Línea de investigación:

Gobernanza e interfaz ciencia-política

En 1994, la ley de bases del medio Ambiente definió la estructura institucional ambiental de Chile. Dentro de este marco se introdujo la definición legal de cambio climático y se designó al Ministerio del Medio Ambiente como responsable de la formulación de políticas públicas en esta área.

Sin embargo, y de acuerdo a la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE), la política climática no puede limitarse a las competencias de un solo ministerio, ya que el cambio climático es un problema tanto global como local que opera simultáneamente en varios niveles.

Este contexto complejo requiere mejorar nuestra comprensión de la interfaz ciencia-política para favorecer la toma de decisiones informadas. El rol de la ciencia en las definiciones políticas sobre cambio climático en Chile es fundamental considerando la aspiración del país a avanzar hacia una economía baja en carbono mediante el compromiso plasmado en la Contribución Nacionalmente Determinada (NDC, por sus siglas en inglés) para el Acuerdo de París.

Nuestros investigadores trabajarán para mejorar un modelo integrador que evalúe las políticas públicas relacionadas a la variabilidad climática y al cambio climático. Además, seguirán explorando enfoques probabilísticos con el fin de determinar rutas económicamente viables para lograr un desarrollo bajo en carbono en conformidad a los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible y el Acuerdo de París.

La inclusión de científicos naturales en la línea Gobernanza e interfaz ciencia-política busca acortar las brechas entre las necesidades de la ciencia y de la política en una etapa temprana de la investigación, facilitando el impacto del (CR)2 en el ámbito público tanto a nivel nacional como internacional.

INVESTIGADORA PRINCIPAL

CO-INVESTIGADORA PRINCIPAL

INVESTIGADORES ASOCIADOS

INVESTIGADORES ADJUNTOS

INVESTIGADOR COLABORADOR

ESTUDIANTES

Nombre Apellido
Ana María Ugarte Caviedes
Camila Palacios
Catalina Fernanda Valenzuela Roa
Charles Gonzalez
Claudio Ignacio Neira Espinoza
Cristian Hernán Ibarra Fernández
Erika Yohana Buitrago Zuluaga
Felipe Andrés Ahumada Barrales
Guadalupe Jimenez
Guillermo Andrés Piñones Aguilera
Gustavo Leonardo Saldivia Kuschel
Javier Alberto Romero Hernández
Jessica Andrea Abigail Figueroa Martínez
Noemi Kugler
Pablo Ignacio Iriarte Bustos
Tomás Carrasco
Valentina Paz Inostroza Lazo
Ximena Insunza

