P.; Araya D.; Sapiain R.; Ramos I.; Lillo G.; Urquiza A.; Garreaud R.Ciudades Resilientes; Agua y Extremos201710.3390/su9112053Droughts are a recurrent and complex natural hazard whose frequency and magnitude are expected to increase with climate change. Despite the advances in responding and adapting to droughts (with the development of new policies, for example), droughts continue to cause serious impacts and suffering. Developing well-targeted public policies requires further research on adaptation. Specifically, understanding the public perception of drought can help to identify drivers of and barriers to adaptation and options. This research seeks to understand the public perception of drought in central Chile in order to inform adaptation-related policies and decision-making processes. This study focused on the Mega-drought, which was a protracted dry spell afflicting central Chile since 2010. © 2017 by the authors.Sustainability (Switzerland)20711050http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/9/11/2053art20539Thomson Reuters SCIE, SSCIadaptation policy and practice; chile; climate change impacts; drought; perception, chile; climate change; climate effect; decision making; drought; natural hazard; perception; policy development; social policyDepartment of Environmental Science and Natural Resources, University of Chile, Av. Santa Rosa 11.315, La Pintana, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, 8820808, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, CR2, Blanco Encalada 2002, 4o Piso, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, 8370449, Chile; Disaster Risk Reduction Program, Vice-Rectorate for Research and Development, University of Chile, Diagonal Paraguay 265, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, 8820808, Chile; Department of Psychology, University of Chile, Av. Capitán Ignacio Carrera Pinto 1045, ñuñoa, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, 7750000, Chile; Department of Anthropology, University of Chile, Av. Capitán Ignacio Carrera Pinto 1045, ñuñoa, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, 7750000, Chile; Department of Geophysics, University of Chile, Blanco Encalada 2002, 4o Piso, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, 8370449, Chile
Temporal evolution of main ambient PM2.5 sources in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2012Barraza F.; Lambert F.; Jorquera H.; Villalobos A.M.; Gallardo L.Ciudades Resilientes201710.5194/acp-17-10093-2017The inhabitants of Santiago, Chile have been exposed to harmful levels of air pollutants for decades. The city's poor air quality is a result of steady economic growth, and stable atmospheric conditions adverse to mixing and ventilation that favor the formation of oxidants and secondary aerosols. Identifying and quantifying the sources that contribute to the ambient levels of pollutants is key for designing adequate mitigation measures. Estimating the evolution of source contributions to ambient pollution levels is also paramount to evaluating the effectiveness of pollution reduction measures that have been implemented in recent decades. Here, we quantify the main sources that have contributed to fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) between April 1998 and August 2012 in downtown Santiago by using two different source-receptor models (PMF5.0 and UNMIX 6.0) that were applied to elemental measurements of 1243 24h filter samples of ambient PM2.5. PMF resolved six sources that contributed to ambient PM2. 5, with UNMIX producing similar results: motor vehicles (37.3±1.1%), industrial sources (18.5±1.3%), copper smelters (14.4±0.8%), wood burning (12.3±1.0%), coastal sources (9.5±0.7%) and urban dust (3.0±1.2%). Our results show that over the 15 years analyzed here, four of the resolved sources significantly decreased [95% confidence interval]: motor vehicles 21.3% [2.6, 36.5], industrial sources 39.3% [28.6, 48.4], copper smelters 81.5% [75.5, 85.9], and coastal sources 58.9% [38.5, 72.5], while wood burning did not significantly change and urban dust increased by 72% [48.9, 99.9]. These changes are consistent with emission reduction measures, such as improved vehicle emission standards, cleaner smelting technology, introduction of low-sulfur diesel for vehicles and natural gas for industrial processes, public transport improvements, etc. However, it is also apparent that the mitigation expected from the above regulations has been partially offset by the increasing amount of private vehicle use in the city, with motor vehicles becoming the dominant source of ambient PM2. 5 in recent years. Consequently, Santiago still experiences ambient PM2. 5 levels above the annual and 24h Chilean and World Health Organization standards, and further regulations are required to reach ambient air quality standards. © 2017 Author(s).Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics16807316https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/17/10093/2017/10093-1010717Thomson Reuters SCIEGeography Institute, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; Department of Chemical Engineering and Bioprocesses, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; Department of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Sustainable Urban Development (CEDEUS), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 7820436, Chile