Noticias relacionadas al tema

Línea de InvestigaciónAñoAutoresTítuloRevistaFicha de PublicaciónDOIAbstractAccesoPáginasVolumenIndex
Agua y Extremos; Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2017Aldunce, P., Araya, D., Sapiain, R., Ramos, I., Lillo, G., Urquiza, A., Garreaud, R.
Local Perception of Drought Impacts in a Changing Climate: The Mega-Drought in Central Chile
Sustainability
10.3390/su9112053Droughts are a recurrent and complex natural hazard whose frequency and magnitude are expected to increase with climate change. Despite the advances in responding and adapting to droughts (with the development of new policies, for example), droughts continue to cause serious impacts and suffering. Developing well-targeted public policies requires further research on adaptation. Specifically, understanding the public perception of drought can help to identify drivers of and barriers to adaptation and options. This research seeks to understand the public perception of drought in central Chile in order to inform adaptation-related policies and decision-making processes. This study focused on the Mega-drought, which was a protracted dry spell afflicting central Chile since 2010.http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/9/11/20532053vol.9Thomson Reuters ISI
Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2017Sapiains, R., Ugarte, A. M.Contribuciones de la Psicología al abordaje de la dimensión humana del cambio climático en Chile (Primera parte)InterdisciplinariaVer fichaMúltiples estudios señalan que para abordar integralmente la problemática del cambio climático es fundamental incorporar factores psicológicos y sociales en el diseño, implementación y evaluación de estrategias de mitigación y adaptación. Estos factores resultan claves para incrementar la importancia del cambio climático en la agenda pública, favorecer un mayor involucramiento ciudadano y fortalecer la resiliencia individual, social e institucional, así como el im pacto de las políticas. No obstante, en Chile el estudio de los aspectos psicológicos del cambio climático es muy limitado.
Por su extensión este trabajo se presenta en dos partes. En esta primera parte se presenta una revisión bibliográfica que explora los principales ámbitos del cambio climático en los que la Psicología puede contribuir para comprender las complejidades del problema. Esto se organiza en cuatro grandes ejes: (1) la comunicación del cambio climático, (2) el estudio de creencias, actitudes, valores y conductas relacionadas con el problema, (3) la identificación de facilitadores y barreras psicológicas para la implementación de prácticas de mitigación y adaptación y (4) los impactos del cambio climático en la salud mental. Estos ejes constituyen un marco de referencia para el posterior desarrollo de ámbitos de acción que se apliquen específicamente al contexto chileno.
http://www.ciipme-conicet.gov.ar/ojs/index.php/interdisciplinaria/article/view/28091-105vol.34 is.1ScieLO
Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2017Sapiains, R., Ugarte, A. M.Contribuciones de la Psicología al abordaje de la dimensión humana del cambio climático en Chile (Segunda parte)InterdisciplinariaVer fichaEn la primera parte de este trabajo se presentó una revisión bibliográfica sobre el estudio de la dimensión humana del cambio climático, organizado en cuatro grandes ejes de investigación: la comunicación del cambio climático, el estudio de creencias, actitudes, valores y conductas relacionadas con el problema, la identificación de facilitadores y barreras psicológicas para la implementación de prácticas de mitigación y la adaptación y los impactos del cambio climático en la salud mental.
En esta segunda parte se informan avances en esta área en el contexto latinoamericano, para posteriormente identificar aquellos ámbitos en los que la Psicología puede contribuir tanto en los planes para el cambio climático como en estudios de caso desarrollados en Chile. Como resultado se proponen cuatro áreas prioritarias: (1) creencias, actitudes, valores y conductas (2) educación y sensibilización, (3) participación ciudadana y (4) salud mental y bienestar social. La investigación en estos ejes puede contribuir al desarrollo de estrategias, políticas y planes más efectivos al profundizar en la dimensión humana del cambio climático en el particular contexto de Chile.
http://www.ciipme-conicet.gov.ar/ojs/index.php/interdisciplinaria/article/view/332259-274vol.34 is.2ScieLO
Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Correa, H., Blanco-Wells, G., Barrena, J., Tacón, A.
Self-organizing processes in urban green commons. The case of the Angachilla wetland, Valdivia-ChileInternational Journal of the Commons10.18352/ijc.856This article focuses on self-organizing processes in contested urban social-ecological systems. It analyzes a wetland conservation program and civic management effort in the Angachilla sector of the city of Valdivia, Chile in a 15-year time frame. The aim is to understand what triggers collective actions and self-organization in the attempts of preserving an urban green common. The study uses a qualitative approach based on action-research methodologies. It examines key variables influencing self-organizing processes; including social-environmental crises, governance vacuums, wetland valuation, and leadership. It also discusses collective strategies for the transformation of negative feedback loops, such as norms and regulations detrimental to wetland protection, and those related to resistance to change of wetland surface area due to unregulated urbanization. From an Urban Green Commons perspective, this work illustrates the complexity of dealing with contested nature, making it a resource difficult to govern collectively given all the different interests and values in place. It also shows that there have been successful periods of active wetland management that have influenced active democratic processes regarding land use and land use change in the city.https://www.thecommonsjournal.org/articles/10.18352/ijc.856573-595vol.12 is.1Thomson Reuters ISI
Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política, Cambio de Uso de Suelo2018Gallardo, L., Barraza, F., Ceballos, A., Galleguillos, M., Huneeus, N., Lambert, F., Ibarra, C., Munizaga, M., O'Ryan, R., Osses, M.,Tolvett, S., Urquiza, A., Véliz, K.Evolution of air quality in Santiago: The role of mobility and lessons from the science-policy interfaceElementa: Science of the Anthropocene10.1525/elementa.293Worldwide, urbanization constitutes a major and growing driver of global change and a distinctive feature of the Anthropocene. Thus, urban development paths present opportunities for technological and societal transformations towards energy efficiency and decarbonization, with benefits for both greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollution mitigation. This requires a better understanding of the intertwined dynamics of urban energy and land use, emissions, demographics, governance, and societal and biophysical processes. In this study, we address several characteristics of urbanization in Santiago (33.5°S, 70.5°W, 500 m a.s.l.), the capital city of Chile. Specifically, we focus on the multiple links between mobility and air quality, describe the evolution of these two aspects over the past 30 years, and review the role scientific knowledge has played in policy-making. We show evidence of how technological measures (e.g., fuel quality, three-way catalytic converters, diesel particle filters) have been successful in decreasing coarse mode aerosol (PM10) concentrations in Santiago despite increasing urbanization (e.g., population, motorization, urban sprawl). However, we also show that such measures will likely be insufficient if behavioral changes do not achieve an increase in the use of public transportation. Our investigation seeks to inform urban development in the Anthropocene, and our results may be useful for other developing countries, particularly in Latin America and the Caribbean where more than 80% of the population is urban.https://www.elementascience.org/article/10.1525/elementa.293/38vol.6 is.1Thomson Reuters ISI
Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Gladkova, E., Blanco-Wells, G., Nahuelhual, L.Facing the climate change conundrum at the South Pole: actors’ perspectives on the implications of global warming for Chilean Antarctic governancePolar Research10.1080/17518369.2018.1468195Antarctica is recognized as being geopolitically and scientifically important, and as one of the regions with the greatest potential to affect and be affected by global climate change. Still, little is known in practice about how climate change will be handled within the main governance framework of the continent: the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS). Using qualitative interviews, participant observations and policy document analysis, this paper explores the perspectives of Chilean scientific, political and non-governmental actors regarding the implications of climate change for the current Antarctic governance framework. Results corroborate a misalignment of the climate change agenda and the ATS, stemming from the divergent views displayed by a wide network of actors. From the interviews, two predominant visions emerge: (i) climate change as an opportunity, where actors recognize the role of Antarctica in regulating global climate and stress greater opportunities to conduct Antarctic-based climate change research, the need for strategic international collaboration, and the reinforcement of Chile’s position in Antarctica through science; (ii) climate change as a burden where actors acknowledge climate change as a global problem, largely external to Antarctica, express disbelief regarding the effectiveness of local actions to tackle climate change and do not associate with climate change governance. The study concludes that climate change may become a dividing, rather than a unifying, field of action in Chilean Antarctic governance, reinforcing previously existing geopolitical tendencies.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17518369.2018.14681951468195vol.37 is.1Thomson Reuters ISI
Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Ibarra, C., O´Ryan, R., Silva, B.
Applying knowledge governance to understand the role of science in environmental regulation: The case of arsenic in ChileEnvironmental Science and Policy10.1016/j.envsci.2018.05.002The relationship between scientific knowledge and decision-making surrounding environmental issues is complex and represents a flourishing area of scholarship and practice. However, a sense of frustration persists regarding efforts to increase the use of science for decision-making. Regulations of copper smelter arsenic emissions developed in Chile during the 1990s represent a successful example of science informing policy making. The case involved production and use of local science in contrast to the common practice of copying international ambient standards.