Environmental communication and non-conventional renewable energy projects. Content analysis of chilean mass media; [Comunicación ambiental y proyectos energéticos renovables no convencionales. Análisis de contenido en medios de comunicación de masa chilenos]Billi M.; Urquiza Gómez A.; Feres Klenner C.Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política201710.4185/RLCS-2017-1216Introduction. We observe how mass media thematise Non-Conventional Renewable Energy projects [NCRE] in terms of relevance and treatment assigned to distinct sources and emerging thematic structures. Methodology. Mixed-approach content analysis of a sample of 100 Chilean digital press articles relating to NCRE, using the analytical framework of Niklas Luhmann’s Social Systems Theory. Results and Discussion. The predominance of solar and wind sources goes hand in hand with a low terminological clarity, which however allows mass media to build distinct thematic structures around social systems such as economy, science, politics and law. Environmental references are less frequent and shallower, privileging its evocative aspects with maximum linkage capacity. Conclusions. Instead than observing mass media as mere transmitters of rationalities external to them, more attention should be given to their ability to create realities and representing the (human and ecological) environment. © 2017, University of La Laguna. All rights reserved.Revista Latina de Comunicacion Social11385820http://www.revistalatinacs.org/072paper/1216/66es.html1218-123772Thomson Reuters ESCInan, chile; climate change mitigation; energy crisis; environmental communication; mass media; non-conventional renewable energiesUniversidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de Chile, Chile
Ambient pm10 impacts brought by the extreme flooding event of march 24-26, 2015, in Copiapó, ChileJorquera H.; Villalobos A.M.; Barraza F.Ciudades Resilientes201710.1007/s11869-018-0549-5On March 24-26, 2015, the Chilean city of Copiapó (27° 22′ S, 70° 20′ W), located in the hyperarid Atacama Desert, suffered an intense flooding brought by an extreme, unique rainfall event with a 35-year record of daily precipitation. A receptor model (positive matrix factorization, version 5) analysis, applied to ambient PM10 chemical speciation from three short-term sampling campaigns, resolved four sources: crustal/road dust, sea salt, secondary sulfates, and emissions from Paipote copper smelter located 8 km east of Copiapó. Wind trajectories computed with US NOAA’s Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT) supported the above source identification and explained variability in source contributions. It was found that crustal/road dust increased 50 μg/m3, in April 8-10, 2015, as compared with values in November 2014 and October-November 2015, respectively. This was the dominant PM10 source after the flooding and before debris were cleaned up, being on order of magnitude higher that the other source contributions. The Paipote copper smelter contributed with primary PM10 emissions and secondary sulfates; this combined contribution averaged 11.8 μg/m3. Sea salt contributions contributed an average of 3.3 μg/m3. In normal conditions, crustal/road dust averaged 2.9 μg/m3, but the other resolved sources also contributed with crustal elements as their emissions are transported by winds to Copiapó. The positive matrix factorization solution included an unresolved concentration of 7.4 μg/m3. The small number of samples and the lack of measurements of nitrate, ammonia, and organic and elemental carbon may explain this result. Hence, sources such as secondary nitrates and combustion sources plus fugitive dust from sources surrounding Copiapó might be included in that unresolved concentration. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017.Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health18739318http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11869-018-0549-5341-35111Thomson Reuters SCIEatacama; atacama desert; chile; copiapo; ambient air; dust; extreme event; flooding; particulate matter; pollution effect; smelting; source apportionment; suspended particulate matter; sustainable development; urban development, atacama desert; copper smelter; flooding event; source apportionment; suspended soil dust; sustainable urban developmentDepartamento de Ingeniería Química y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago, 7820436, Chile; Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago, 7820436, Chile
The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 - Part 4: Scientific objectives and experimental design of the PMIP4-CMIP6 Last Glacial Maximum experiments and PMIP4 sensitivity experimentsKageyama M.; Albani S.; Braconnot P.; Harrison S.P.; Hopcroft P.O.; Ivanovic R.F.; Lambert F.; Marti O.; Richard Peltier W.; Peterschmitt J.-Y.; Roche D.M.; Tarasov L.; Zhang X.; Brady E.C.; Haywood A.M.; Legrande A.N.; Lunt D.J.; Mahowald N.M.; Mikolajewicz U.; Nisancioglu K.H.; Otto-Bliesner B.L.; Renssen H.; Tomas R.A.; Zhang Q.; Abe-Ouchi A.; Bartlein P.J.; Cao J.; Li Q.; Lohmann G.; Ohgaito R.; Shi X.; Volodin E.; Yoshida K.; Zhang X.; Zheng W.Ciudades Resilientes201710.5194/gmd-10-4035-2017The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 000 years ago) is one of the suite of paleoclimate simulations included in the current phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). It is an interval when insolation was similar to the present, but global ice volume was at a maximum, eustatic sea level was at or close to a minimum, greenhouse gas concentrations were lower, atmospheric aerosol loadings were higher than today, and vegetation and land-surface characteristics were different from today. The LGM has been a focus for the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) since its inception, and thus many of the problems that might be associated with simulating such a radically different climate are well documented. The LGM state provides an ideal case study for evaluating climate model performance because the changes in forcing and temperature between