In this paper, we investigate arsenic regulation in Chile in the 1990s and focus on the role of the major science intervention during the process, project FONDEF2-24. The case is examined through the lens of knowledge governance (van Kerkhoff and Pilbeam, 2017). This theoretically-oriented approach guides our critical reflection on the relationship between knowledge and policy making, taking into consideration the formal and informal rules that shape the intervention and the underlying social and cultural patterns. The success of the science intervention’s influence on policy is better understood with such a perspective.
We expand the knowledge governance approach by scrutinizing the relations of coherence between levels of analysis to assess their alignment. The approach could be helpful for studying other cases, particularly at times when a new field of policy is emerging.
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1462901118300212115-124vol.86Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos, Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Lillo-Ortega, G., Aldunce, P., Adler, C., Vidal, M., Rojas, M.On the evaluation of adaptation practices: a transdisciplinary exploration of drought measures in ChileSustainability Science10.1007/s11625-018-0619-5A severe drought has affected central Chile since 2009. Various adaptation responses have been developed, and a participatory process is required to learn from them. To enable this, a transdisciplinary approach was adopted to achieve two objectives: first, to test an approach for assessing the effectiveness of existing measures to respond to drought, specifically to distil strengths and weaknesses of implementation, and developing recommendations; second, to reflect on results from a pilot project conducted to ascertain its potential for scalability in terms of processes employed. The research was organized per the three types of knowledge needed to address complex problems through transdisciplinarity: systems, target and transformation knowledge. Using the recent drought as a boundary object, we conducted the pilot in two locations in Chile where we carried out literature reviews, interviews and focus group discussions were carried out. We identified adaptation measures at national and local scale, a set of which were evaluated applying the Index for the Usefulness of Adaptation Practices (IUPA). Results indicate that through IUPA, we could systematically account for the perceived effectiveness of applied measures. Strengths such as autonomy in the decision-making process emerged as key factors that could also be applied in other contexts, whereas weaknesses such as lack of integration with other policy domains, programs or projects were identified. To address weaknesses, key recommendations were proposed, which are congruent with context-specific expectations, capacities, experiences and knowledge, given that they were articulated by local actors. Results present empirical evidence on the important utility of transdisciplinary approaches in the evaluation of adaptation measures and can support the development of metrics related to adaptation process at the local scale.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11625-018-0619-5Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos; Cambio de Uso de Suelo; Ciudades Resilientes; Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Moreno, P. I., Vilanova, I., Villa-Martinez, R., Dunbar, R. B., Mucciarone, D. A., Kaplan, M. R., Garreaud, R., Rojas, M., De Polz-Holz, R., Lambert, F.
Onset and Evolution of Southern Annular Mode-Like Changes at Centennial Timescale
Scientific Reports
Ver ficha10.1038/s41598-018-21836-6
The Southern Westerly Winds (SWW) are the surface expression of geostrophic winds that encircle the southern mid-latitudes. In conjunction with the Southern Ocean, they establish a coupled system that not only controls climate in the southern third of the world, but is also closely connected to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and CO2 degassing from the deep ocean. Paradoxically, little is known about their behavior since the last ice age and relationships with mid-latitude glacier history and tropical climate variability. Here we present a lake sediment record from Chilean Patagonia (51°S) that reveals fluctuations of the low-level SWW at mid-latitudes, including strong westerlies during the Antarctic Cold Reversal, anomalously low intensity during the early Holocene, which was unfavorable for glacier growth, and strong SWW since ∼7.5 ka. We detect nine positive Southern Annular Mode-like events at centennial timescale since ∼5.8 ka that alternate with cold/wet intervals favorable for glacier expansions (Neoglaciations) in southern Patagonia. The correspondence of key features of mid-latitude atmospheric circulation with shifts in tropical climate since ∼10 ka suggests that coherent climatic shifts in these regions have driven climate change in vast sectors of the Southern Hemisphere at centennial and millennial timescales.http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-21836-6vol.8 is.1Thomson Reuters ISI
Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Nowajewski, P., Rojas, M., Rojo, P., Kimeswenger, S
Atmospheric dynamics and habitability range in Earth-like aquaplanets obliquity simulations
Icarus10.1016/j.icarus.2018.01.002
We present the evolution of the atmospheric variables that affect planetary climate by increasing the obliquity by using a general circulation model (PlaSim) coupled to a slab ocean with mixed layer flux correction.

We increase the obliquity between 30° and 90° in 16 aquaplanets with liquid sea surface and perform the simulation allowing the sea ice cover formation to be a consequence of its atmospheric dynamics.

Insolation is maintained constant in each experiment, but changing the obliquity affects the radiation budget and the large scale circulation. Earth-like atmospheric dynamics is observed for planets with obliquity under 54°. Above this value, the latitudinal temperature gradient is reversed giving place to a new regime of jet streams, affecting the shape of Hadley and Ferrel cells and changing the position of the InterTropical Convergence Zone.

As humidity and high temperatures determine Earth’s habitability, we introduce the wet bulb temperature as an atmospheric index of habitability for Earth-like aquaplanets with above freezing temperatures. The aquaplanets are habitable all year round at all latitudes for values under 54°; above this value habitability decreases toward the poles due to high temperatures.
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S001910351730540784-90vol.305Thomson Reuters ISI
Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Moraga, P.Comentario a la Sentencia de la Corte Suprema, de 29 de diciembre de 2017Actualidad Jurídica Ambientalhttp://www.actualidadjuridicaambiental.com/jurisprudencia-al-dia-iberoamerica-chile-participacion-ciudadana-consulta-indigena/vol. published onlineNot indexed
Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Moraga, P.Sentencia del Tribunal Ambiental de Santiago, de 5 de enero de 2018Actualidad Jurídica Ambientalhttp://www.actualidadjuridicaambiental.com/jurisprudencia-al-dia-iberoamerica-chile-participacion-ciudadana-acceso-a-la-justicia/vol. published onlineNot indexed
Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Moraga, P.Sentencia Corte Suprema, de 31 de agosto de 2017Actualidad Jurídica Ambientalhttp://www.actualidadjuridicaambiental.com/jurisprudencia-al-dia-iberoamerica-chile-alud-aluvion-indemnizacion/vol. published onlineNot indexed
Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Moraga, P.Comentario Sentencia Corte Suprema de Colombia, de 5 de abril de 2018Actualidad Jurídica Ambientalhttp://www.actualidadjuridicaambiental.com/jurisprudencia-al-dia-iberoamerica-colombia-deforestacion-accion-de-jovenes-y-ninos-colombianos/vol. published onlineNot indexed
Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Moraga, P.Ley Marco sobre Cambio Climático (Perú)Actualidad Jurídica Ambientalhttp://www.actualidadjuridicaambiental.com/legislacion-al-dia-iberoamerica-peru-cambio-climatico/vol. published onlineNot indexed
Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Moraga, P.Comentario Sentencia Corte Suprema, 22 de mayo de 2018Actualidad Jurídica Ambientalhttp://www.actualidadjuridicaambiental.com/jurisprudencia-al-dia-iberoamerica-chile-principio-de-prevencion-y-precaucion-vertidos-medio-marino/vol. published onlineNot indexed
Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Moraga, P.Sentencia Tribunal Constitucional, Proyecto de Ley que “Prohíbe la entrega de bolsas plásticas de comercio en todo el territorio nacional”, 10 de julio de 2018Actualidad Jurídica Ambientalhttp://www.actualidadjuridicaambiental.com/jurisprudencia-al-dia-iberoamerica-chile-prohibicion-de-comercio-bolsas-de-plastico/vol. published onlineNot indexed
Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Moraga, P.Comentario Sentencia del Tribunal Administrativo de Boyacá de 9 de agosto de 2018, sobre Páramo de PisbaActualidad Jurídica Ambientalhttp://www.actualidadjuridicaambiental.com/jurisprudencia-al-dia-iberoamerica-colombia-mineria-derechos-fundamentales-participacion-ciudadana/vol. published onlineNot indexed
Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Moraga, P., Ortiz, M.Comentario Sentencia Corte Suprema, 6 de septiembre de 2018Actualidad Jurídica Ambientalhttp://www.actualidadjuridicaambiental.com/jurisprudencia-al-dia-iberoamerica-chile-decreto-de-escasez-hidrica/vol. published onlineNot indexed
Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política, Ciudades Resilientes, Agua y Extremos2018Arriagada, R., Aldunce, P., Blanco, G., Ibarra, C., Moraga, P., Nahuelhual, L., O'Ryan, R., Urquiza, A., Gallardo, L.Climate change governance in the Anthropocene: Emergence of Polycentrism in ChileElem Sci Anth10.1525/elementa.329https://www.elementascience.org/article/10.1525/elementa.329/68Vol.6 is.1Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos, Ciudades Resilientes, Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política2018Boisier, J.P., Alvarez-Garreton, C., Cordero, R.R., Damiani, A., Gallardo, L., Garreaud, R.D., Lambert, F., Ramallo, C., Rojas, M., Rondanelli, R.Anthropogenic drying in central-southern Chile evidenced by long-term observations and climate model simulationsElementa: Science of the Anthropocene10.1525/elementa.328Since 1981, water allocation in Chile has been based on a water use rights (WURs) market, with limited regulatory and supervisory mechanisms. The volume to be granted as permanent and eventual WURs is calculated from streamflow records, if stream gauge data are available, or from hydrologic parameter transfer from gauged to ungauged catchments, usually with less than 50 years of record. To test the per- formance of this allocation system, while analyzing the long-term natural variability in water resources, we investigated a 400 year-long (1590–2015) tree-ring reconstruction of runoff and historical water rights for Perquilauquén at Quella catchment, a tributary to the Maule River in Central Chile (35°S–36°30S). Furthermore, we assess how the current legislation would perform under a projected climate scenario, based on historical climate simulations of runoff calibrated against observed data, and future projections. Our analyses indicate that the allocation methodology currently applied by the Water Authority in Chile is very sensitive to the time window of data used, which leads to an underestimation of variability and long-term trends. According to the WURs database provided by the Chilean Water Directorate, WURs at Perquilauquén at Quella are already over-allocated. Considering regional climate projections, this condition will be exacerbated in the future. Furthermore, serious problems regarding the access and quality of infor- mation on already-granted WURs and actual water usage have been diagnosed, which further encumber environmental strategies to deal with and adapt to climate change. We emphasize the urgent need for a review and revision of current water allocation methodologies and water law in Chile, which are not concordant with the dynamics and non-stationarity of hydrological processes. Water scarcity and water governance are two of the key issues to be faced by Chile in the Anthropocene.https://www.elementascience.org/article/10.1525/elementa.340/74Vol.6 is.1Thomson Reuters ISI
Agua y Extremos, Ciudades Resilientes, Gobernanza e Interfaz entre Ciencia y Política, Transversal2019Barría, P., Rojas, M., Moraga, P., Muñoz, A., Bozkurt, D., Alvarez-Garreton, C.Anthropocene and streamflow: Long-term perspective of streamflow variability and water rightsElementa: Science of the Anthropocene10.1525/elementa.340The socio-ecological sensitivity to water deficits makes Chile highly vulnerable to global change. New evidence of a multi-decadal drying trend and the impacts of a persistent drought that since 2010 has affected several regions of the country, reinforce the need for clear diagnoses of the hydro-climate changes in Chile. Based on the analysis of long-term records (50+ years) of precipitation and streamflow, we confirm a tendency toward a dryer condition in central-southern Chile (30–48°S). We describe the geographical and seasonal character of this trend, as well as the associated large-scale circulation pat- terns. When a large ensemble of climate model simulations is contrasted to observations, anthropogenic forcing appears as the leading factor of precipitation change. In addition to a drying trend driven by greenhouse gas forcing in all seasons, our results indicate that the Antarctic stratospheric ozone deple- tion has played a major role in the summer rainfall decline. Although average model results agree well with the drying trend’s seasonal character, the observed change magnitude is two to three times larger than that simulated, indicating a potential underestimation of future projections for this region. Under present-day carbon emission rates, the drying pathway in Chile will likely prevail during the next decades, although the summer signal should weaken as a result of the gradual ozone layer recovery. The trends and scenarios shown here pose substantial stress on Chilean society and its institutions, and call for urgent action regarding adaptation measures.https://www.elementascience.org/article/10.1525/elementa.328/2Vol.7 is.1Thomson Reuters ISI