the LGM and pre-industrial are of the same order of magnitude as those projected for the end of the 21st century. Thus, the CMIP6 LGM experiment could provide additional information that can be used to constrain estimates of climate sensitivity. The design of the Tier 1 LGM experiment (lgm) includes an assessment of uncertainties in boundary conditions, in particular through the use of different reconstructions of the ice sheets and of the change in dust forcing. Additional (Tier 2) sensitivity experiments have been designed to quantify feedbacks associated with land-surface changes and aerosol loadings, and to isolate the role of individual forcings. Model analysis and evaluation will capitalize on the relative abundance of paleoenvironmental observations and quantitative climate reconstructions already available for the LGM. © Author(s) 2017.Geoscientific Model Development1991959Xhttps://www.geosci-model-dev.net/10/4035/2017/4035-405510Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, aerosol; climate modeling; cmip; experimental design; greenhouse gas; land surface; last glacial maximum; paleoclimate; reconstruction; relative abundanceLaboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91191, France; Centre for Past Climate Change, School of Archaeology, Geography and Environmental Science (SAGES), University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6AH, United Kingdom; School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1SS, United Kingdom; School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom; Department of Physical Geography, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, M5S 1A7, ON, Canada; Earth and Climate Cluster, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland and Labrador, St. John's, A1B 3X7, NL, Canada; Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bussestrasse 24, Bremerhaven, 27570, Germany; National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1850 Table Mesa Drive, Boulder, 80305, CO, United States; NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, 10025, NY, United States; Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Bradfield 1112, Cornell University, Ithaca, 14850, NY, United States; Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstrasse 53, Hamburg, 20146, Germany; Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen, Bjerknes Cent...
The pre-Columbian introduction and dispersal of Algarrobo (Prosopis, Section Algarobia) in the Atacama Desert of northern ChileMcRostie V.B.; Gayo E.M.; Santoro C.M.; De Pol-Holz R.; Latorre C.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes201710.1371/journal.pone.0181759Archaeological and palaeoecological studies throughout the Americas have documented widespread landscape and environmental transformation during the pre-Columbian era. The highly dynamic Formative (or Neolithic) period in northern Chile (ca. 3700–1550 yr BP) brought about the local establishment of agriculture, introduction of new crops (maize, quinoa, manioc, beans, etc.) along with a major population increase, new emergent villages and technological innovations. Even trees such as the Algarrobos (Prosopis section Algarobia) may have been part of this transformation. Here, we provide evidence that these species were not native to the Atacama Desert of Chile (18–27S), appearing only in the late Holocene and most likely due to human actions. We assembled a database composed of 41 taxon specific AMS radiocarbon dates from archaeobotanical and palaeoecological records (rodent middens, leaf litter deposits), as well an extensive bibliographical review comprising archaeobotanical, paleoecological, phylogenetic and taxonomic data to evaluate the chronology of introduction and dispersal of these trees. Although Algarrobos could have appeared as early as 4200 yr BP in northernmost Chile, they only became common throughout the Atacama over a thousand years later, during and after the Formative period. Cultural and natural factors likely contributed to its spread and consolidation as a major silvicultural resource. © 2017 McRostie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.PLoS ONE19326203http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181759arte018175912Thomson Reuters SCIEnan, agricultural; desert climate; history, agriculture; archaeology; chile; crops, ancient; humans; phylogeny; plant dispersal; prosopis; carbon 14; article; chile; chronology; desert; holocene; leaf litter; nonhuman; paleoecology; phylogeny; plant dispersal; prosopis; species introduction; taxonomy; agriculture; archeology; classification; crop; desert climate; genetics; history; human; phylogeny; physiology; prosopisDepartamento de Antropología, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Ecología and Centro UC Desierto de Atacama, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Alta Investigación, Laboratorio de Arqueología y Paleoambiente, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile; GAIA-Antartica, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile
The Dry Puna as an ecological megapatch and the peopling of South America: Technology, mobility, and the development of a late Pleistocene/early Holocene Andean hunter-gatherer tradition in northern ChileOsorio D.; Steele J.; Sepúlveda M.; Gayo E.M.; Capriles J.M.; Herrera K.; Ugalde P.; De Pol-Holz R.; Latorre C.; Santoro C.M.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes201710.1016/j.quaint.2017.07.010Current scientific evidence shows that humans colonized South America at least 15,000 years ago, but there are still many unknown aspects of this process, including the major and minor migratory routes involved, and the pattern of successive occupation of a diverse continental mosaic of ecosystems. In this context, the role of the Andean highlands (≥3400 meters above sea level) has been neglected, because of the supposedly harsh conditions for humans including hypoxia and cold climate. Nevertheless, the environmental and cultural resources available in the high Andes constitutes an important “megapatch” that should be assessed in terms of human settlement patterns. We review the evidence for late Pleistocene/early Holocene hunter-gatherer occupation of one part of this megapatch, the northern Chilean Dry Puna, in its palaeoecological context. We focus on lithic technology, faunal remains, radiocarbon dates, and other archaeological materials related to different social activities, which allow us to suggest that groups of hunter-gatherers organized and adapted their way of life to highland ecosystems through logistical mobility, and curatorial strategies for lithic tool kits that included projectile points and other formalized tools. The morphology and technological processes involved are recognized over vast territories along the high Andes. We identify this material expression as the high south central Andean Archaic hunter-gatherer tradition, which also featured long distance mobile settlement systems and communication processes over this broad and distinct megapatch. More speculatively, we outline the hypothesis that these highland ecosystems constituted a suitable migratory route that may have been key for the early peopling of the continent, and contrast it with the alternative hypothesis of the initially secondary and seasonally intermittent exploitation of this habitat by hunter-gatherers dispersing along the Pacific coastal corridor. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and INQUAQuaternary International10406182https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S104061821631236841-53461Thomson Reuters SCIEdry puna; early peopling of south america; high andes; late pleistocene; megapatch; south central andean archaic, andes; chile; puna; archaeological evidence; fossil; human settlement; hunter-gatherer; mobility; pleistocene-holocene boundary; radiocarbon dating; technologyInstitute of Archaeology, University College London, 31-34, Gordon Square, London, WC1H 0PY, United Kingdom; Laboratorio de Arqueología y Paleoambiente, Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Antofagasta 1520, Casilla 6-D, Arica, 100236, Chile; Laboratorio de Análisis e Investigaciones Arqueo métricas, Laboratorio de Arqueología y Paleoambiente, Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Antofagasta 1520, Casilla 6-D, Arica, 100236, Chile; Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Barrio Universitario s/n, Concepción, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, Blanco Encalada, Santiago, 2002, Chile; Department of Anthropology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 16802, PA, United States; UMR “Préhistoire et Technologie” de la Maison René Ginouvès, Université Paris X-Nanterre, 200 avenue de la République, Nanterre Cedex, 92001, France; School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, 85721-0030, AZ, United States; GAIA-Antartica, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Departamento de Ecología y Centro UC Desierto de Atacama, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Alameda 340, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad (IEB), Las Palmeras, Santiago, 3425, Chile
Loco or no loco? Holocene climatic fluctuations, human demography, and community based management of coastal resources in Northern ChileSantoro C.M.; Gayo E.M.; Carter C.; Standen V.G.; Castro V.; Valenzuela D.; De Pol-Holz R.; Marquet P.A.; Latorre C.Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes201710.3389/feart.2017.00077The abundance of the southern Pacific mollusk loco (Concholepas concholepas), among other conspicuous marine supplies, are often cited as critical resources behind the long-term cultural and demographic fluctuations of prehistoric hunter-gatherers in the coastal Atacama Desert. These societies inhabited one of the world’s most productive marine environments flanked by one the world’s driest deserts. Both of these environments have witnessed significant ecological variation since people first colonized themat the end of the Pleistocene (c. 13,000 cal yr BP). Here, we examine the relationship between the relative abundance of shellfish (a staple resource) along a 9,500-year sequence of archeological shell midden accumulations at Caleta (a small inlet or cove) Vitor, with past demographic trends (established via summed probability distributions of radiocarbon ages) and technological innovations together with paleoceanographic data on past primary productivity. We find that shellfish extraction varied considerably from one cultural period to the next in terms of the number of species and their abundance, with diversity increasing during periods of regionally decreased productivity. Such shifts in consumption patterns are considered community based management decisions, and for the most part they were synchronous with large and unusual regional demographic fluctuations experienced by prehistoric coastal societies in northern Chile. When taken together with their technological innovations, our data illustrates how these human groups tailored their socio-cultural patterns to what were often abrupt and prolonged environmental changes throughout the Holocene. © 2017 Wagner, Ding and Jaffé.Frontiers in Earth Science22966463http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/feart.2017.00077/fullart775Thomson Reuters SCIEatacama desert; chile; arid regions; climatology; demography; landforms; population dynamics; population statistics; shellfish; atacama desert; community-based management; cultural resources; demographic fluctuations; enso; holocene climate; socio-cultural patterns; technological innovation; abundance; cultural history; environmental change; food supply; holocene; human settlement; hunter-gatherer; marine resource; mollusc; paleoclimate; paleoecology; paleoenvironment; prehistoric; relative abundance; shellfish; technological development; probability distributions, atacama desert; cultural resources management; enso; holocene climate; marine diet; prehistoric technologyLaboratorio de Arqueología y Paleoambiente, Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile; Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2 & Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; School of Archaeology and Anthropology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad Alberto Hurtado, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; GAIA Antártica, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile; Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, Santiago, Chile; Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, United States; Centro UC del Desierto de Atacama, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Applying a distinction. A systemic-constructivist program for qualitative social science research; [Aplicar una distinción. Un programa sistémicoconstructivista para la investigación social cualitativa]Urquiza,Anahi;Billi,Marco;Leal,Tomas;Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Ciudades Resilientes201710.5354/0719-0527.2017.47269Por lo menos desde el siglo XVIII, el ‘problema de la inducción’, es decir de cómo justificar las abstracciones que se hacen a partir de la observación empírica, ha estado al centro de un encendido debate tanto en la filosofía de la ciencia, como en la praxis de las ciencias sociales. Rechazando las acusaciones de ‘clausura empírica’ levantadas respecto de la Teoría de Sistemas Sociales de Niklas Luhmann, afirmamos por el contrario que esta proporciona una plataforma epistemológica y teórica privilegiada para hacer frente al citado dilema, explicitando las condiciones para producir un razonamiento de tipo ‘abductivo’. Dialogando, por un lado, con la comprensión de Luhmann respecto del conocimiento y de la ciencia, y por el otro, con diversos intentos para aplicar empíricamente la propuesta sistémica e integrarla con otros enfoques analíticos, el presente paper ofrece un modelo general para comprender el rol y la relación de los principios de plausibilidad teórica y fundamentación empírica en la investigación social. A partir de ello, el artículo identifica los criterios de ‘isomorfismo’, ‘perspectivismo’, ‘transparencia’ e ‘iterabilidad’ como indicadores de aceptabilidad científica de una investigación sistémico-constructivista, y ofrece orientaciones para el diseño de un proceso de investigación de este tipo.Revista Mad0718-0527https://revistamad.uchile.cl/index.php/RMAD/article/view/4726921-53Thomson Reuters ESCI
The effect of climate change on electricity expenditures in MassachusettsVéliz K.D.; Kaufmann R.K.; Cleveland C.J.; Stoner A.M.K.Ciudades Resilientes201710.1016/j.enpol.2017.03.016Climate change affects consumer expenditures by altering the consumption of and price for electricity. Previous analyses focus solely on the former, which implicitly assumes that climate-induced changes in consumption do not affect price. But this assumption is untenable because a shift in demand alters quantity and price at equilibrium. Here we present the first empirical estimates for the effect of climate change on electricity prices. Translated through the merit order dispatch of existing capacity for generating electricity, climate-induced changes in daily and monthly patterns of electricity consumption cause non-linear changes in electricity prices. A 2 °C increase in global mean temperature increases the prices for and consumption of electricity in Massachusetts USA, such that the average household's annual expenditures on electricity increase by about 12%. Commercial customers incur a 9% increase. These increases are caused largely by higher prices for electricity, whose impacts on expenditures are 1.3 and 3.6 fold larger than changes in residential and commercial consumption, respectively. This suggests that previous empirical studies understate the effects of climate change on electricity expenditures and that policy may be needed to ensure that the market generates investments in peaking capacity to satisfy climate-driven changes in summer-time consumption. © 2017 Elsevier LtdEnergy Policy03014215http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S030142151730157X1-11106Thomson Reuters SCIE, SSCImassachusetts; united states; costs; electric power utilization; adaptation; annual expenditure; commercial customers; consumer expenditure; electricity expenditures; electricity prices; electricity-consumption; global-mean temperature; climate change; climate effect; electricity generation; electricity supply; energy use; price determination; climate change, adaptation; climate change; electricity consumption; electricity expenditures; electricity priceSchool of Industrial Engineering, Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago, Chile; Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Earth and Environment, Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, Boston University, Boston, 02466, MA, United States; Climate Science Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, 79409, TX, United States
Memoria institucional 2013 - 2017Agua y Extremos; Zonas Costeras; Gobernanza e Interfaz Ciencia y Política; Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes2017https://www.cr2.cl/memoria-institucional-cr2-2013-2017/Not Indexed